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CNG N TP CHNG 2 - LP 10 MN HA HC

I. Ni dung:
- Nguyn tc sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon, cu to bng tun hon.
- Quy lut bin i mt s i lng vt l v tnh cht ha hc ca cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon. nh
lut tun hon.
- ngha ca bng tun hon.
- Mt s mng kin thc khc lin quan: Ton v cc loi ht ca nguyn t, nng ca cc cht, % lng cht.
II. Mt s bi tp t lun:
Bi 1: Cho cc nguyn t: Al (Z=13), P (Z=15), Cl (Z=17), Ca (Z=20), Rb (Z = 37).
a)Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t cc nguyn t trn?
b) Xc nh v tr ca cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc?
c) Sp xp cc nguyn t trn theo chiu gim dn: bn knh nguyn t, m in, tnh phi kim, tnh kim loi?
d) Vit cng thc oxit cao nht, cng thc hiroxit ng vi oxit cao nht, cng thc hp cht kh vi H (nu c)
ca mi nguyn t? So snh tnh baz ca cc oxit v hiroxit va vit?
Bi 2: Hai nguyn t A, B ng k tip nhau trong cng 1 chu k ca bng tun hon c tng s n v in tch
ht nhn l 25. Xc nh A, B v so snh tnh baz ca 2 hiroxit to bi A, B?
Bi 3: X, Y l 2 nguyn t thuc cng nhm A v thuc 2 chu k lin tip trong bng tun hon. Tng s ht
mang in trong nguyn t X v Y l 52. Xc nh X, Y.
Bi 4: Tng s ht proton, electron, ntron trong nguyn t ca nguyn t X l 46. Bit X c 5 electron ha tr.
Xc nh v tr ca X trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc?
Bi 5: Nguyn t R c cng thc oxit cao nht l RO3, trong hp cht kh ca R vi hiro, hiro chim 5,88% v
khi lng. Xc nh nguyn t R.
Bi 6: Cng thc hp cht kh vi hiro ca mt nguyn t l RH 4. Trong cng thc oxit cao nht ca R, oxi
chim 53,33% v khi lng. Xc nh nguyn t R.
Bi 7: Ha tan ht 9,6 gam kim loi kim th R vo dung dch HCl d thu c dd A v 8,96 lt kh (ktc).
a) Xc nh nguyn t R.
b) Tnh nng phn trm ca cc cht trong dung dch A, bit rng dng 500 ml dd HCl 2M (d=1,18 g/ml)
Bi 8: Ha tan hon ton 5,7 gam hn hp 2 kim loi nhm IIA nm 2 chu k k tip nhau trong bng tun
hon bng dung dch H2SO4 1M thu uc 6,72 lt kh H2 (ktc).
a) Xc nh 2 kim loi v tnh % khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp.
b) Tnh th tch dung dch H2SO4 1M dng bit dung dch H2SO4 dng d 10% so vi lng cn thit.
c) Tnh nng phn trm ca cc cht trong dung dch sau phn ng bit H2SO4 c d = 1,84 g/ml.
Bi 9: Cho 18,6 gam hn hp 2 kim loi kim 2 chu k lin tip nhau trong bng tun hon phn ng va
vi 100 ml dung dch HCl (d = 1,02 g/ml) th thu c 6,72 lt kh (ktc) v dung dch X.
a) Xc nh 2 kim loi.
b) Tm % khi lng mi kim loi trong hn hp.
c) Tnh nng % cc cht c trong dung dch X.
Bi 10: Ha tan hon ton 7 gam kim loi M trong 200 gam dung dch HCl va thu c 206,75 gam dung
dch A. Xc nh M v nng % ca dung dch HCl.
III. Mt s bi tp trc nghim:
Cu 1: Nguyn t A c s hiu nguyn t l 24, A thuc nhm
A. IA.
B. VIA.
C. IB.
D. VIB.
Cu 2: Cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng ca ion X 2- l 3p6. Vy nguyn t X thuc
A. chu k 2, nhm VIIIA. B. chu k 3 nhm VIIIA.
C. chu k 3 nhm VIA.
D. chu k 2, nhm VIA.
Cu 3: Mt nguyn t A chu k 3, nhm VIA. iu khng nh no sau y v A l ng ?
A. S electron l 17
B. lp ngoi cng c 3 electron.
C. S khi bng 17
D. Cng thc oxit cao nht vi oxi l AO3
Cu 4: Bit nguyn t A thuc chu k 4, nhm IVA. Cu hnh electron nguyn t ca A l
A. 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p4.
B. 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p2
2
2
6
2
6
10
2
6
4
2
2
C. 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d .
D. 1s 2s 2p63s23p63d104s24p2.
Cu 5: Cng thc phn t ca hp cht to bi nguyn t X thuc nhm IA v nguyn t Y thuc nhm VIA l
A. X6Y.
B. XY2.
C. X2Y.
D. XY6
Cu 6: Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s electron phn lp p bng 7. V tr ca X trong bng h thng
tun hon l:
A. STT 13; CK 3; nhm IIIA
B. STT 12; CK 3; nhm IIA
C. STT 20; CK 4; nhm IIA
D. STT 19; CK 4; nhm IA
Cu 7: Nhng tnh cht no sau y bin i tun hon?
1) Nguyn t khi
2) S hiu nguyn t

3) Tnh kim loi, tnh phi kim


4) Ho tr cao nht vi oxi.
5) S electron lp ngoi cng.
6) Bn knh nguyn t
A. 1, 3, 4.
B. 2, 4, 5, 6
C. 3, 4, 5,6
D. 1, 2, 4, 5.
Cu 8: Theo quy lut bin i tnh cht cc n cht trong bng tun hon th
A. phi kim mnh nht l iot.
B. kim loi mnh nht l Cs.
C. phi kim mnh nht l flo.
D. c B v C u ng.
Cu 9: Trong mt chu k, theo chiu tng ca in tch ht nhn, m in ca cc nguyn t thng
A. tng dn.
B. gim dn.
C. va gim va tng.
D. khng xc nh.
Cu 10: Cch sp xp no sau y ng theo trt t tng dn bn knh nguyn t?
A. Rb, Ca, S, F
B. F, Ca, Rb, S
C. F, S, Ca, Rb
D. F, Rb, Ca, S
Cu 11: Nguyn t A c s hiu nguyn t l 13 v nguyn t B c s hiu nguyn t l 16. Pht biu khng
ng l:
A. Tnh kim loi ca A > B.
B. Bn knh nguyn t ca A > B.
C. m in ca A > B.
D. A v B cng thuc mt chu k.
Cu 12: Dy cc nguyn t no sau y c sp xp theo chiu tnh phi kim tng dn?
A. Na, Cl, Mg, C.
B. Rb, Ca, P, Cl.
C. H, C, Li, F.
D. S, Cl, P, F.
Cu 13: Nguyn t R c cng thc hp cht vi hiro l RH 3. Cng thc oxit cao nht ca R l
A. R2O.
B. R2O3.
C. RO2.
D. R2O5.
Cu 14: Trong bn axit: H3PO4, H2SO3, H2SO4, H2SeO4, axit mnh nht l
A. H3PO4.
B. H2SO4.
C. H2SeO4.
D. H2SO3.
Cu 15: Cho 11X, 19Y, 13Z, 12T. Dy sp xp cc hiroxit: XOH, YOH, Z(OH) 3, T(OH)2 theo chiu tng dn tnh
baz l:
A. Z(OH)3, T(OH)2 , XOH, YOH.
B. XOH, YOH, Z(OH)3, T(OH)2.
C. Z(OH)3, T(OH)2, YOH, XOH.
D. XOH, Z(OH)3, T(OH)2 ,YOH.
Cu 16: X v Y l hai nguyn t thuc cng mt chu k, hai nhm A lin tip. S proton ca nguyn t Y nhiu
hn s proton ca nguyn t X. Tng s ht proton trong nguyn t X v Y l 33. Nhn xt no sau y v X, Y
l ng?
A. m in ca X ln hn m in ca Y.
B. Bn knh nguyn t ca Y ln hn bn knh nguyn t ca X.
C. Lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t Y c 5 electron.
D. Phn lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t X c 4 electron.
Cu 17: Anion X- v cation Y2+ u c cu hnh eletron lp ngoi cng l 3s23p6 . V tr ca X, Y trong bng tun
hon cc nguyn t ha hc l
A. X c s th t 17, chu k 4, nhm VIIA ; Y c s th t 20, chu k 4, nhm IIA.
B. X c s th t 18, chu k 4, nhm VIA ; Y c s th t 20, chu k 4, nhm IIA .
C. X c s th t 17, chu k 3, nhm VIIA ; Y c s th t 20, chu k 4, nhm IIA .
D. X c s th t 18, chu k 3, nhm VIIA ; Y c s th t 20, chu k 3, nhm IIA.
Cu 18 : Hai nguyn t X v Y cng thuc mt chu k v hai nhm A k tip trong bng tun hon c tng s
proton trong hai ht nhn nguyn t l 25. X v Y thuc chu k v nhm no sau y trong bng tun hon?
A. Chu k 3, v cc nhm IIA v IIIA
B. Chu k 2, v cc nhm IA v IIA
C. Chu k 3, v cc nhm IA v IIA
D. Chu k 2, v cc nhm IIA v IIIA
Cu 19 : Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, notron, electron l 28. Pht biu no sau y v X l
ng ?
A. X thuc chu k 2, nhm VIA.
B. X thuc chu k 3, nhm VIIA.
C. X l nguyn t c tnh phi kim mnh nht.
C. X nhng 1e khi tham gia phn ng ha hc.
Cu 20 : Cho cc nguyn t sau : 9X; 17Y; 25Z; 35T. Nhng nguyn t thuc cng mt nhm trong bng h thng
tun hon l
A. X, Y, Z, T.
B. X, Y, Z.
C. X, Y, T.
D. Y, Z, T.
Cu 21: Dy sp xp cc nguyn t v ion theo chiu gim dn bn knh l:
A. Mg2+ > Na+ > Ne > F-.
B. F- > Na+ > Mg2+ > Ne.
C. Na+ > Ne > Mg2+ > F-.
D. F- > Ne > Na+ > Mg2+.
Cu 22 : Oxit cao nht ca mt nguyn t c cng thc tng qut l R 2O5, hp cht ca n vi hiro c t khi
hi i vi hidro l 8,5. Nguyn t R l:
A. photpho.
B. nit.
C. asen.
D. antimoan.
Cu 23: Cho 3,7 g hn hp gm Na v 1 kim loi kim khc tc dng vi nc (d) c 3,36 lt H 2. Kim loi
kim l:
A. Li
B. Na
C. K
D. Rb

Cu 24: Ho tan 12,2 gam hai mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi A, B lin tip nhau trong nhm IIA bng mt
lng va dung dch H2SO4, sau phn ng thu c 2,24 lt kh ktc. Cng thc hai mui cacbonat l:
A. CaCO3 v SrCO3.
B. SrCO3 v BaCO3.
C. MgCO3 v CaCO3.
D.
BeCO3
v
MgCO3
Cu 25: Ha tan 6,2 gam oxit ca mt kim loi kim trong nc d c dung dch A. Cho dung dch A tc
dng vi dung dch CuCl2 d th thu c 9,8 gam kt ta B. Kim loi l:
A. Li
B. Na
C. K
D. Rb
Cu 26 (H 2011B): Trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc, nguyn t X nhm IIA, nguyn t Y
nhm VA. Cng thc ca hp cht to thnh 2 nguyn t trn c dng l:
A. X3Y2
B. X2Y3
C. X5Y2
D. X2Y5
Cu 27: (C 2008A) X l kim loi thuc nhm IIA. Cho 1,7 gam hn hp gm kim loi X v Zn tc dng vi
lng d dung dch HCl, sinh ra 0,672 lt kh H 2 ( ktc). Mt khc, khi cho 1,9 gam X tc dng vi lng d
dung dch H2SO4 long, th th tch kh hiro sinh ra cha n 1,12 lt ( ktc). Kim loi X l
A. Ba.
B. Ca.
C. Sr.
D. Mg.
Cu 28: Mt nguyn t nhm VIA c tng s proton, electron v ntron trong nguyn t bng 24. Cu hnh
electron ca R l :
A. 1s22s22p4
B. 1s22s22p6
C. 1s22s22p63s23p4
D. 1s22s22p2
2+
2
2
6
Cu 29: Ion X c cu hnh electron: 1s 2s 2p . V tr ca X trong bng h thng tun hon l :
A. Chu k 2, nhm IIA B. Chu kk 2, nhm VIIIA
C. Chu k 3, nhm IA
D. chu k 3 nhm IIA
Cu 30: Mt nguyn t kim loi trong cu hnh electron nguyn t ch c 5 electron s . Cho 46 gam kim loi ny
ho tan hon trong nc thu c 22,4 lt kh H 2 ( ktc). Vt kim loi l:
A. 64Cu
B. 24Mg
C. 23Na
D. 39K
Cu 31: Nguyn t X c ho tr i vi H bng 2 v ho tr ti a i vi O bng 6. Bit X c 3 lp electron .
Tnh Z ca X.
A. 15
B. 10
C. 16
D. 14
Cu 32: X v Y l hai nguyn t thuc cng mt nhm A, thuc hai chu k lin tip. S proton ca nguyn t Y
nhiu hn s proton ca nguyn t X. Tng s ht proton trong nguyn t X v Y l 26. Nhn xt no sau y
v X, Y l khng ng?
A. Lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t X v Y ( trng thi c bn) c 7 electron.
B. m in ca X ln hn m in ca Y.
C. n cht Y l cht kh iu kin thng.
D. S oxi ha cao nht ca X v Y trong hp cht vi Oxi l +7.
Cu 33: Pht biu no sau y l ng?
A. Nhng nguyn t c cng s khi thuc cng mt nguyn t ho hc.
B. Trong tt c cc nguyn t, s proton bng s ntron.
C. Ht nhn ca tt c cc nguyn t u c proton v ntron.
D. Nguyn t M c Z = 12 thuc chu k 3 nhm IIA.
Cu 34: Cho hai nguyn t X v Y c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ln lt l 3s x v 3p5. Bit rng phn lp
3s ca nguyn t hai nguyn t hn km nhau 1 electron. S n v in tch ht nhn ca X, Y ln lt l
A. 19 v 12.
B. 17 v 12.
C. 17 v 11.
D. 11 v 17.
Cu 35: Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c phn lp ngoi cng l 3p. Nguyn t ca nguyn t Y c phn lp ngoi
cng l 3s. Tng s electron ca 2 phn lp ngoi cng ca X v Y l 7. Bit rng X v Y d dng phn ng vi
nhau. S hiu nguyn t ca X v Y ln lt l :
A. 17 v 12.
B. 13 v 15.
C. 18 v 11.
D. 11 v 16.
Cu 36: Phn trm khi lng ca nguyn t R trong hp cht kh vi hiro (R c s oxi ha thp nht) v trong
oxit cao nht tng ng l a% v b%, vi a : b = 11 : 4. Pht biu no sau y l ng?
A. Phn t oxit cao nht ca R khng c cc.
B. Oxit cao nht ca R iu kin thng l cht rn.
C. Trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc, R thuc chu k 3.
D. Nguyn t R ( trng thi c bn) c 6 electron s.
Cu 37: Oxit cao nht ca nguyn t R ng vi cng thc RO 2. Trong hp cht kh ca n vi hiro, R chim
75% v khi lng. Khng nh no sau y l sai ?
A. Lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t R ( trng thi c bn) c 2 electron c thn.
B. Phn t RO2 l phn t phn cc.
C. m in ca nguyn t nguyn t R ln hn m in ca nguyn t nguyn t hiro.
D. Lin kt ha hc gia cc nguyn t trong phn t RO 2 l lin kt cng ha tr c cc.

Cu 38: Trong cc pht biu sau:


(1) Thm hoc bt mt hay nhiu ntron ca mt nguyn t trung ha, thu c nguyn t ca nguyn t mi.
(2) Thm hoc bt mt hay nhiu electron ca mt nguyn t trung ha, thu c nguyn t ca nguyn t mi.
(3) Cu hnh electron nguyn t nguyn t X c phn lp ngoi cng l 4s2 th ha tr cao nht ca X l 2.
(4) Cu hnh electron nguyn t nguyn t Y c phn lp ngoi cng l 4s1 th ha tr cao nht ca Y l 1.
(5) Cu hnh electron nguyn t nguyn t Z c phn lp ngoi cng l 3p5th ha tr cao nht ca Z l 7.
Cc pht biu ng l:
A. (2), (3), (4).
B. (5).
C. (3).
D. (1), (2), (5).
Cu 39: Pht biu no sau y ng
A. Ht nhn ca tt c cc nguyn t u c proton v ntron.
B. Trong tt c cc nguyn t, s proton bng s ntron.
C. Nguyn t M c Z = 11 thuc chu k 3 nhm IA.
D. Nhng nguyn t c cng s khi thuc cng mt nguyn t ho hc.
Cu 40: Nguyn t nguyn t X c tng s electron trong cc phn lp p l 8. V tr ca X trong bng h thng
tun hon l
A. X c s th t 12, chu k 3, nhm IIA
B. X c s th t 13, chu k 3, nhm IIIA
C. X c s th t 14, chu k 3, nhm IVA
D. X c s th t 15, chu k 3, nhm VA
Cu 41. Cho nguyn t cc nguyn t M(Z = 11); X(Z = 17); Y(Z = 9) v R(Z = 19). m in ca cc nguyn
t tng dn theo th t
A. M < X < Y < R.
B. Y < M < X < R.
C. M < X < R < Y.
D. R < M < X < Y.
Cu 42: Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s electron trong cc phn lp p l 7. Nguyn t ca nguyn t Y c
tng s ht mang in nhiu hn tng s ht mang in ca X l 8. Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca Y l
A. 3s23p5
B. 2s22p4.
C. 3s23p4.
D. 3s23p3.
Cu 43: Nguyn tc no sp xp cc nguyn t trong bng tun hon sau y l sai ?
A. Cc nguyn t c cng s electron ho tr trong nguyn t c xp thnh mt ct.
B. Cc nguyn t c cng s lp electron trong nguyn t c xp thnh mt hng.
C. Cc nguyn t c sp xp theo chiu tng dn ca khi lng nguyn t.
D. Cc nguyn t c sp xp theo chiu tng dn ca in tch ht nhn.
Cu 44: Bn knh ca cc nguyn t 11 Na; 17 Cl ; 8 O gim dn theo th t l:
A. Cl > Na > O
B. O > Na > Cl
C. Na > Cl > O
D. O > Cl > Na
Cu 45: Nguyn t X thuc chu k 4 nhm VI B. Tng s ht mang in c trong ht nhn ca nguyn t X l:
A.17
B.21
C.24
D.29
Cu 46. X v Y l hai nguyn t thuc hai nhm A lin tip. Tng s proton ca X v Y l 23. Y thuc nhm VI
A. n cht X khng phn ng trc tip vi n cht Y. Nhn xt no sau y v X, Y khng ng?
A. m in ca Y ln hn m in ca X
B. trng thi c bn, nguyn t X c 3 electron c thn
C. Bn knh nguyn t Y ln hn bn knh nguyn t X
D. Cng thc oxi cao nht ca X l X2O5.
Cu 47. X v Y l hai nguyn t thuc cng mt chu k, hai nhm A lin tip. S proton ca nguyn t ca
nguyn t Y nhiu hn s proton ca nguyn t X. Tng s proton trong X v Y l l 33. Nhn xt no sau y
v X v Y l ng?
A. n cht X l cht kh iu kin thng
B. m in ca X ln hn m in ca Y
C. Lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t Y (trng thi c bn) c 5 e
D. Phn lp ngoi cng ca X (trng thi c bn ) c 4e
Cu 48. Trong mt nhm A (phn nhm chnh), tr nhm VIIIA (phn nhm chnh nhm VIII), theo chiu tng
ca in tch ht nhn nguyn t th
A. tnh phi kim gim dn, bn knh nguyn t tng dn.
B. tnh kim loi tng dn, m in tng dn.
C. m in gim dn, tnh phi kim tng dn.
D. tnh kim loi tng dn, bn knh nguyn t gim dn.
Cu 49. X, Y, Z l 3 nguyn t thuc cng chu k ca bng tun hon. Bit oxit ca X khi tan trong nc to
dung dch lm hng qu tm, Y phn ng vi nc to dung dch lm xanh giy qu tm, cn Z phn ng c
vi c axit v kim. Theo th t tng dn s hiu nguyn t th trt t ng s l:
A. X, Y, Z
B. Y, Z, X
C. X, Z, Y
D. Z, Y, Z
Cu 50: Tng s ht proton, ntron, electron trong 3 nguyn t kim loi X,Y,Z l 134 trong tng s ht mang
in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 42. S ht mang in ca Y nhiu hn ca X l 14 v s ht mang in
ca Z nhiu hn ca X l 2. Dy no di y xp ng th t v tnh kim loi ca X,Y,Z
A.X<Y<Z
B.Z<X<Y
C. Y<Z<X
D.Z<Y<X