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# Transformers

Example 1:
240/24 V single phase transformer has the following parameters.
R1=6, X1=20, R2=0.05, X2=0.18
When the transformer is supplied at 240 V on no load, primary current is 0.02 A at p.f of 0.3
lagging.
Calculate the primary current, when the secondary is connected to a load of (3.9+1.9j ) .
Solution:

## Primary current at no load=

Example 2:
A 100 kVA transformer has 400 turns on the primary and 80 turns on the secondary. The
primary and secondary resistances are 0.3 and 0.01 , respectively. Corresponding leakage
reactances are 1.1 and 0.035. The supply voltage is 2200 V. Calculate the followings.
a) Equivalent impedance referred to the primary
b) The voltage regulation at full load having a power factor of 0.8 lagging

Solution:
a)

## Equivalent impedance referred to the primary,

0.875

b) The voltage regulation at full load having a power factor of 0.8 lagging,
(

I1

Req

V1

jXeq

-E1

A
V1

j I1Xeq

I1Req

-E1

I1

## In the phasor diagram,

Example 3:

A 500-kVA, 13,200/480-V distribution transformer has four 2.5 percent taps on its primary
winding. What are the voltage ratios of this transformer at each tap setting?
Solution:
Tap

Primary voltage/(V)

Secondary voltage/(V)

5%
2.5%
Nominal
rating
-2.5%
-5%

13200+1.05=13860
13200+1.025=13530
13200

480
480
480

Voltage
ratio
13860/480
13530/480
13200/480

13200+0.975=12870
13200+0.95=12540

480
480

12870/480
12540/480

Example 4:
Open circuit and short circuit tests were carried out on a single phase 50 Hz, 200/400 V, 4
kVA transformer and the following results were obtained.

Open circuit test performed on the primary side (measured from the primary side),
200V, 0.8A, 70W

Short circuit test performed on the secondary side (measured from the secondary
side),
17.5V, 9A, 50W

## Calculate the followings.

a) Find the equivalent circuit parameters referred to primary.
b) Full load efficiency when supplying a load at unity power factor
Solution:
Short circuit test performed on the secondary side (measured from the secondary side)
17.5 V, 9 A, 50 W

Copper loss,
A

W
Equivalent resistance and equivalent reactance referred to secondary,

Open circuit test performed on the primary side (measured from the primary side)
200 V, 0.8 A, 70 W

a)

Turns ratio,

## b) Full load efficiency when supplying a load at unity power factor

W

Example 5:
Three identical single-phase transformers are needed to connect a 6 kVA, 120V, three-phase
load to a 4800V, three-phase transmission line.
For a Y/ connection, determine the followings of each single-phase transformer.
I.

Solution:

Power rating

II.

Voltage ratings

III.

Current ratings

IV.

Turns ratio

I.
II.

Voltage ratings,

III.

Current ratings,

IV.

Turns ratio,