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Halloween

Ethimology
The word Halloween or Hallowe'en dates to about 1745 and is of
Christian origin.The word "Hallowe'en" means "hallowed evening" or "holy
evening". It comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows' Eve (the evening
before All Hallows' Day). In Scots, the word "eve" is even, and this is contracted
to e'en or een. Over time, (All) Hallow(s) E(v)en evolved into Hallowe'en.
Although the phrase "All Hallows'" is found in Old English "All Hallows' Eve"
is itself not seen until 1556.
Historical Approach
It is widely believed that many Halloween traditions originated from
Celtic harvest festivals which may have pagan roots, particularly the Gaelic
festival Samhain, and that this festival was Christianized as Halloween after the
Roman conquest. Some academics, however, support the view that Halloween
began independently as a solely Christian holiday.
Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that
while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona,
the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it
is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the
Old Irish for "summer's end". Samhain (pronounced SAH-win or SOW-in) was
the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic
calendar and was celebrated on 31 October1 November in Ireland, Scotland
and the Isle of Man.

Ragamuffin Day vs.Trick-or-Treat


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What door-to-door tradition came before trick or treating?Many NewYorkers who are seventy or older still remeber participating at the celebration
Ragamuffin Day which was held not on 31st October,but on Thanksgiving.
Ragamuffin Day started a few years after President Lincoln proclaimed
Thanksgiving an official holiday.People have documented it going back to
around 1870.
Children, dressed in rags and masks, would go door-to-door and ask,
Anything for Thanksgiving? Usually they would receive a treat of some sort:
candy, fruit, or pennies.
Ragamuffin Day ended in 1941, when President Roosevelt and Congress
established Thanksgiving as a federal holiday. Many of the traditions associated
with Ragamuffin Day found their way into Halloween.

Figure
1.Kids
celebrating Ragamuffin Day

Symbols of Halloween
Jack o Lantern
It is used to frighten evil spirits.
There is a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the jack-o'lantern, which in folklore is said to represent a "soul who has been denied entry
into both heaven and hell":
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and
tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross
into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never
claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to
heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell
and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night,
so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since
which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.
In Ireland and Scotland, the turnip has traditionally been carved during
Halloween, but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which is
both much softer and much larger making it easier to carve than a turnip.The
American tradition of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837 and was originally
associated with harvest time in general, not becoming specifically associated
with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century.

Figure 2.Jack oLantern


Mummies
There are many monsters associated with Halloween. Besides
Dracula and his kind, mummies are among the most fascinating of these.
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The mummies appearing in horror films and literature have many


differences, but one thing remains constant: they are cursed to remain
alive forever. They also have a doomed romantic attraction to at least one
mortal woman and a burning hatred of all other mortals that has endured
for centuries.
Dead bodies don't sit well with many people and the idea of a very old
well-preserved body seems to cause them panic. Add that to the fact that some
cultures believed it was possible for their mummies to live in the afterlife and
the idea becomes a rather frightening thing indeed. In order to capitalize on this
fear of mummies, Hollywood began making movies with mummies as evil
abominations that rise from the dead.
Like most horror movie monsters, being a main villain assured the
mummy a place in the entourage of Halloween spooks.
Mummies are still being made even to this day. However, the ancient
preservation techniques have been replaced by a modern method called
plastination.

Figure 3.Mummy