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Nov 02, 2016

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Physics: Optics

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Physics: Optics

© All Rights Reserved

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YF Textbook Chs 28-33

Ch 28 (sections 5-7)

recognize that in many cases, the direction of a B-field can be determined via the

right-hand rule and we only need to worry about the magnitude of the B-field. For

example,

B=

B=

o I

distance r from a long straight wire

2r

o I

at center of a circular loop with radius a

2a

B = o nI inside a long solenoid

realize that there some of the highly symmetric results can be determined from

Amperes law, which states that

~ = o Iencl

~ dl

B

It is safe to ignore 28.8. The list for Ch 28 is deceptively short. Theres a lot of good

conceptual material and examples packed in there. Dig it.

Ch 29

be able to use Faradays law and Lenzs law to relate a changing magnetic flux

through a conducting loop to the induced EMF around that loop and realize that the

above relation is for a single loop. For a set of multiple loops, multiply by the total

number of loops to get the total induced EMF

"=

dt

understand that from the general definition of magnetic flux, you can induce an EMF

either by changing the area (generating a motional EMF) or by changing the B-field

(inducing an E-field to generate the EMF) according to the following relations

"=

~ (motional EMF)

~ dl

(~v B)

I

~ (induced E-field)

~ dl

"= E

Ch 30

know all about inductance (symbol = M for mutual; = L for self-inductance; SI unit =

henry [H])

di

N B

" = L where L =

dt

i

know how to relate mutual inductance between 2 coils of wire

M=

N2 B2

N1 B1

=

i1

i2

also understand that a single coil will induce a back EMF on itself

realize that an inductor stores potential energy in its B-field

potential energy U = LI2/2

energy density = B2/2o

be able to describe how an inductor slows the rate of current decay/growth in a directcurrent RL circuit

"

i(t) = (1 e t/ ) (growth)

R

i(t) = Io e t/ (decay)

L

= time constant

=

R

realize that a simple direct-current LC circuit will exhibit simple harmonic oscillation

between the capacitor plates with angular frequency = (1/LC) and that the addition

of a resistor to make an RLC circuit slows the angular frequency to

!d =

1

LC

R 2

)

2L

q(t) = Qo e

R

)t

2L cos(! 0 t)

also realize that d = 0 when R = 2(L/C), the charge will no longer oscillate and the

system is critically damped

and finally, if R > 2(L/C), then d will be imaginary and the system is overdamped.

Ch 31

be comfortable with the distinctions between frequency (f) & angular frequency ();

voltage amplitude (V), rms voltage (Vrms), and instantaneous voltage (v(t)); current

amplitude (I), rms current (Irms), and instantaneous current (i(t)) for simple series

alternating-current circuits.

know how to calculate the capacitive and inductive reactances and the impedance for

an a-c circuit

XL = !L

1

XC =

!C

p

2

Z = R + (XL XC )2

given those quantities, know how to compute the voltage across individual circuit

elements and the entire circuit

VR = IR

VL = IXL

VC = IXC

V = IZ

with the aid of a phasor diagram, know the phase angle between current and voltage

for individual circuit elements and how to calculate the overall phase

tan =

(XL

XC )

R

Pav = Irms Vrms cos

realize that resonance occurs an an RLC a-c circuit when capacitive and inductive

reactances are equal, giving a resonant angular frequency

!o =

1

LC

know how transformers can step a-c voltage either up or down via the ratio of coil

turns on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer

V2

N2

=

V1

N1

Ch 32

understand that Maxwell added a displacement current to Amperes law to allow for

the fact a magnetic field can be created by a time-variable electric field in addition to

being created by moving charges

realize that Maxwells equations show that both electric and magnetic fields are

solutions to the wave equation and both propagate at the same speed and are related

via

r

v=

1

o o

c= f

E

c=

B

EM radiation transmits energy per square meter at a rate given by the Poynting vector

~= 1E

~ B

~

S

o

the intensity of the radiation is the time-averaged value of the Poynting vector

2

~ >= E

I =< S

2o c

the energy density of EM radiation is shared equally between the electric and

magnetic fields

B2

o

2

1

B

= o E 2 =

2

2o

u = uE + uB = o E 2 =

uavg

the power delivered by a beam of radiation is equal to the intensity times the surface

area

as particles, photons will exert pressure and carry momentum where the momentum

of a single photon is p = E/c = h/ and the pressure exerted on a surface depends on

how reflective the surface is, where Prad = I/c for a perfectly absorbing surface and =

2I/c for a perfectly reflective surface

It is safe to ignore 32.5 for Exam 3.

Ch 33

be comfortable with the basic concept of an index of refraction for an optically

transparent material as being the ratio of the sped of light in vacuum (c) to the speed

of light in the material (n = c/v)

realize that since frequency is the conserved quantity as light moves form one

material to another, that = o/n, where o is the vacuum wavelength

be able to use the laws of reflection and refraction (a.k.a. Snells law) at an interface

for internal reflections (nt < ni), be able to determine the critical angle, beyond which

no light will refract into the new medium (i.e., Total Internal Reflection)

i = r

ni sini = nt sint

nt

c = sin 1 ( )

ni

understand linear polarization and how Malus law relates the intensity of light

transmitted through an ideal polarizer to the angle between the filters transmission

axis and the direction of the lights polarization

I = Imax cos2

also know that an ideal polarizer will allow 50% of the intensity of randomly polarized

light to pass through

realize that reflection will result in a least partial polarization of the reflected light and

that at the polarization angle (a.k.a. Brewsters angle), the only light reflected will be

that which is polarized parallel to the plane of the interface.

p = tan

nt

)

ni

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