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SEPTEMBER 2013 VOL 171, NO 9

Coming to Montreal, Canada


October 27-31

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ra
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Ina ssu
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High-Tech Materials & Processes


INCLUDED IN THIS ISSUE

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering


Advances in Spinodal Alloys
MS&T Show Preview

AN ASM INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATION

contents
17

Integrated Computational Materials


Engineering Helps Successfully
Develop Aerospace Alloys

Jeff Grabowski, Jason Sebastian, Greg Olson,


Aziz Asphahani, and Raymond Genellie, Jr.
ICME methods prove effective in shrinking materials
development timelines and accelerating implementation of
high performance alloys in real-world applications.

ON THE COVER:
Montral skyline as seen from the
Parc Jean-Drapeau.
Courtesy of Tourisme Montral.
www.tourisme-montreal.org.

20

Performance Advances in
Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloys

W. Raymond Cribb, Michael J. Gedeon, and Fritz C. Grensing


The unique metallurgy and microstructure of Cu-Ni-Sn alloys
offer a beneficial combination of strength, tribology,
corrosion resistance, toughness, and reliability for diverse
applications in the oil and gas, aerospace, mechanical
systems, and electronics industries.

26

Development of Single Crystal


Superalloys: A Brief History

Anthony F. Giamei
An industry pioneer shares a historical overview of the early
days of single crystal superalloy development.

32

DEPARTMENTS
2
4
4
6

This years conference in Montral, Canada, will draw


attendees from around the world and will attract the best and
brightest minds in the materials community. The event will
also celebrate and commemorate ASM Internationals 100th
anniversary.

Editorial
Market Spotlight
Feedback
Of Material Interest

8 Industry News
8 Metals/Polymers/Ceramics
10 Testing/Characterization
12 Emerging Technology
13 Process Technology
14 Energy Trends
15 Surface Engineering
80 Products/Literature
8 1 Classifieds
8 1 Advertisers Index
8 1 Special Advertising Section
82 Editorial Preview
83 Pastimes
84 Stress Relief

Check out the


Digital Edition online at
http://amp.digitaledition.
asminternational.org

Materials Science & Technology 2013


Show Preview

36

ASM ANNIVERSARY

Celebrating ASMs First 100 Years in


Supporting Materials Innovation

41

HTProDebut Issue!

71

ASM News

The official newsletter of the ASM Heat Treating Society (HTS). This
quarterly supplement focuses on heat treating technology, processes,
materials, and equipment, along with Heat Treating Society news
and initiatives.

The monthly publication about ASM members, chapters, events,


awards, conferences, affiliates, and other Society activities.

ASM International serves materials professionals, nontechnical personnel, and managers worldwide by providing high-quality materials
information, education and training, networking opportunities, and professional development resources in cost-effective and user-friendly
formats. ASM is where materials users, producers, and manufacturers converge to do business.
Advanced Materials & Processes (ISSN 0882-7958, USPS 762080) is published monthly, except bimonthly November/December, by ASM
International, 9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002; tel: 440/338-5151; fax: 440/338-4634. Periodicals postage paid at Novelty, Ohio, and additional mailing offices. Vol. 171, No. 9, September 2013. Copyright 2013 by ASM International. All rights reserved.
Distributed at no charge to ASM members in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. International members can pay a $30 per year surcharge to receive printed issues. Subscriptions: $461. Single copies: $45. POSTMASTER: Send 3579 forms to ASM International, Materials
Park, OH 44073-0002.
Change of address: Request for change should include old address of the subscriber. Missing numbers due to change of address cannot
be replaced. Claims for nondelivery must be made within 60 days of issue. Canada Post Publications Mail Agreement No. 40732105. Return
undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 700 Dowd Ave., Elizabeth, NJ 07201. Printed by Publishers Press Inc., Shepherdsville, Ky.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

materials witness
9639 Kinsman Road
Materials Park, OH 44073
Tel: 440/338-5151 Fax: 440/338-4634

Support of research, higher education


critical to prosperity

cientific innovation and technology advancements are at


the heart of every modern nations economic prospects.
Some countries are investing more in science than others, with
university-based R&D a vital part of the equation. One country
falling behind is the U.S. According to the National Science
Foundation (NSF), during the past 10 years, R&D expenditures
as a share of economic output have remained nearly constant in
the U.S., but have increased by nearly 50% in South Korea and
nearly 90% in China.
As an international organization, ASM applauds our colleagues in other countries for
their foresight and investments. On the other hand, some of our domestic members
are concerned about the recent state of affairs. To address this issue, a group of 165
U.S. university presidents wrote a letter last month to President Obama and the 113th
Congress titled, Close the Innovation Deficit. From Carnegie Mellon and Georgia
Tech to MIT and Purdue, many of the top U.S. research universities signed the letter, a
portion which reads:
The combination of eroding federal investments in research and higher education,
additional cuts due to sequestration, and the enormous resources other nations are
pouring into these areas is creating a new kind of deficit for the United States: an
innovation deficit. Closing this deficit must be a national imperativeMore than
half of U.S. economic growth since World War II is a consequence of technological
innovation, overwhelmingly resulting from federally funded scientific
researchMany of the university researchers making those discoveries would not
have the opportunity to be in their labs were it not for federal support of research
and higher educationHaving witnessed this nations success at turning
investments in research and higher education into innovation and economic
growth, countries such as China, Singapore, and Korea have dramatically increased
their investments in these areas. It is equally troubling that the U.S. has fallen to
12th among developed countries in the share of young adults who hold college
degreesWe call upon you to reject unsound budget cuts and recommit to strong
and sustained investments in research and education.

Between 2000 and 2008, the number of engineering doctorates awarded in China
more than tripled to 15,000, according to the NSF. This compares to 8100 in the U.S.,
of which only 3200 went to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. I recently attended
a Center for Heat Treating Excellence meeting at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and
experienced this phenomenon firsthand. Imagine an audience of mostly American,
mid-career men from companies such as Oshkosh, Timken, and Caterpillar listening
to research presentations from young Chinese women and men working on graduate
degrees in the U.S. and you will have a sense of what the Innovation Deficit letter is
getting at. ASM commends every nations efforts toward technological advancement,
but one cant help but wonder what the future holds for the U.S. if its government
fails to invest in R&D and higher education. If you have an opinion on the matter, wed
like to hear it.

frances.richards@asminternational.org
2

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Frances Richards, Senior Editor


frances.richards@asminternational.org
Julie Kalista, Editor
julie.kalista@asminternational.org
Barbara L. Brody, Art Director
Joanne Miller, Production Manager;
Editor, ASM News
joanne.miller@asminternational.org
Press Release Editor
magazines@asminternational.org

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Ellen Cerreta, Chair, Los Alamos National Lab
Mario Epler, Vice Chair, Carpenter Technology Corp.
Scott Olig, Past Chair, Vision Point Systems
David Furrer, Board Liaison
Laura Addessio, PCC Structurals Inc.
Arvind Agarwal, Florida International University
David Bowden, The Boeing Co.
Adam Farrow, Los Alamos National Lab
Jaret Frafjord, IMR KHA Portland
Jacob Goldsmith, University of Michigan
Alan Luo, General Motors
Thomas Murphy, Hoeganaes Corp.
Roger Narayan, UNC-NCSU
Nina Pang, Boston University
Somuri Prassad, Sandia National Laboratories
Fei Ren, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Satyam Sahay, John Deere Technology Center India
Jaimie Tiley, U.S. Air Force Research Lab
Cong Wang, Saint Gobain High Performance
Materials
Yu-Ping Yang, Edison Welding Institute

ASM BOARD OF TRUSTEES


Gernant E. Maurer, President
C. Ravi Ravindran, Vice President
Robert J. Fulton, Treasurer
Christopher C. Berndt, Immediate Past President
Diana M. Essock
David U. Furrer
Vilupanur A. Ravi
Jeffrey A. Hawk
William J. Lenling
Linda S. Schadler
Iver Anderson
Mitchell Dorfman
James C. Foley
Thomas S. Passek, Secretary and Managing
Director

STUDENT BOARD MEMBERS

Jennifer Breidenich, Gregory Vetterick, Blake Whitley


Individual readers of Advanced Materials & Processes may,
without charge, make single copies of pages therefrom for personal or archival use, or may freely make such copies in such
numbers as are deemed useful for educational or research purposes and are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to cite
or quote from articles herein, provided customary acknowledgment of the authors and source is made.

market

spotlight

feedback

Powder injection molding


market makes gains

Headline garners rave review


Nanovolcanoes for drug delivery? I
went to college in the early 70s, and not
even then (slightly augmented, but without nanovolcanoes) could I have written
a headline this eye-catching. Seriously, I
enjoy the AM&P newsletter. Thanks for
waking me up on a sleepy Thursday.
Name withheld by request
[Sign up to receive the AM&P weekly
eNewsletter at www.asminternational.org/
portal/site/www/asmforms?id=36.Eds.]

he powder injection molding (PIM) market continues to make gains,


with 2012 sales reaching $1.45 billion. Nearly 450 production firms
supported this activity. Steady growth took place during the last two
decades, rising from sales of $6 million in 1986 with approximately 30
producers. A new market research report details these findings. The 160page PIM 2013 Market Study, compiled by Randall German (Fellow, ASM
International) and Sundar Atre, is based on data collected from nearly
800 organizations associated with the PIM industry and includes statistics on metals, ceramics, cemented carbides, and composites.
Statistical surveys show that initial unit-manufacturing cells for PIM
processes were typically small, with 10 to 20 employees, batch mixing,
two or three molding machines, and two or
2012 North American PIM Sales
by Application
three batch sintering furnaces. As the indusOther
try evolved, more manufacturing cells were
Automotive
Industrial 5%
13%
added, but production ratios remained simi16%
Medical lar. Today, a typical facility has multiples of
14%
Electronics
the same early production ratios with each
10%
cell producing approximately 10 million parts
per year and $2.5 million in sales. Labor and
Firearms
42%
capital equipment needs include roughly 20
employees per cell, along with one mixer, five
molders, and two furnaces per cell.
In the figure shown here, 2012 PIM sales
2012 Chinese PIM Sales
by Application
by application are contrasted between North
Other
America and China. Regional differences
Automotive
5%
Industrial
make firearms and medical/dental tools and
16%
21%
equipment
dominant in North America, with
Medical
electronics, computers, and cell phone sec13%
tors dominant in Asia. In Europe, consumer
and automotive applications are leading uses
Electronics
for
PIM. The report offers a detailed look at
45%
the PIM market and is intended to help assess
operations, productivity, and financial performance, and provide evaluation for potential merger and acquisition
activity. It also identifies providers, customers, vendors, and suppliers,
and highlights market trends, materials, and industry concerns.
The PIM 2013 Market Study is organized to show where various technologies developed, relative market position in terms of production facilities, customers, and materials around the world, and future forecasts. To
help with corporate and regional benchmarking, data highlights geographic differences, showing variations in sales, materials, applications,
productivity, and financial performance. Specific attention is paid to
growth opportunities and emerging markets.
Considerable trend analysis is also included in the report, based on
the authors 15 years of experience assembling data on PIM companies
and their products, sales, powder consumption, employment, materials,
key customers, and vendors. For more information, contact pim2013@
scipivision.com or visit http://pim2013marketstudy.scipivision.com.
4

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Nuclear problem needs addressing


In Southern California, we have witnessed the failure of heat exchangers in
the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station causing the shutdown of a much
needed resource. The Los Angeles
Times simply states that corrosion is
the problem, but provides no specifics. I
am sure that many readers like myself
would like to see an in-depth look at this
problem. From what little I know, titanium
heat exchangers would have been a
lower cost solution in the first place.
Chuck Dohogne
Timeline inquiry
Does ASM plan to produce the 100year timeline chart youve been running
in sequential issues of AM&P as a standalone brochure, perhaps first available in
Montreal? I, for one, would much appreciate such an item. I have been an ASM
member since joining the Notre Dame
Chapter around 1942.
W. Stuart Lyman
[A poster series and timeline brochure are
under consideration. Stay tuned.Eds.]
Reader seeks
high-strength steel parts
Ive been searching for high-strength
steels that are manufactured into prefabricated hardware parts for the domestic
consumer market. I am looking for
weight values from 2-100 tons psi, available in common shapes. For example, a
part with a 1-in.-diameter 2-in. length
screw-eye, in which the tensile strength
is rated anywhere from 2-50 tons psi and
having the same value in shearing modulus. These common parts for highstrength applications are apparently
hard-to-find items. Can ASM or others
give me any information as to where I
might find such parts?
David Don via ASMs Facebook page
We welcome all comments
and suggestions. Send letters to
frances.richards@asminternational.org.

of material

interest
Suture anchor offers knotless
fixation in rotator cuff repair
Mitek Sports Medicine, Chicago, part of the DePuy Synthes Companies of Johnson & Johnson,
launched the Healix Advance Knotless Anchor, a new suture anchor designed to provide optimal knotless fixation for rotator cuff repair. The device features dual-thread technology to maximize fixation
and pull-out strength in both cancellous and cortical bone, and a multi-thread design that enables
fast insertion into bone. The device eliminates the need for arthroscopic knot tying and the anHealix Advance
chors are available in three sizes, 4.75, 5.5, and 6.5 mm. They are made of either Biocryl Rapide,
Knotless anchor is
a suture anchor that
a biocomposite material that allows absorption and boney ingrowth at the implant
provides optimal
site, or radiolucent polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a biocompatible thermoplastic
knotless fixation for
material. The anchors hold up to six strands of the companys Orthocord high
rotator cuff repair.
strength orthopedic suture or two strands of high strength tape-suture. The knotless anchor requires no new instrumentation. www.depuy.com.

Wooden this be some skyscraper

Berg | C.F. Mller architects are working in partnership with DinellJohansson and consultants Tyrns, all in Sweden, on their entry for HSB
Stockholms architectural competition 2023. The team designed a 34story residential building, which will be built over a wooden construction with a concrete core. Wood production has no waste products, binds
CO2, and has low weight but is very strong compared to its lightness.
Wood secures a proper indoor climate, has great acoustics, helps regulate
inside temperature, and can be exposed without being covered with plaster or other costly materials. In the design, pillars and beams are made of
solid woodand inside the apartments, all walls, ceilings, and window
frames are also made of wood, which will be visible from the exterior
through the windows.
Social and environmental sustainability is also integrated into the
Berg | C.F. Mller in partnership with
project. Each apartment will feature an energy-saving, glass-covered
DinellJohansson and consultants Tyrns will
veranda, while the building itself will be powered by rooftop solar panenter this 34-story wooden building in the HSB
Stockholm architectural competition 2023.
els. In addition, a new community center will house a market square, fitness center, and bicycle storage room. A communal winter garden will
provide residents with an opportunity to have allotment gardens. www.cfmoller.com.

Ancient metal coating technology remains unmatched


Artists and craftsmen more than 2000 years ago developed thin-film coating technology unrivaled even by todays
standards for producing DVDs, solar cells, electronic devices, and other products. Understanding these sophisticated
metal-plating techniques from ancient times could help preserve priceless artistic treasures from the past. Scientists have
made steady progress in understanding the chemistry of many ancient artistic and other artifactscrucial to preserving
them for future generations. Big gaps in knowledge remained, however, about how gilders in the Dark Ages and other periods applied such lustrous, impressively uniform films of gold or silver to intricate
objects. A new team recently set out to use the latest analytical techniques to uncover the ancients artistic secrets.
They discovered that gold- and silversmiths developed a variety of techniques,
including using mercury like a glue to apply thin films of metals to statues and other
objects. Sometimes, the technology was used to apply real gold and silver. It also was
used fraudulently, to make cheap metal statues look like solid gold or silver. Scientists say their findings confirm the high level of competence reached by the artists
and craftsmen of these ancient periods who produced objects of an artistic quality
How artisans from centuries ago achieved
that could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modsophisticated gilding, such as on the St. Ambrogio
ern ones. www.acs.org.
golden altar from 825 AD, is now coming to light.
6

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

industry

news
briefs
iemens Metals Technologies,

Linz, Austria, received an order


worth more than 100 million euros
from the Chinese Tangshan Iron
and Steel Group Co. Ltd. to
supply a complete cold rolling
complex. The plant will be built at
the Tangshan location in the Hebei
province. It includes a coupled
pickling line-tandem cold mill
(PLTCM), continuous annealing
line, and galvanizing line. The cold
strip mill is designed for an annual
production of 1.6 million tons of
high-strength, high-quality steels
for the Chinese automotive
industry. The first pickled and cold
rolled strip will be produced by
December 2014 and production
will be launched in 2015.
www.siemens.com/metals.
Spirit AeroSystems Inc., Wichita,
Kan., and Norsk Titanium
Components AS (NTiC), Norway,
reached a milestone in a multiyear collaboration for direct metal
deposition technology. The
companies achieved technology
readiness level six (TRL6),
demonstrating the ability to meet
aerospace material requirements.
NTiC developed a near-net-shape
manufacturing technology that
enables titanium components to be
fabricated close to the final shape
using titanium feedstock instead of
a large titanium block. The process
reduces waste, uses less energy,
and is significantly faster than
traditional methods. The
companies are currently working
under a cooperative agreement to
complete qualification of the
process that will lead to
widespread aerospace application.
www.spiritaero.com,
www.norsktitanium.no.

Hot bolting tool for oil and gas


industry, produced as near-netshape and finished machined.
8

METALS POLYMERS CERAMICS


New medical alloy features higher x-ray visibility

Scientists and engineers from the Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI) at the
University of Limerick, Ireland, invented a new metal that will make medical devices inside
the body more visible under x-ray. Many medical devices, such as stents and valves, are
placed in the body through minimally invasive surgical procedures that are usually performed with the help of medical imaging such as x-ray fluoroscopy. Current materials used
to make these devices do not show up well under x-ray.
An ideal solution is a device that is fully visible under x-ray, explains Syed Tofail, lead
scientist, but has to be based on approved alloys for medical devices. Many companies use
gold or platinum to modify existing alloys, which improve x-ray visibility but are expensive.
We identified a number of alloying elements that will make these devices as visible as those
where platinum has been added to enhance the visibility, but at a significantly reduced cost.
Tests on a prototype wire of the new alloy show potential for use in a number of products.
For more information: Syed Tofail, +353/61-234132, tofail.syed@ul.ie, www.ul.ie.

Plastics in oil sumps drive down vehicle weight

Royal DSM, the Netherlands, is reducing the weight of the Peugeot 508 with the use of
oil sumps injection molded in Akulon Ultraflow polyamide 6. The grade used for the application is Akulon Ultraflow K-FHG7, a 35% glass reinforced, heat stabilized polyamide 6
with good flow properties. It offers significant processing advantages compared to standard polyamide 6 products, while maintaining the required mechanical properties.
The French Tier One supplier Steep Plastique, Saint-Maurice-de-Beynost, developed a
sump that is 60% lighter than the metal version it
replaces. Due to the use of sophisticated computer
simulation software developed by Steep, the sump
passes demanding application tests, including a
severe curb impact test, stone impact test, and engine drop test. www.dsm.com/automotive, www.
akulon.com, www.steep-plastique.com.
DSMs Akulon Ultraflow used by Steep for oil sumps
of the new Peugeot 508 engine. Courtesy of
DSM Engineering Plastics.

Rapid cooling leads to stronger alloys

A team of researchers from the University of Rostock, Germany, developed a new way
to rapidly produce high strength metallic alloys, at a lower cost and using less energy than
before. The research reports on the first spark plasma sintering (SPS) system with an integrated gas quenching mechanism, capable of alternating phase compositions and retaining
the smallest grain features inside structured metallic alloys.
Led by Eberhard Burkel, professor of physics of new materials, researchers demonstrated that rapidly cooling a material directly after SPS fabrication can produce enhanced
hardness, strength, and ductility. The new rapid
Abakan Inc., Miami, received the Steel
cooling SPS system is based on a commercially availExcellence Award from American Metal
able design, modified to include a series of gas inlet
Market (AMM) under the Best Process
nozzles. Nitrogen gas is then blasted into the chamInnovation category for its CermaClad highber at high speeds, rapidly cooling the material.
speed large-area metal cladding technology.
Grade 5 Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) was produced at difThe technology uses a high intensity plasma
arc lamp to rapidly melt, fuse, and
ferent cooling rates. The most-rapidly cooled alloy
metallurgically bond corrosion-resistant and
was found to be up to 12% harder than the naturallywear-resistant materials to metal substrates,
cooled alloy, and with an improved ductility up to
including pipes. The technology addresses an
343%. For more information: Eberhard Burkel,
increasing demand for corrosion resistant
+49-0-381-498/6860, eberhard.burkel@uni-rosalloy (CRA) clad pipes. www.abakaninc.com.
tock.de, www.uni-rostock.de/en.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Aluminum lithium expansion


helps airframers increase fuel efficiency

Alcoa Inc., Pittsburgh, completed the expansion of aluminum lithium capacity at


its Kitts Green facility in the UK to serve the growing demand for its third generation
of aluminum lithium alloys. The expansion is the second phase of a three-part program to meet demand for advanced aerospace products and patented alloys, which
allow airframers to build more fuel efficient and lower cost airplanes versus
composite alternatives. The aluminum
lithium alloys provide the best strengthto-weight performance of Alcoas aerospace alloy portfolio combined with
better stiffness, damage tolerance, and
corrosion resistance. The alloys are used
in extrusions, forgings, and sheet and
plate applications across aircraft structures, including wings and fuselage components. www.alcoa.com.

Air Products, Lehigh Valley, Pa., introduced


two new technologies for metals processors at
PowderMet 2013, recently held in Chicago.
The new process for accelerated cooling for
sinter-hardening of low-alloy steels can lower
material cost and increase hourly production.
Also highlighted were the companys technical
services, such as process audits and
troubleshooting; equipment and technology
solutions, including plasma-activated nitriding
of stainless steels; and full line of industrial
gases. www.airproducts.com/metals.

Contract to produce
composite aft fan cases

ATK, Arlington, Va., received a contract valued at more than $50 million
from Rolls-Royce plc, UK, to produce aft
fan composite cases for the new Trent
XWB-97, the sole engine available to
power the Airbus A350-1000 aircraft
variant. ATKs automated composites
processing technology reduces fabrication costs and improves quality compared
to other methods, according to company
sources. The first ATK-fabricated Trent
XWB-97 aft fan case is scheduled for delivery in late 2013. Support of the RollsRoyce design effort and initial production
of the XWB-97 aft fan cases will begin
immediately at ATKs Aircraft Commercial Center of Excellence (ACCE) facility
in Clearfield, Utah. www.atk.com,
www.rolls-royce.com.

The Rolls-Royce
Trent XWB engine
aft fan cases to be
used on Airbus A3501000 aircraft are produced by ATK.
Courtesy of PRNewsFoto/ATK.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

industry

news
briefs
The ZEISS
Xradia 810
Ultra,
introduced at
the 2013
Microscopy and
Microanalysis
conference,
held August 4-8
in Indianapolis.

eiss, Oberkochen, Germany, finalized its acquisition of Xradia


Inc., Pleasanton, Calif., on July 12.
Xradia provides 3D x-ray microscopes for industrial and academic
research applications and will now
operate under the new name Carl
Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc.
www.zeiss.com.
Solar Atmospheres Inc.,
Souderton, Pa., designed, built, and
donated a lab-size, horizontal,
internal quenching furnace to ASM
International, Materials Park,
Ohio, for use in its teaching
laboratory. Named The Mentor,
the $250,000 gift was made in
commemoration of ASMs 100th
anniversary. The furnace features a
hot zone of 12 in. wide 12 in.
high 18 in. deep and operates to
2400F. The hearth accepts a load
of 250 lb. The Mentors state-ofthe-art vacuum furnace technology
allows students to perform a wide
variety of tests and experiments
related to vacuum heat treating,
brazing, and sintering.
www.solaratm.com,
www.asminternational.org.

The Mentor is now part of ASM


Internationals state-of-the-art
teaching laboratory.

10

TESTING CHARACTERIZATION
Neutron diffraction technique
could keep train wheels rolling longer

A new technique uses neutron diffraction


to measure several centimeters into the steel
wheels of train carriages, which will help researchers investigate how train wheel cracks
begin and spread. A study at the ENGIN-X
instrument at the Science and Technology
Facilities Council (STFC) Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK, is giving
engineers the opportunity to test large and
heavy components such as train wheels
rather than small metal samples.
In everyday use, train wheels are subjected to stresses and strains that can cause
cracks to develop, particularly in wheel rims.
Robert Jones and David Crosbee,
A group from the University of Huddersfield
Huddersfield University, use the ENGIN-X
instrument to examine a train bogie wheel at
has been using ENGIN-X at the ISIS facility
the ISIS facility, STFCs Rutherford Appleton
to study new and used train wheels to better
Laboratory. Courtesy of STFC.
understand how cracks begin and spread.
Train wheel manufacturing processes are designed to minimize the likelihood of cracks
appearing. A heat treating process hardens the rim and puts it under compressive strain,
making it difficult for cracks to start. However, some cracking is inevitable. When cracks
have developed to a certain level, the wheel is put on a lathe to remove the outer layer and
any cracks that have formed. This exposes the material underneath that is slightly less hardened, which can be more prone to cracking.
We know that during operation, and during turning on the lathe, stresses within the
wheel also change. We know that cracks grow more quickly toward the end of a wheels life,
and this is true for various types of trains operating in different conditions. We wanted to
know which was more importantthe change in hardness or the change in residual stress,
says Adam Bevan, who led the study. Hardness is easy to measure, but measuring the distribution of residual stress in the wheel is more difficult. Neutron diffraction allows us to
measure several centimeters into the steel, and the big advantage of ENGIN-X at ISIS is the
ability to test such large and heavy components. For more information: Dr. Adam Bevan,
a.j.bevan@hud.ac.uk, www.hud.ac.uk.

Electrochemical method explores hydrogen diffusion in metals

Researchers at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences


(IPC PAS), Warsaw, applied a user-friendly electrochemical method to study hydrogen diffusion in highly reactive metals. Hydrogen storage remains a serious challenge due to the
many drawbacks of conventional storage tanks for gaseous and liquid hydrogen. One promising method makes use of the capability of some metals and alloys to easily uptake this element. The development of efficient hydrogen storage systems requires, however, a detailed
knowledge of how hydrogen diffuses in metals.
Although hydrogen permeation through metals can be studied with electrochemical
methods, these techniques fail for metals where hydrogen diffusion is relatively slow, and
also in cases where metals strongly react with aqueous electrolyte solutions. This is especially problematic for magnesium and magnesium alloys, which are considered the most
attractive materials for hydrogen storage.
We managed to overcome this obstacle, says Tadeusz Zakroczymski, whose team at
IPC PAS has conducted comprehensive research on hydrogen permeation, diffusion, and
uptake in metals for many years.
Electrochemical measurements of the rate of hydrogen permeation through a sample that is usually a membrane separating two independent electrolytic cells shows how

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

hydrogen diffuses through metals. On one side, the membrane is charged with hydrogen produced cathodically in an
aqueous solution. The electrochemical charging is simple
and efficient because a relatively low cathode current density, in the range of miliamperes per cm2, can correspond to
a pressure of gaseous hydrogen in the range of a few tens of
thousands of atmospheres.
Zakroczymskis team constructed a
membrane that allows it to electrochemically insert hydrogen into highly reactive
metals and also to electrochemically detect it. The membrane has a multilayer
structure. The main layer, a structural
basis of the membrane, is made of iron,
which was selected because hydrogen
atoms move exceptionally fast in iron
crystal lattices; their rate of diffusion at
room temperature is comparable to that of
hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.
Therefore, the iron layer has a relatively
small effect on the hydrogen permeation
rate through the entire membrane.
Both sides of the iron membrane are
coated electrochemically with a thin palladium film and then with magnesium
and, for protection purposes, again with
palladium by using PVD methods. Both
elements were deposited in cooperation
with Wen-Ta Tsais laboratory from National Cheng Kung University in Tainan,
Taiwan.
The measured rate of hydrogen permeation through a multilayer membrane
depends on hydrogen diffusion in each
membrane layer. Because hydrogen diffusion in iron and palladium is a well known
process, the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the magnesium layer can be deduced if we know the thickness of each
layer, explains Zakroczymski. For more information: Tadeusz Zakroczymski, tzakroczymski@ichf.edu.pl, www.ichf.edu.pl.

A new membrane with


a multilayer structure
allows, in combination
with appropriate
measurement
techniques, for
electrochemical
studies on the
hydrogen permeation
rate in reactive metals
including magnesium.
Pictured here is
Arkadiusz Gajek from
IPC PAS.

TESCAN, Czech Republic, and Orsay


Physics, France, merged to form TESCANORSAY Holding. Working together since
2007, Orsay Physics is the sole supplier of ion
beam technology to TESCAN. This collaboration contributed to developing the TESCAN
LYRA and VELA gallium FIB-SEM workstations, and the TESCAN FERA, a fully integrated
Xenon plasma FIB-SEM workstation.
www.tescan.com/en,
www.orsayphysics.com.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

11

industry

news
briefs
A research team at University of
California, Berkeley, led by Ali
Javey, associate professor of
electrical engineering and
computer sciences, reportedly
created the first user-interactive
sensor network on flexible plastic.
The new electronic skin, or e-skin,
responds to touch by instantly
lighting up. In addition to giving
robots a finer sense of touch,
researchers believe the new
technology could be used to create
things like wallpapers that double
as touchscreen displays and
dashboard laminates that allow
drivers to adjust electronic controls
with the wave of a hand.
www.berkeley.edu.

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY
Shock waves could lead to new materials

Researchers at Purdue University, West


Lafayette, Ind., are part of a national effort to develop
new materials with exceptional strength and other
properties by using shock waves similar to those generated by meteorites striking the Earth. The team is
led by Steven Son, professor of mechanical engineering, and Weinong Chen, professor of aeronautics
and astronautics and materials engineering. Researchers hope to replicate conditions of a meteor
strike to create materials able to withstand extreme
temperatures and that possess superior strength and
unique electromagnetic properties. The team will
Doctoral student Matthew Beason is
work to validate and calibrate computational models
part of a national effort to develop
new materials created by using
for simulations of this shock-induced synthesis.
shock
waves similar to those
Models may enable researchers to predict structures
generated by meteorites striking the
that could be produced through the synthesis.
Earth. Courtesy of Andrew
Specifically, the team plans to find a new approach
Hancock/Purdue University.
for shock-induced synthesis of cubic boron nitride.
This material has a crystal lattice structure similar to carbon and could potentially exist in
many forms. It is produced by treating hexagonal boron nitride at high pressure and temperature, much as synthetic diamond is produced from graphite. The material must be exposed
to pressures at least 50 greater than that at the bottom of Mariana Trenchabout 11 km
below the ocean surfaceand temperatures hotter than the melting point of iron. For more
information: Weinong Chen, 765/494-1788, wchen@purdue.edu, www.purdue.edu.

Evidence suggests new class of solids

The Department of Energys


Carbon Fiber Technology Facility
operated by Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, Tenn., is accepting
proposals from companies that
want to test low-cost carbon fibers
manufactured at the pilot scale
plant. Pictured here are textilegrade acrylic fibers entering the
first of four oxidation ovens, where
they gradually turn from white to
yellow, auburn, brown, and then
black. Once fully oxidized, the fiber
is ready to run through the highertemperature furnaces, which
convert the oxidized fiber to
carbon fiber. For more information:
Jennifer Palmer,
palmerja@ornl.gov.

A team of researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
Gaithersburg, Md., and Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Ill., reports possible evidence
for a new category of solids, things that are not pure glasses, crystals, or even quasicrystals.
The team analyzed a solid alloy discovered in small discrete patches of a rapidly cooled
mixture of aluminum, iron, and silicon. The material appears to have none of the extended
ordering of atoms found in crystals, which would make it a glass, except that it has a very
defined composition and grows outward from seeds.
The new material, which the research team has provisionally dubbed a q-glass, can be
shown by x-ray diffraction to have neither rotational nor translational symmetry, just like
a glass, says Lyle Levine at NIST. However, the atomic arrangement apparently is not random. The q-glass seems to have a strict chemical composition, according to Levine. Seen
under a microscope, it is clear that, like a crystal, the spherical q-glass regions grow outward from a seed during cooling and exclude atoms that dont fit. Everything behaves like
a crystal, except it isnt, says Levine.
The team used a variety of techniques at Argonnes Advanced Photon Source to rule
out other possibilities. The material might, for example, be a mass of randomly arrayed
crystals so small they dont show up individually under the x-ray probes. But if such crystals were there, they would grow slowly as annealing takes place and that
does not happen.
One exciting possibility is that the q-glass is the first example of a 3Dordered configuration of atoms that possesses neither translational nor rotational symmetry, explains Levine. Such structures have been theorized
by mathematicians, but never before observed in nature. For more information: Lyle Levine, 301/975-6032, lyle.levine@nist.gov, www.nist.gov.
Microstructure of aluminum-iron-silicon mixture. The round nodules are the
q-glass, not crystalline, but with a well-defined chemical composition.
Courtesy of Bendersky/NIST.

12

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

industry

news

We saw it coming: Diamond-coated nanothreads minimize kerf loss

Scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Freiburg, Germany, together with colleagues from the Australian
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization (CSIRO) are developing a saw wire that
will lead to dramatic reductions in kerf loss. In place
of diamond-impregnated steel wires, researchers use
ultrathin and extremely stable threads made of carbon nanotubes coated with diamond. To solve one of
the problems with the new process, IWM scientist
Manuel Mee found a solution to protect the delicate
nanotubes used to grow diamonds.
New ultrathin saw wire for cutting
silicon wafers: Diamond on top of
During our first experiments, fused silica from
carbon nanotubes. Courtesy of
the reaction chamber accidentally came into contact
Fraunhofer IWM.
with the coating plasma. It settled on the substrate
and protected it against the aggressive hydrogen, explains Mee. To his surprise, diamonds
actually grew on this layer. We then had to study the silicon oxide layer, which was deposited in an undefined manner, and find a method of controlling the deposition and optimizing the process.
Tests with a transmission electron microscope at CSIROs lab revealed that the nanotubes survived under their protective layer. If they found a way to use diamond to coat the
nanothreads that the CSIRO specialists make from nanotubes, these diamond-coated
threads could be used to manufacture ultra-thin saws capable of cutting through silicon
wafers. The process requires special carbon nanotube forests, which can be extracted as an
ultrathin felt and twisted into a yarn 10-20 m in diameter. In principle, this diamondcoated yarn is the ideal material on which to base a new generation of saws, which could
be used in the solar industry, for example. Due to their high tensile strength, they can be
manufactured much thinner than steel wires and that means significantly less kerf loss.
www.fraunhofer.de.

Friction bit joining bonds steel and aluminum

A new method from Brigham Young Universitys (BYU) School of Technology, Provo,
Utah, may help achieve the 54.5 mpg average mandated by the EPA for U.S. fleets by 2025.
Manufacturing engineering technology professor Michael Miles found a way to create an
extremely strong bond between lightweight aluminum and ultrahigh-strength steel. Called
friction bit joining, researchers claim it may be the breakthrough the automotive industry
is looking for. The process uses a small, consumable bit to create a solid-state joint between
different metals.
The process successfully bonds lightweight aluminum with cast iron by inserting a thin
layer of steel between the two metals to facilitate bonding. Currently, the automotive industry uses resistance
spot welding to join steel stampings together into a completed body. In recent years, aluminum parts were introduced into vehicle structures using a mechanical
fastening method called self-piercing riveting. While this
approach works to join lower strength steels with aluminum, it is not suitable for joining aluminum to ultrahigh-strength steel. Friction bit joining offers a new
approach. For more information: Michael Miles, 801/4221858, mmiles@byu.edu, www.byu.edu.
Manufacturing systems grad student Lile Squires
bonds metals together with friction bit joining.
Courtesy of BYU.

briefs

Stratasys Ltd., Minneapolis, was


selected by The UPS Store to
provide its 3D printing systems as
part of a test program that will
make it the first U.S. retailer to
offer 3D printing services to
customers. The UPS Store will
install Stratasys uPrint SE Plus 3D
Printers in six test locations,
beginning in San Diego. Following
the test launch, customers will be
able to bring a CAD file to
participating UPS Stores and have
their 3D design printed onsite.
www.stratasys.com,
www.theupsstore.com.
Shiloh Industries Inc., Valley City,
Ohio, acquired Contech Castings,
a provider of high-pressure
aluminum die cast parts for the
automotive industry. The purchase
adds significant capacity to
Shilohs existing high-pressure,
high-vacuum casting capabilities
with the addition of P2000
squeeze casting, ThinTech vacuum
casting, and high-pressure
conventional die casting. Shiloh
provides design, engineering, and
manufacturing of first operation
blanks, engineered welded blanks,
complex stampings, modular
assemblies, and more.
www.shiloh.com.
Element Hitchin, UK, was
selected to participate in
TheBarCode, a major panEuropean research project
co-funded by the European
Commission. Starting this year, the
study will conclude in December
2015 and seeks to advance the
efficiency and cost effectiveness
of power generation in gas turbine
processes. www.element.com.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

13

industry

news
briefs
Ametek Process Instruments,
Pittsburgh, received a contract to
supply ultraviolet process gas
analyzers for the sulfur recovery
units and tail gas treating units at
the Abu Dhabi Gas Development
Companys (Al Hosn Gas) Shah
Gas Field project in the United Arab
Emirates. Ametek was selected
based on its experience in sulfur
recovery operations worldwide and
the field-proven performance of its
analyzers on similar projects in the
region. The project is among the
largest greenfield gas development
endeavors ever undertaken and is
expected to process approximately
one billion bcf/d of sour gas into
0.5 bcf/d of usable gas.
www.ametekpi.com,
www.alhosngas.com.
Corrosion Solutions Conference
2013 (CSC13), hosted by
Allegheny Technologies Inc.
(ATI), Pittsburgh, takes place Sept.
15-18 in San Diego. The
conference features technical
sessions and panel discussions
geared toward materials selection,
fabrication issues, and innovations
in the chemical processing, oil and
gas, and energy industries. CSC13
provides the latest information on
working with various construction
materials, such as stainless steels,
nickel-based and specialty alloys,
titanium, niobium, tantalum, and
zirconium, and will cover a broad
spectrum of corrosive applications
and environments.
www.atimetals.com/
news/corrosion-conference.

ENERGY TRENDS
Super filter cleans up carbon dioxide emissions

Wake Forest University, Ill., along with collaborators at the University of Texas at Dallas were awarded a new Department of Energy grant worth more than $1 million to design
a novel material that could help revolutionize green engineering using a metal organic
framework (MOF)a material scientists can engineer down to the molecular and atomic
scale. Because they are inexpensive and can easily be grown overnight, MOFs hold enormous potential for a new generation of clean engineering, from super-efficient CO2 filters
to helping make hydrogen vehicles a reality.
One challenge with current MOF filters is that while they can trap carbon dioxide emitted when burning a fossil fuel such as coal, they also hold on to water molecules. Once the
water builds up, the filter wont hold on to CO2 anyEngineers at the University of Calimore, according to Timo Thonhauser, physicist at Wake
fornia, Berkeley, developed an inexForest. However, swapping different metals like magnepensive new way to grow thin films
sium, iron, gold, and platinum into a computer simulaof a material prized in the semicontion helps to explore which types of metals work best in
ductor and photovoltaic industries, an
a MOF carbon dioxide filter. In the future, we envision
achievement that could bring highcars that run on hydrogen instead of gas, says Thonend solar cells within reach of consumer pocketbooks. Researchers
hauser. One of the big questions that remains is where
demonstrated that indium phosphide,
to get the hydrogen. Preliminary studies suggest the posa III-V compound, could be grown on
sibility of MOF materials being used to split water into
thin sheets of metal foil in a process
its separate components. For more information: Timo
that is faster and cheaper than tradiThonhauser, 336/758-3991, thonhauser@wfu.edu,
tional methods, yet still comparable
www.wfu.edu.
in opto-electronic characteristics.

Transparent film turns smartphones


into energy harvesters

www.berkeley.edu.

UCLA researchers developed a two-layer, see-through solar film that could be placed
on windows, sunroofs, smartphone displays, and other surfaces to harvest energy from the
sun. The new device is composed of two thin polymer solar cells that collect sunlight and
convert it to power. It is more efficient than previous devices because its two cells absorb
more light than single-layer solar devices. It uses light from a wider portion of the solar
spectrum and also incorporates a layer of novel materials between the two cells to reduce
energy loss, according to researchers.
While a tandem-structure transparent organic photovoltaic (TOPV) device developed
at UCLA in 2012 converts about 4% of the energy it receives from the sun into electric
power, the new tandem devicewhich uses a combination of transparent and semi-transparent cellsachieves a conversion rate of 7.3%.
The tandem polymer solar cells are made of a photoactive plastic. A single-cell device absorbs only about 40% of the infrared light that passes through. The
tandem devicewhich includes a cell
composed of a new infrared-sensitive
polymer developed by the researchers
absorbs up to 80% of infrared light plus
a small amount of visible light. For more
information: Yang Yang, 310/825-4052,
yangy@ucla.edu, http://yylab.seas.ucla.edu.
Photovoltaic cells with energy harvesting
capacity can be processed to be transparent
or in shades ranging from light green to
brown. They could be used to turn building
windows, smartphone screens, car sunroofs,
and other surfaces into sources of
sustainable energy.

14

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

SURFACE ENGINEERING

industry

news

Coatings hide implants from the body

Carmen Scholz of the University of Alabama, Huntsville, has been working on the
customized synthesis of biocompatible polymers that can coat sensors that are then implanted into the body to cloak them from the immune system, referred to as a stealth
character. Recent research proves the in-vitro stability and nontoxicity of thin layers of
customized block copolymers that coat tiny sensors, which were produced by a collaborator group at the University of Technology in Dresden, Germany. After further testing,
coated sensors could be implanted in patients to sense blood glucose, carbon dioxide,
and serum pH levels. The coating uses a multilayer concept that includes a hermetic sealing layer, a chemically inert innermost diffusion barrier for ions and humidity, and a surface layer of amphiphilic block copolymers.
Implanted into a patient beneath the skin, coated sensor data could be monitored wirelessly to control an insulin pump or monitor bodily functions to provide greater information to physicians treating patients with respiratory problems. Because the coatings make
the implants invisible to the immune system, the body does not react to them as invaders
and allows them to function. For more information: Carmen Scholz, 256/824-6188,
scholzc@uah.edu, www.uah.edu.

Enhanced droplet condensation improves heat transfer

Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, developed an approach to improving heat transfer in power plants and cooling systems that they say could
provide a 100% boost in efficiency of heat transfer over conventional systems. The new
system modifies the traditional condensers used to turn steam back into water: A copper
pipe coated with a combination of oil and a hydrophobic material with local hydrophilic
sites exhibits a dense concentration of droplet formation, and quick release of those
droplets before they have a chance to grow large. This leads to greatly enhanced heat transfer and could improve the overall efficiency of power plants.
The innovation combines two properties: A nanopatterned surface, etched with tiny
pillars, reduces contact between droplets and the surface; and a layer of oil coats the surface, helping droplets to form abundantly on the surface and also making it easy for them
to slide off. Because droplets condense right through the thin coating of oil, and end up
being immersed in oil, researchers coined the term immersion condensation to describe
their new system. For more information: Evelyn Wang, 617/324-3311, enwang@mit.edu,
http://drl.mit.edu.

Steel shot blasting machine cleans pipes

The FasterBlaster from RBW Enterprises Inc., Newnan, Ga., is said to be the only machine on the market that can blast clean both vertical and horizontal surfaces and pipes. It
is now available in models that can cover either 16- or 32-in. blast patterns, reportedly saving time, labor, cleanup, wastes, and costs. Both
units are available with a choice of 30 or 60 hp
electric motors. Because the machine is a fully
contained system, no environmental protection
measures are needed at job sites. The system features a flat mat seal that creates a suction cup affect against the wall, roof, or floor surface. The
seal vacuums tightly over weld seals. In addition,
there are zero emissions, making it possible for
paint to be applied simultaneously near the operating machine. www.rbwe.com.
The new FasterBlaster: Shot blasting is now
available in models that can cover 16- or 32-in.
blast patterns. Courtesy of PRNewsFoto/
RBW Enterprises.

briefs
Titan Spine, Mequon, Wis., was
awarded four new patents in 2013
relating to the companys implant
surface technology, as well as the
design of the Endoskeleton
interbody device and specialized
system instrumentation. A
proprietary treatment is applied to
titanium devices producing a
textured surface that creates
optimal surface energy for
enhanced bone production at
fusion sites. Additional aspects of
the Endoskeleton platform
protected by these new patents
include the devices unique shape,
designed to rest on the apophyseal
ring of the vertebral endplate for
strength and stability, and large
windows for increased bone graft
volumes and improved
radiographic visualization and
fusion evaluation.
www.titanspine.com.
NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, Va., joined the
Commonwealth Center for
Advanced Manufacturing
(CCAM), Richmond, Va., as a
government member. The move
creates opportunities for joint
participation in research and
development of new surface
engineering technologies and
manufacturing systems. NASAs
expertise, combined with the
manufacturing capabilities of
CCAM members, will speed the
process of bringing novel
technologies to market sooner.
www.ccam-va.com,
www.nasa.gov/centers/langley.
Chemetall, New Providence, R.I.,
announced the approval of Oxsilan
9810/2 for Federal Specification
TT-C-490, Type IV on abrasive
blasted steel. According to
company sources, this means that
for the first time, there is a viable
replacement for zinc phosphate in
military applications. Oxsilan
9810/2 is phosphorous-free and
does not contain any regulated
heavy metals. The technology is
available in a ready-to-use
formula. www.chemetallus.com.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

15

Integrated Computational
Materials Engineering Helps Successfully
Develop Aerospace Alloys
Jeff Grabowski*
Jason Sebastian*
Greg Olson, FASM*
Aziz Asphahani,
FASM*
Raymond Genellie,
Jr.
QuesTek Innovations
LLC
Evanston, Ill.

ICME methods
prove effective
in shrinking
materials
development
timelines and
accelerating
implementation
of high
performance
alloys in
real-world
applications.

aterials development is often slow


and costly, and out of sync with the
rest of engineering, where design is
aided by computer models and analysis. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering
(ICME) processes are emerging as effective
tools to reconfigure materials development and
accelerate implementation of new alloys into
real-world applications. These new alloys can
be designed much faster and more inexpensively than earlier generations by using ICME
tools, while also meeting specific property targets such as strength, toughness, corrosion resistance, and others.
Property targets are met in the design
stage by specifying and developing precise
chemical composition and processing parameters, using extensive thermodynamic and kinetic databases, ICME computational tools,
materials science, applied mechanics, quantum physics, and advanced properties modeling. In recent years, a number of initiatives
were announced to advance the use of ICME
methodologies. For example, in June 2011, the
Presidents Office created the Materials
Genome Initiative in an effort to discover,
manufacture, and deploy advanced materials
twice as fast and at a fraction of the cost of
previous materials development cycles.
ICME spurs alloy development
One company taking advantage of ICMEs
potential is QuesTek Innovations. The U.S. governments Small Business Innovation Research
(SBIR) program is a significant supporter of the
companys ICME technology, which proves that

*Member of
ASM International

Complex component casting of QuesTek


titanium alloy.

ICME tools can be used to quickly develop and


commercialize advanced alloys and apply them
to demanding real-world applications. The Department of Defense, Department of Energy,
and the National Science Foundation have
awarded QuesTek 48 Phase-I SBIR projects, 18
of which have received follow-up two-year
Phase II funding. Many of these projects are designed to develop entirely new alloys to solve
serious materials-related problems.
In each project, proprietary thermodynamic and kinetic databases that feed into precipitation prediction and microstructural
evolution models are used to adjust chemistry
and thermal processing parameters in order to
predict equilibrium phases and ensuing properties. These models are further fine-tuned over
time through experimentation. The outcome of
this approach is much faster development and
implementation of advanced alloys with improved performance, at a significantly lower
cost than historical methods.
Examples of ICME-designed alloys include:
Castable titanium with properties that
exceed those of wrought Ti-6-4 (produced
using 75% Ti-6-4 scrap stream)
Greater ductility, higher DBTT, and
thermally-stable molybdenum alloy (with
improved performance over TZM)
High strength, high toughness, castable
stainless steel
Aluminum-based sacrificial anode,
developed for the Navy to perform as well
as current foreign-sourced alloys
Beryllium-free Cu-Ni alloy
Co-based alloy for critical bushing
applications
These alloys are in the final stages of being evaluated and are nearing commercialization.
New alloys meet aerospace demands
Other alloys under development include a
high strength stainless steel that can be nitrided,
and a high strength, low-loss, low cost magnetic
core material for traction drive electric vehicle
motors. The most successful ICME-designed
materials developed by QuesTek so far include
four ultrahigh performance steels (Ferrium S53,
Ferrium M54, Ferrium C61, and Ferrium C64),
which were licensed to and produced by Carpenter Technology Corp., Wyomissing, Pa.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

17

Fig. 1 T-38 main landing gear piston, produced from Ferrium S53.

Fig. 3 T-45 hook shank forging, produced from Ferrium M54.

Fig. 2 A-10 main landing gear piston, produced from


Ferrium S53.

Ferrium steels are stronger, tougher, more corrosion


resistant, more temperature resistant, and have other improvements compared to traditional aerospace steels such
as 4340, 300M, 9310, and maraging grades. ICME can be
applied in true engineered products, resulting in exceptional performance. Specifically, Ferrium S53 (AMS 5922)
was designed to meet the strength of currently used ultrahigh strength landing gear steels, but eliminate the use of
toxic cadmium coatings for added corrosion protection.
In 2010, S53 became the first fully computationally designed and qualified alloy to take flight on an aircraft under
a field service evaluation, as the main landing gear piston
of a T-38 aircraft (Fig. 1). After 19 months of service, its
condition was inspected and the conclusion was that cadmium-free (prime and paint only) S53 landing gear performed as well as cadmium-plated, primed, and painted
4340 steel.
S53 landing gear has been used under field service evaluation on an A-10 aircraft since August 2012, where S53 is
being considered to replace 300M and 4340 due to corrosion concerns (Fig. 2). Complex prototype landing gear
have also been forged and manufactured from S53 for the
C-5 and KC-135 platforms as well, where rig testing and
field service evaluation are currently in the planning stages.
Prototype S53 main rotor shafts for Sikorskys MH-60S
helicopter were produced with Navy funding. Primed and
painted S53 components are expected to provide improved
corrosion resistance and longer component life than the
incumbent cadmium-plated 4340.
Notably, it took only eight years to develop S53, produce 10 full scale heats, and receive FAA approval for inclusion in the Metallic Materials Properties Development
and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook to allow its use
in flight and safety-critical applications. The success of
computationally-designed Ferrium S53 is clear, and the potential applications are many, especially where 300M or
18

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

4340 strength levels are needed, but where components


are experiencing corrosion issues.
Ferrium M54 (AMS 6516) is an ultrahigh strength and
ultra-tough steel, which is on target to receive full MMPDS
flight qualification in fall 2013, just five years after the design goals were set by the Navy. It is being considered for
some of the most demanding Navy landing gear applications including tail hooks and hook shanks used to catch
the cable while landing on aircraft carriers, all of which are
exposed to high impacts and high stresses.
Prototype hook shanks made from M54 were produced
for the T-45 platform and a rig test by the Navy is scheduled this summer to replace Hy-Tuf steel. M54 hook points
for the F-18 were also produced and rig testing is slated for
late 2013 with several anticipated benefits over existing
steels (Fig. 3).
High performance carburizable steels
make headway
Two high performance carburizable steels, Ferrium
C61 (AMS 6517) and Ferrium C64 (AMS 6509), are being
designed to outperform current aerospace gearing and
shaft steel 9310 and Pyrowear 53. The Army has funded
projects to apply C61 and C64 steels in next generation
helicopters for some of the most demanding applications
transmission gear boxes and rotor shafts.
Clay Ames, senior aerospace engineer at the U.S. Army
Research Development and Engineering Command of the
Aviation Applied Technology Directorate Power Systems
Division, commented, QuesTeks Ferrium line of high
strength steels have potential to provide a combination of
very high strength and good toughness. This combination
could allow gears and drive trains to be made more lightweight without giving up performance and allow for an increase in power density through the transmission system at
equivalent component weight.
Three prototype C61 forward rotor shafts for the CH47 Chinook are in the final stages of production, and rig testing is planned to start by 2014. With C61s much higher core
strength versus 9310, Boeing engineers have the ability to
either reduce shaft weight by 15-20%, or increase power
through the transmission (Fig. 4).

Bell Helicopters Army-Funded Future Advanced Rotorcraft Drive System (FARDS) program is currently evaluating C64 in transmission
gear boxes to replace Pyrowear 53. Material performance requirements for strength, toughness,
surface hardness, and other parameters that
drove the design of C64 were defined by Bell
several years ago.
QuesTek was also a leading contributor to
the Accelerated Insertion of Materials program, a strategic initiative spearheaded by the
U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency and the Office of Naval Research.
Among the programs many accomplishments
is the ability to predict the minimum design
strength for production scale usage, based solely on three
10-ton heats of Ferrium S53.
Future prospects for ICME
Historically, QuesTek has received roughly 75% of its
research funding from government project work, with the
remainder coming from private industry. Recently, alloy
design and modeling projects for private industry have increased, as companies see the value of ICME methodology,
but lack ICME-experienced personnel, time, and capital to
build an in-house ICME-based team.
Although the early focus was on
aerospace steel, successful alloy development projects for Al, Ti, Ni, Co, Cu,
Nb, Mo, W, and even ceramics and
polymers have also proved useful.
Government projects will be pursued
across all alloy systems, with a focus on
continuous growth in energy, oil and
gas, transportation, healthcare, and
other industries.
Accurate and powerful design
toolsets can now predict strength,
toughness, oxidation resistance, fatigue
life, and fatigue nucleation. Additional
tools are under development to predict
corrosion resistance, weldability, and
other key design concerns.
The past 15 years of integrated computational materials design produced
several novel materials that will impact
industry for decades to come, as both
demand and successful implementation
of innovative, advanced ICME-designed
alloys grows. There is much anticipation
about what the next 15 years of ICME
methodologies could bring.

Fig. 4 C61 Chinook forward rotorshaft undergoing rough machining.

Learn more about ICME

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A


Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security provides a vision for ICME,
a review of case studies and lessons learned, an analysis of technological barriers, and an evaluation of ways
to overcome cultural and organizational challenges to
develop the discipline. The report is published by the
National Academies Press. www.nap.edu.

For more information: Jeff Grabowski is


manager of applications development at
QuesTek Innovations, 1820 Ridge Ave.,
Evanston, IL USA 60201, 847/328-5800,
jgrabowski@questek.com, www.questek.com.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

19

Performance Advances in
Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloys
W. Raymond
Cribb, FASM*
Michael J. Gedeon*
Fritz C. Grensing
Materion Brush Inc.
Mayfield Heights, Ohio

The unique
metallurgy and
microstructure
of Cu-Ni-Sn
alloys offer a
beneficial
combination
of strength,
tribology,
corrosion
resistance,
toughness,
and reliability
for diverse
applications in
the oil and gas,
aerospace,
mechanical
systems, and
electronics
industries.

cientists have known about spinodal


materials for some time, but it was not
until J. Willard Gibbs first identified the
thermodynamic stability associated with spinodal decomposition that ceramic scientists
began to explore their possibilities in the first
half of the 1900s. Researchers continued to explore metallic systems in the latter part of the
20th century, but it was not until the 1960s that
detailed alloy imaging was realized using transmission electron microscopy.
Bell Laboratories exploited Cu-Ni-Sn alloys
in the late 1960s, developing innovations and
patents in the 1970s. However, commercialization of wrought Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy was limited
and eventually abandoned due to hot cracking
during traditional hot rolling or forging. Although powder metallurgy made the system viable in the 1980s for low cross-section products

such as strip and wire, it was not until the early


1990s that casting technology evolved to solve
the hot working problem associated with larger
section product forms. See Table 1.
Materion Brush Inc. achieved a breakthrough in the 1990s after constructing a plant
dedicated to a new casting process to produce
the EquaCast microstructure, followed by extensive development of hot working technology. The company now casts and hot works
sections as large as 24-in. in diameter to produce significant sizes of bar, tube, plate, and
strip, and development of cold worked tempers
of all product forms is emerging.
Materion developed and commercialized
Cu-Ni-Sn alloys using lean sigma methodology and tools. End-user needs were broken
down into project packages and a series of
projects helped to expand the alloy family by

TABLE 1 EVOLUTION OF COPPER NICKEL TIN SPINODAL ALLOYS


1970s

Cast/wrought alloy
inventions
(Bell Laboratories)

1980s

Powder metallurgy small section


(strip, wire)
(Pfizer)

Early 1990s

Casting scale-up
(rod, tube)
(Materion Brush Inc.)

Late 1990s
Early 2000s

Large wrought products


innovations

Cast shapes

Hot worked products


(rod, tube, forgings, plate)

Cold worked products


(strip, wire)

Late 2000s
2010s
*Member of ASM
International

Cold worked products


(rod, tube)

Near-net-shape
castings

Expanded size
ranges

Expanded size ranges,


expanded property
combinations

CX tempers

AT tempers

TS tempers

This article updates the current state of the art regarding Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy manufactured under the tradename
ToughMet 3, which uses vertical continuous casting and molten metal stirring to produce the so-called EquaCast
microstructure. This casting technology enables hot working processes, extending the property combination options
that meet demanding application needs in aerospace bearings, oil and gas exploration components, tribologic parts
for mechanical systems and machinery, and electronic connectors. An article in the June 2006 edition of Advanced
Materials & Processes provides more detail about the metallurgy and utility of ToughMet 3. Selected references
further detail the alloy system.

20

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

further developing and verifying process reliability. Using production material, engineers were able to verify property sets.
Production lots were separated by both time
and dimension to measure within and between variation in the system. These results
were valuable for developing manufacturing
control plans as alloy tempers were commercialized. In addition, this approach helped
significantly when introducing the alloy into
the materials community.
Spinodal alloy metallurgy
Most copper-base alloys derive strength
from solid solution hardening, cold working,
precipitation hardening, or a combination of
these. In the ternary copper-nickel-tin alloys
that include Cu-9Ni-6Sn (ToughMet 2) and
Cu-15Ni-8Sn (ToughMet 3), the high mechanical strength options shown in Table 2 are produced by controlled thermal treatment that
causes spinodal decomposition.
Classic spinodal decomposition takes place
spontaneously and does not require an incubation period. Instead of the typical nucleationand-growth process, spinodal decomposition is

a continuous diffusion process in which the original alloy decomposes into two chemically different phases with identical crystal structures.
Each phase in the spinodally hardened alloy is
on the nanoscale and is continuous throughout
the grains up to the grain boundaries.
Spinodal decomposition in copper-nickeltin alloys triples the yield strength of the base
metal and results from the coherency strains
produced by the uniform and high-numberdensity dispersion of tin-rich perturbations in
the copper matrix. Cold working prior to the
spinodal hardening treatment adds additional
strength and ductility.
Spinodal decomposition hardening only
happens under certain conditionsthe solidstate phase diagram of a spinodal system must
contain a miscibility gap, a region in which the
single phase alloy separates into nanophases.
The alloying elements must also have sufficient
mobility in the parent matrix at the miscibility
gap to allow interdiffusion.
Spinodal heat treatment
Heat treatment steps for spinodal decomposition include:

ToughMet 2 CX
UNS C96900

Cast and
spinodally
hardened

ASTM B505

ToughMet 3 CX
UNS C72900
ToughMet 3 AT

Wrought and
spinodally
hardened

UNS 72900
ToughMet 3 TS
UNS C72900
BrushForm 158
UNS C72700
BrushForm 96

Wrought,
cold worked,
and
spinodally
hardened

90-100 ksi 105-110 ksi


725-760 10-5% HRC
620-690
27-29
MPa
MPa

95-105 ksi 100-110 ksi


690-760 6-4%
655-725
MPa
MPa

HRC
27-30

AMS 4595 (plate), AMS 4596 90-110 ksi 110-135 ksi


(rod and bar), AMS 4598 (tube), 620-760
760-930 15-4% HRC
ASTM B929,
26-32
MPa
MPa
MMPDS-07 (rod, bar, and tube)

Product
forms

K1c fracture
toughness

UNS C96970

Tensile
strength

Hardness

Description

0.2%
Offset
yield
strength

Tensile
elongation

Alloy

Specifications
and MMPDS handbook
appearances

CVN
impact
strength

TABLE 2 PROPERTIES OF COPPER NICKEL TIN SPINODAL ALLOY PRODUCTS

rod, tube,
custom
shape

45-30
ksiin rod, tube,
49-33
plate
MPam
70-40
106-165 ksi
HRB
97ksiin rod, tube,
30-4
ft
lb
18-3%
730-1140
HRC 36 40-5 J 77-44
wire
MPa
MPam
95-205 ksi

strip

655-1415 22-1% HRB 89HRC 38


MPa

AMS 4597 (rod and bar),


MMPDS-07 (rod and bar)

95-150 ksi
655-1035
MPa

ASTM B740

75-200 ksi
515-1380
MPa

ASTM B740

55-140 ksi 90-160 ksi


380-965 620-1105 16-1% HRB 91HRC 45
MPa
MPa

9-4 ft lb
12-5 J

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

strip

21

Homogenization at a temperature above


the miscibility gap to develop a uniform
solid solution of a single phase
Rapid quenching to room temperature to
retain the solid solution state
Reheating to a temperature within the
spinodal region to initiate the reaction,
and holding for sufficient time to
complete the spinodal decomposition
Materions copper-nickel-tin alloys are
spinodally hardened at the mill, eliminating the
need for heat treatment by users. In this prehardened condition, alloys are fully machinable
and offer unique combinations of high strength,
corrosion resistance, and low friction and wear.
Spinodal microstructure
Alloys strengthened by spinodal decomposition develop a characteristic modulated microstructure. Resolution of this fine scale
structure is beyond the range of optical microscopy and is only resolvable by skillful transmission electron microscopy. Alternatively,
satellite reflections around the fundamental
Bragg reflections in x-ray diffraction patterns
can confirm spinodal decomposition in coppernickel-tin and other alloy systems.
Tin-rich zones formed by spinodal decomposition during early heat treatment stages de-

velop an ordered structure in the peak-aged


condition, further enhancing strength. Overaging produces a discontinuous grain boundary
reaction consisting of a pearlitic + phase
mixture that consumes spinodally hardened
grains, leaving behind a soft microstructure
with reduced ductility.
Product evolution
As shown in Table 1, product forms have
become more diverse, and in general, larger
during the 2000s. This stems from growing
market awareness of the property combinations
that can meet field service demands. More
specifically, four major market segmentsoil
and gas, aerospace, mechanical systems, and
electronicshave spurred new product development. See Table 3.
Oil and gasDemands in the exploration
segment of the oil and gas industry traditionally require inherent magnetic transparency,
high strength, resistance to stress corrosion
cracking (SCC), and antifriction characteristics of the system. Further needs for robustness during handling, make up, and in-service
dynamic loading require increased impact
toughness, notch strength, and fracture
toughness. These requirements are being met
by two new tempers with significantly higher

TABLE 3 DESIRED MATERIAL ATTRIBUTES


Market segment

Desired attribute

Influencing material properties

Oil & gas

Resistance to fracture

Oil & gas, aerospace

Fatigue resistance

Electronic connectors

Vibration damping (stiffness)

K1C, CVN impact strength,


notch strength ratio
Fatigue strength, fatigue crack
propagation
Elastic modulus

Oil & gas, aerospace,


mechanical systems,
electronic connectors

Long life/reliability

Oil & gas


Mechanical systems, aerospace
Mechanical systems, aerospace
Mechanical systems, aerospace, oil & gas
Mechanical systems, aerospace,
electronic connectors

Galling resistance
Wear resistance
Heat generation, power loss
Abrasion resistance
Low operating temperature

Oil & gas

Compatibility with other alloys

Oil & gas, electronic connectors

Temperature resistance

Aerospace, mechanical systems, oil & gas

Cracking/spalling resistance
Interference fit stability
Weight/volume control
Resistance to permanent
deformation

Mechanical systems, aerospace


Aerospace
Electronic strip

22

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Fatigue strength, wear


resistance, corrosion resistance,
stress relaxation resistance,
statistical analysis of these
properties
Hardness, elastic modulus
Work hardening rate
Coefficient of friction
Yield strength, ultimate strength
Thermal conductivity,
electrical conductivity
Galvanic potential
Elevated temperature strength,
stress relaxation resistance
Fatigue strength
Stress relaxation resistance
Specific yield strength
Stress relaxation resistance,
yield strength

strength, which provide engineered yield strengths of 95


and 110 ksi and CVNs of 30-60 and 12-20 ft-lb. Along
with significant improvements (20-40%) in notch
strength ratio (NSR) compared to standard hot worked
(110 ksi yield strength) product at a stress intensity factor of about 3.9 and in fracture toughness, these new
tempers fulfill the need for field robustness over traditional hot worked material.
AerospaceSimilarly in aerospace, traditional hot
worked metal with 110 ksi yield strength meets performance needs in landing gear where high compression
strength and resistance to galling and seizing is important.
Back extrusion and other hot working methods are meeting demands for larger diameters of tubular shapes and will
satisfy the need for larger, long-range jet aircraft and intermediate-range commercial aircraft for longer service of
nose and main landing gear.
This effort is also creating growth in components requiring the tribological characteristics of ToughMet. In
addition, the FAA-sponsored Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS)
process and Aerospace Materials Specification (AMS)
have established property design minimums for rod, bar,
tube, and plate for the AT and TS product tempers. Extensive production and testing of these 110 and 150 ksi
yield strength configurations are establishing use of

ToughMet 3 in jet aircraft landing gear systems. Secondary property testing is a part of the MMPDS system, including basic tensile properties, pin bearing,
compression, shear, and selected physical properties, all
having a statistical basis recognized by the FAA.
Spherical bearings for aerospace use require significantly higher strength than those used in other applications due load concentration. To meet this need, a new
temper with 150 ksi yield strength and increased size capability was developed to enable use in landing gear, particularly when operating with gall-sensitive titanium and PH
stainless steels.
Mechanical systemsGround engaging machinery,
mining equipment, and internal combustion engines
are finding success in adapting cast and wrought versions of ToughMet 3 for bushing and bearing applications. As such, these applications are steadily growing.
The need to manage mechanical distortion during fabrication is being met by FEA methods and development of precision machining methods using designed
experiments, tooling engineering, and measurement
technology.
Plate and sheet forms are offered to service sliding
componentry or roll formed bushings and bearings,
along with rod, bar, and tube configurations in both
wrought and cast forms.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

23

ElectronicsCopper beryllium strip has long been the


material of choice for high reliability signal and power connectors and springs due to its unique combination of
strength, formability, and conductivity. Although copper
beryllium can be used safely, alternative materials that do
not contain beryllium are desired.
A natural extension of the ToughMet 3 plate product rolled into strip form satisfies this need. BrushForm 158 is named after its nominal 15% nickel, 8%
tin composition. It has strength, resilience, and formability similar to copper beryllium and can be used
in spring applications where conductivity is not as
important, such as in electromagnetic shielding
gaskets. BrushForm 96 (based on ToughMet 2 composition) may be used for springs requiring additional
conductivity.
ToughMet 3 is available in small-diameter rod and
wire for machined electronic connectors, such as coaxial connectors used in telecommunications base stations and down-hole drilling equipment, as well as
circular connectors used in trucks or military avionics.
Its high strength, inherent resistance to both corrosion
and atmospheric tarnishing, and stress relaxation resistance ensures reliable passage of critical electrical
signals, similar to the performance of traditional copper beryllium alloys.

24

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Current trends
Demand for more mechanically robust products continues in oil and gas exploration markets and the TS tempers are beginning to satisfy this demand.
Environmental pressure is driving producers of performance components away from alloys containing beryllium, in spite of their superior attributes. In response, the
Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy and associated tempers are gaining
wider use.
Strip product forms are building the basis for passive
micro-mechanical products in the electronics industry.
Future prospects
Machining of finished parts in oil and gas, aerospace,
and mechanical systems necessitates a premium for the
components. Additional product forms will be available to
improve yields and minimize costs associated with machining, material handling, and related infrastructure.
Bearings manufactured from strip, rolled into shape,
and potentially welded will reduce the cost of machining
thin-walled bearings out of tube. Alternative additive
manufacturing or net shape processes might be able to
reduce cost and enhance overall competitiveness without sacrificing performance. New property combinationsgenerally higher strength with higher
ductilityare a challenge that will resolve by further de-

velopment, resulting in new tempers and even new alloys.


Reproducibility during the production process is a key
factor in maximizing yield, throughput, and overall product consistency. Continuous improvement using lean
sigma principles will increase consistency to levels in excess of Cpk = 1.
Cu-Ni-Sn spinodal alloys are poised to meet current
and future demands for superior combinations of strength,
tribology, corrosion resistance, toughness, formability/fabricability, optimized size and shape range, and improved
reliability.
For more information: W. Raymond Cribb is director of
technology of Materion Brush Inc., 6070 Parkland Blvd.,
Mayfield Heights, OH 44124, 216/486-4200, raymond.
cribb@materion.com, www.materion.com.
Bibliography
W.L. Bell and G. Thomas, Applications and Recent Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron
Microscopy and Structure of Materials, Vol 1971, p 23-59,
University of California Press, 1972.
W.R. Cribb, Copper Spinodal Alloys for Aerospace, Advanced Materials & Processes, ASM International, June
2006.

W.R. Cribb, Anti-Friction Behavior of Selected CopperBased Bearing Alloys, Brush Wellman, Cleveland,
AT0023/0502.
W.R. Cribb and F.C. Grensing, Mechanical Design Limits for a Wrought Cu-15Ni-8Sn Spinodal Alloy, SAE
AeroTech Congress, Paper 2009-01-3255, Seattle, November 2009.
W.A. Glaeser, Wear Properties of Heavy Loaded Copper-Base Bearing Alloys, JOM, Vol 35, No. 10, p 50-55.
D. Krus and W.R. Cribb, ToughMet Alloy: Improving
Thrust Bearing Performance Through Enhanced Material
Properties, SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress and Exhibition, Paper 2004-01-2675, Chicago, October 2004.
S. Para, Spinodal Transformation Structures, ASM
Handbook, Vol. 9, p 140-43, 2004.
Metallic Materials Properties Database and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook, Chapter 7, MMPDS-07, Federal Aviation Administration, 2012.
J.T. Plewes, Method for Treating Copper-Nickel-Tin
Alloy Compositions and Products Therefrom, U.S. Patent,
No. 3,937,638, February 1976.
J.-C. Zhao and M.R. Notis, Spinodal Decomposition Ordering Transformation and Discontinuous Precipitation in
a Cu-15Ni-8Sn Alloy, Acta Metall., Vol 46, No. 12, p 42034218.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

25

Development of Single Crystal Superalloys:


A Brief History
Anthony F. Giamei,
FASM*
United Technologies
Research Center
(retired)
East Hartford, Conn.

An industry
pioneer shares
a historical
overview of
the early days
of single
crystal
superalloy
development.

*Fellow of ASM
International

he 1960s were exciting times, especially


in the aircraft industry. By late 1966, the
Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofan engine
was a big success in powering the Boeing 707
and the Pratt & Whitney JT8D was in development to power the Boeing 727 and 737. To understand the history of superalloy development,
it is important to first have a basic grasp of a gas
turbine or jet engine.
Figure 1 shows a cutaway of a modern gas
turbine engine. As air flows from front to back,
it passes through the fan, low pressure compressor, high pressure compressor, combustor,
high pressure turbine, and finally the low pressure turbine. The fan, compressor, and turbine
are comprised of several stages. As air moves
through the fan and compressor, pressure gradually increases, and in the turbine, pressure
gradually decreases. As air flows, it alternately
moves through both static parts (stators or
vanes) and rotating parts (blades). Vanes direct
the airflow into the optimum angle for the rotating blades that are attached to discs, which
are in turn attached to a shaft. There may be
two or three concentric shafts. The low pressure turbine is connected by an inner shaft to
the fan and the low pressure compressor, and
the high pressure turbine is connected through
the outer shaft to the high pressure compressor. Most of the air entering the fan goes
around the outside of the engine and is referred
to as bypass air. The various sections are
housed in cases that form the pressure vessel.
The energy source that makes this machine
work is the combustor, consisting of one or
more cans where fuel is mixed with high pressure air and ignited: Hot gas flows into
the turbine where it spins the turbine

Fig. 1 PW 4098 gas turbine engine.


26

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

blades, as in a pinwheel. The fan and the various compressor stages get their power from the
turbines via the shafts. Discs and shafts are
mounted in a bearing structure. Temperatures
and pressures increase inside the compressor
and decrease throughout the turbine as energy
is extracted.
Recall that the overall efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle increases as the maximum
temperature increases. This leads to one of the
primary problems in engine development
how to cope with increased temperature. Generally, the fan is composed of aluminum, the
compressor is titanium based, and the turbine
is nickel based. Nickel alloys are referred to as
superalloys due to their excellent combination
of mechanical properties and environmental
resistance[1]. The combustor exhaust temperature is near or above the melting point of the
nickel alloys as well as the cobalt-based alloys,
which have been used in the combustor or as
first-stage turbine vanes. Early turbines used
alloys such as IN718 and parts were made
from forgings or castings. However, component life was limited by oxidation, corrosion,
strength, creep, and cyclic properties. As engine temperatures continued to rise, three
things had to evolve:
Alloys for high strength and improved
creep resistance
Interior cooling passages
Better coatings
Path to progress
All of these improvements came to pass, especially throughout the 1970s. Alloys were upgraded to IN792, U700, B1900, and Mar-M200.
See Table 1. Phase stability considerations became commonplace, to guard against topolog-

Fig. 2 Grain boundary failure. Under jet engine


operating conditions, failure occurs at crystal
boundaries.

TABLE I NICKEL BASE SUPERALLOY COMPOSITIONS [wt%]


Alloy

Cr

Co

Ti

Al

Zr

Nb

Hf

Mo

Ta

Other

Udimet-700

15.0 15.3

3.4

4.30

0.070

0.016

4.4

IN-718

19.0

0.9

0.60

0.060

3.0

18.0 Fe

IN-792+Hf

12.2

9.0

3.8

4.1

3.50

0.120

0.015

0.100

0.5

1.9

3.9

IN-100

9.5

15.0

4.8

5.50

0.180

0.015

0.060

3.0

1.0 V

B-1900+Hf

8.0

10.0

1.0

6.00

0.110

0.015

0.080

1.2

6.0

4.3

Mar-M200+Hf

9.0

10.0

12.5

2.0

5.00

0.150

0.015

0.050

1.0

2.0

PWA 1480

10.0

5.0

4.0

1.5

5.00

12.0

PWA 1484

5.0

10.0

5.9

5.65

0.1

1.9

8.7

3.0 Re

*Nb+Ta 5.1 wt%

ically close packed (TCP) phases[2]. Cooling passages were


introduced, starting with simple lengthwise holes, then S
shaped internal cavities, larger internal cavities (and the
related thinner walls), pedestals, and other intricate designs. In vanesand later in some bladestiny transverse
holes were introduced to form a thin wall of cool air (from
the compressor) to shield the metal from hot gasses. Hf
was added to suppress solidification cracking[3] in these
thin walled components.
In the early days, castings were only tolerated where
necessary due to a history of cracks associated with casting defects. However, as alloy strength requirements increased, castings were the only choice because high
strength alloys such as MAR-M200 could not be forged.
Yet castings remained troublesome due to shrinkage
porosity and stress rupture originating at grain boundaries (Fig. 2).
Around this time, M.E. (Bud) Shank convinced Pratt &
Whitney that they needed an Advanced Materials Laboratory to meet some of these challenges and he obtained a
funding commitment for about 10 years. He hired Frank
VerSnyder from General Electric. VerSnyder had the idea
that transverse grain boundaries could be eliminated from
turbine blades by a processyet to be perfectedknown as
directional solidification. This was demonstrated in a laboratory environment in copper. Shank and VerSynder hired
Herb Hershenson to develop coatings to provide improved
oxidation resistance. These three men then hired talented
people from technicians to PhDs in areas such as mechanical properties, oxidation and corrosion, processing (wrought
alloys, castings, powder metallurgy), refractory metals, ceramics, chemistry, x-ray diffraction, microscopy, and several other technical areas. Employees were encouraged to
think long term, publish papers, and attend conferences. I
was hired as one experienced with cobalt alloys, phase transformation kinetics, and x-ray diffraction.
As engineers struggled to make directional solidification
a viable production process, the scientific types started
thinking about eliminating all grain boundaries, as in a single crystal. Metallic single crystals were notoriously weak
(recall easy glide), but the materials of interest had coherent precipitates that developed at very high temperatures.
Even so, many challenges were associated with high temperature vacuum casting processes. VerSnyder advised deemphasizing cobalt alloys and instead embracing the

Fig. 3 Trepanned single


crystal ingot showing freckle
trails.
Fig. 4 NH4Cl dendrites,
convection plume, and
fragmentation.

opportunity to improve
processes such as directional
solidification (DS) used to
make columnar grained superalloys and possibly single crystals. Columnar grained alloys
seemed ideal for turbine blades, as the primary stress was
axial due to centrifugal stress from high speed rotation. And
single crystals would address more complex states of stress
associated with ever increasing shape complexity.
Changing course
It was soon discovered that one thorny issue was
freckles, narrow chains of equiaxed grains within an otherwise aligned grain structure. The exact formation mechanism was not understood, although the most credible
theory centered on something changing in the inner mold
surface as the ceramic shell mold was being dewaxed. This
lead to the following action plan:
Check the chemistry and microstructure of the
freckle trails
Determine the thermal conditions during solidification
Look for correlations between mold design variables
and the incidence of freckling
It was discovered that after carefully machining out
freckle trails as shown in Fig. 3, freckles were loaded with
eutectic and all the elements with a distribution coefficient
less than 1, such as Al and Ti. They also exhibited signifiADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

27

cant shrinkage. Next, the processing group needed to instrument a few molds to get cooling curves at known positions. This involved writing a computer program to
reduce the data into thermal gradients, growth rates, cooling rates, mushy zone height, and other variables. Conditions were marginal at best, with the worst part orientation
300
Equiaxed
growth
zone

Unidirectional
dendritic growth
zone

Liquid
tin
cooling

200

100

Withdrawal

Power Down

50

Crystal
grower
7-in. coil

150

Pancake coil

Planar growth zone

Growth rate (cm/hr)

250

Conventional Modified

10

20
30
40
Thermal gradient (C/cm)

50

60

Fig. 5 Parameters associated with various directional solidification


processes.

Conventional
casting

Columnar grain

Single crystal

Fig. 6 Advances in turbine airfoil materials. Three grain


configurations are shown here for the same component.

Grain
nucleation

Competitive
grain growth

Grain
selection/growth

Fig. 7 Critical steps in single crystal formation. Shown here


is a grain selector schematic with spiral (pigtail).
28

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

exhibiting trailing edge (thin) out and root (thick) down.


This provided a strong clue that interface curvature was
playing an important role.
Meanwhile, the team continued to study phase diagrams, effects of trace elements, particle coherency, dislocation configurations, antiphase boundaries, stacking
faults, dislocation dynamics, precipitation chemistry and
kinetics, particle coarsening, interphase partitioning, microsegregation, grain boundaries, carbide chemistry and
morphology, competitive growth, elastic anisotropy, and
other factors. Researchers needed additional expertise, but
it was hard to hire new people in the mid-1970s. The team
argued for several years about having summer students as
interns. One of the students hired was Stan Johnson. He
worked in our group (under Bernard Kear) along with
Steve Copley, a ceramist. Copley was interested in dendrites, so an experiment was designed to solidify a solution
of NH4Cl and water from a liquid nitrogen-cooled copper
chill plate directionally into a quartz cylinder, so that the
process could be filmed by Mert Hornbecker.
Most superalloys have complex chemistries, wide melting ranges, and form dendrites as they solidify; however
NH4Cl was considered to be a reasonable model system.
During a break in the experiment, the liquid nitrogen supply was shut off. After the break, Johnson noticed that the
mushy zone had lengthened due to a reduction in thermal
gradient and jets had formed in the mushy zone. The jets
were throwing out dendrite fragments and this seemed to
have something to do with freckles in superalloys.
Copley was an analysis expert and reasoned that the jets
(plumes, Fig. 4, formed by channel convection) were an outcome of constitutional convection due to a density inversion. The liquid at the bottom of the mushy zone was less
dense than the liquid above. This came about as the rejection
of water away from the NH4Cl dendrites created a lower
density in the interdendritic liquid, which outweighed the
normally higher density contribution due to the lower temperatures deep within the mushy zone. He also reasoned
that the same might be true for superalloys with Al being rejected to the liquid and elements such as W (distribution coefficient >1) segregating toward the dendrites. A literature
search regarding superalloy defects possibly related to segregation revealed many examples of A and V segregates
in nickel alloy ingots. These defects were correlated with
alloy chemistry and poor thermal conditions.
A critical experiment was then devised, attempting to
make Ni-Al and Ni-Ta single crystal castings with the same
atomic percent solute. We predicted defects for the Ni-Al
case and no defects for the Ni-Ta ingot and that is exactly
what happened: The Ni-Al ingot was loaded with equiaxed
grains scattered about and the Ni-Ta ingot appeared to be
flawless. This 25-lb ingot was the largest metal alloy crystal ever grown by man. Presenting these results at a conference resulted in much skepticism because everybody
knew that fluid flow does not occur through a metallic
dendrite field. A water-based system was considered to be
a poor analog due to large differences in density, viscosity,
and other variables.

The team continued to try to improve thermal conditions. Progress was remarkable, as shown in Fig. 5. Freckles were disappearing. Results were published in two
papers[4,5] and designers now had three choices in grain
structure, as shown in Fig. 6. We worked with casting vendors to improve the process and DS yields were soon above
90%. The vendors also continuously improved and developed better core formulations to create the cooling passages. By the next scientific conference, Dr. Fred Weinberg
of the University of British Columbia, Canada, had added
small particles of W to a metallic dendrite field and showed
by radiography that they were indeed moving about. The
results were now accepted by the scientific community.
Superalloys continue making strides
With regard to single crystals, physicists argued that
materials formed from dendrites (rather that planar front
growth) were not true single crystals. This is a fine point.
Superalloy single crystals were actually ideally imperfect crystals, which is to say that the slight substructure
eliminated double diffraction or extinction. In fact, Copley was very interested in elastic anisotropy and wanted to
make a single crystal spring. In analyzing these attempts,
a nearly complete lack of asterism in Laue patterns was
evident. This led to the belief that a helix would make
an ideal single crystal grain selector, as shown in Fig. 7.

This worked and quickly became known as the pigtail.


At times it was hard to convince casting engineers of
the extent to which mold composition and thickness, baffle design, part geometry, part orientation, and process parameters [such as superheat and withdrawal rate] could
influence interface curvature and solidification parameters
such as thermal gradient. One answer was computer simulation. The research team used all the tools available at
the time, including analog, closed form, finite difference,
and finite element analysis[6]. We worked through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to try
to add microstructural predictors as well.
With funding becoming scarce, Maury Gell convinced
the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) to grant a contract to evaluate a directionally solidified eutectic (DSE)
test in a PT6 engine [a small engine used on some helicopters]. It was running very hot at the time and better materials were needed. The test was interrupted part way
through, and it was obvious that the DSE parts were not
going to satisfy the life requirements. Gell convinced
NADC to try single crystals. Our group had made the DSE
parts and was called upon to make a set of PT6 single crystal turbine blades: The engine test ran to completion and
the parts looked great. By 1981, single crystals were being
tried in both military and large commercial engines[7]. The
casting vendors again tweaked the process and casting

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

29

T = 815C

(m)

0.25
0.20

0.15

4Re

0Re

2Re

0.10
0.05

2000

6Re

2
4
6
8
10
Aging time 1/3, hrs 1/2

Fig. 8 Gamma prime coarsening data for


Re modified 1444 Ni alloy.

yields climbed steadily upward. This was


crucial to keeping costs under control.
The single crystal alloys that were developed were simpler because the Zr, C,
and B grain boundary strengtheners were
no longer needed. (A small amount of C is
now used to help reduce sulfur, which can
be detrimental to oxide adhesion, and to
provide a bit of strength to any subboundaries.) Mo was found to be a bad
actor with respect to hot corrosion, so
B1900 was not the preferred choice, although it had great castability. Ta was a
great element all around, as it provided
good strengthening, castability, and oxidation resistance. The alloy developed to
fit the bill was PWA1480. Fortunately, improved coating chemistries and processes
were developed as well.
The Air Force Office of Scientific Research also played a role as the team was
allowed to redirect another contract from
studying fatigue to studying creep, especially to characterize the role of rhenium.
Re had a poor reputation due to an early
PM disc failure. However, in a casting, Re
has a distribution coefficient >1 (like W),
raises the melting point, and should be a
slow diffuser. One of the reasons that cast
superalloys are super is that they contain a high volume fraction of gamma
prime, a fairly coherent precipitate, and
this low diffusivity slows down particle
coarsening. Researchers were able to establish limits for Re additions and document improved creep resistance and
slower coarsening, as shown in Fig. 8[8].
After this work was complete, the
PWA1484 alloy was developed.
All of these developments lead to
greatly improved component and engine
capabilities, as shown in Fig. 9. Thrust increased from 3000 to more than 100,000
lb, while the TBO (time between overhaul) increased from several hundred to
several thousand hours. It all happened
due to a combination of good management, teamwork, some good fortune, and
a can-do attitude.
30

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Metal temperature
capability, F

0.30

1950

Single crystal

1900
1850

PWA 1480
Columnar grain
MM 200 (Hf)
Conventionally
cast

MM 247
MM 247

1800

IN 100 B 1900

1960
1970
1980
1990
Engine incorporation date
Fig. 9 Relationship between materials and
temperature capability.

Future considerations
Despite the advances briefly outlined
here, there is much more work to be done
to further develop this field. Here is a
glimpse of what may lie ahead:
Faster computers will enable faster
model building; widespread use of
computer simulation will include
pour dynamics, improved
microstructural predictors, as well
as stress state and strain fields
More accurate multicomponent
phase diagrams
Better life prediction
Improved inspection methods
Better molds and cores
Improved repair methods
More complete recycling for Ta, Re,
Cr, Hf, and others
Right-sized automated casting
facilities
In addition, as Integrated Computational Materials Engineering tools become more widespread, they could have
a noticeable impact on alloy development
timelines.
For more information: Anthony F. Giamei, (retired) principal scientist, United
Technologies Research Center, agiamei@
comcast.net.
References
1. Superalloys II, C.T. Sims, N.S. Stoloff, and
W.C. Hagel (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, N.J.,
1987.
2. W.J. Boesch and J.S. Slaney, Metal
Progress, 86:109-111, 1964.
3. J.E. Doherty, B.H. Kear, and A.F. Giamei,
J. of Metals, 23:59-62, 1971.
4. A.F. Giamei and B.H. Kear, Met. Trans.,
1:2185-2192, 1970.
5. S.M. Copley, A.F. Giamei, S.M. Johnson,
and M.R. Hornbecker, Met. Trans., 1:21932204, 1970.
6. T.K. Pratt, F. Landis, and A.F. Giamei,
ASME Publication No. 80-HT-34, 1980.
7. Superalloys, J.K. Tien (ed.), ASM International, p 205-214, 1980.
8. A.F. Giamei and D.L. Anton, Met. Trans.
A, 16A:1997-2005, 1985.

Materials Science & Technology


2013 Conference & Exhibition
Montral, Qubec, Canada, hosts
the 100th Annual Meeting of
ASM International, part of
Materials Science & Technology 2013
(MS&T13), on October 27-31 at the
Montral Convention Centre
(Palais des congrs de Montral).

he MS&T partnership of ACerS, AIST,


ASM, MetSoc, and TMS brings together scientists, engineers, students,
suppliers, and others to discuss current research and technical applications, and to
shape the future of materials science and technology. NACE International will co-sponsor
MS&T13. Take part in this global forum of
information exchange.

March Bonsecours is a two-story domed public


market. For more than 100 years, it was the main
public market in the Montral area. Courtesy of
www.old.montreal.qc.ca, le photographe masqu.

PLENARY SESSION

The MS&T Plenary Session will be held on October 28 from 8:00 to 10:20 a.m. in
room 517. A Q&A session will be held immediately after the presentations.
Hypersonic Flight: The Final Frontier of Aeronautics
Kevin G. Bowcutt, senior technical fellow, chief scientist of hypersonics, The Boeing Co.
This presentation addresses key technical aspects and challenges of hypersonic vehicle design, and summarizes progress made in maturing technologies critical to the
successful development of practical hypersonic systems. The successful X-51A and Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HIFiRE) flight test programs will be highlighted. The presentation concludes with a vision for a hypersonic
space and global transportation system.
Materials in Turbine Engine Environments
Tresa M. Pollock, ALCOA Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara
The design and performance of new aircraft engines, power generation plants, and
rocket propulsion systems are often limited by turbine materials. For individual components, a spectrum of failure modes may occur and challenges in developing monolithic materials as well as hybrid combinations of materials that satisfy a wide range of
property constraints will be discussed. Computational and experimental tools that enhance the discovery, design, and deployment of new materials for turbine environments
will be discussed.
The Co-Design of Experiment and Theory at the Mesoscale:
A MaRIE Perspective
John Sarrao, associate director for theory, simulation, and computation,
Los Alamos National Laboratory
MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes) is Los Alamos National Laboratorys facility concept for addressing decadal challenges in materials, especially in
extreme environments, through a focus on predicting and controlling materials microstructure. MaRIE will be an international user facility and enable unprecedented
in-situ, transient measurements of real mesoscale materials in relevant extremes,
especially dynamic loading and irradiation extremes. Recent experience in attempting to pursue this vision of prediction and control will form a central element of the
presentation.
32

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

LECTURES
AND SPECIAL EVENTS
Sunday, October 27
ACerS Frontiers of Science and Society:
Rustum Roy Lecture 5:00 6:00 p.m.
Larry Hench, Florida Institute of
Technology, Affordable Healthcare? Role of
Bio-Ceramic Technology, Socio-Economic,
and Ethical Issues
Welcome reception: 6:00 7:30 p.m.
100th Anniversary Gala
5:00 9:30 p.m.
The celebration features a cocktail
reception, gala jubilee dinner, Presidents
Reception (by invitation only), distinguished
awards ceremony, historical tributes,
keynote speaker, live entertainment,
mementos, and much more.
Monday, October 28
ASM/TMS Distinguished Lecture
1:00 2:00 p.m.
Tresa M. Pollock, University of California,
Santa Barbara, Flight in the 21st Century:
The Role of Materials and ICME
ASM Alpha Sigma Mu Lecture
2:30 4:00 p.m.
David B. Williams, The Ohio State
University, Reflections on Microscopy &
Analysis: From Viewing the Small World to
Leading on a Larger Stage
ASM Leadership Awards Luncheon
11:30 a.m. 1:00 p.m.
ASMs organizational unit awards as well as
awards and scholarships of the ASM
Materials Education Foundation will be
presented. ASMs incoming Committee/
Council chairs will also be recognized for
their leadership. ASM Committee and
Council members meeting during MS&T,
and awardees, will receive an invitation to
attend.
ASM 100th Annual Business Meeting
4:00 5:00 p.m.
Officers will be elected for the 2013-2014
term and other ASM business will be
transacted. ASM members and guests are
welcome.
Women in Materials Science and
Engineering Reception 5:30 6:30 p.m.
Enjoy the chance to network with
professionals and peers in a relaxed
environment.
Continued

EXHIBITOR LIST
Booth
1504
800
1117
1307
1000
1006
1007
1100
1115
1104
1105
1116
1311
1510
1419
1312
911
1304
1001
T13
1407
1411
1406
904
1214
701
1205
T16
1418
1024
T18
1013
1211
801
1119
906
1022
1316
1414
1303
1305
1701
1011
923
1026
1400

Company
Accutek Testing Laboratory
Across International LLC
Activation Laboratories Ltd.
(ACT Labs)
AdValue Technology LLC
Agilent Technologies
Air Liquide Canada
Aldrich Materials Science
Alfa Aesar, a Johnson Mathey
Co.
Alfred University
Allied High Tech Products Inc.
American Stress Technologies
Inc.
Angstrom Scientific Inc.
Applied Test Systems Inc.
Ashland Inc.
Blasch Precision Ceramics
Brim G&H Fluid Handling
Products Inc.
Buehler
Carbolite
Carl Zeiss Microscopy LLC
Carpenter Technology Corp.
Centorr Vacuum Industries Inc.
Clemex Technologies
CM Furnaces Inc.
CMD Network
CompuTherm LLC
CSM Instruments Inc.
Delong America Inc.
Dispersion Technology Inc.
Edax Inc.
EDFAS Society
Euraxess Links North America
Evans Analytical Group
FEI Company
GEA Westfalia Separator
Goodfellow Cambridge Limited
Granta Design
Heat Treating Society
Hitachi High Technologies
America Inc.
Hockmeyer Equipment Corp.
Horiba Scientific
Hoskin Scientifique LTEE
Hunan Premco Ltd.
Hysitron Inc.
IMS Metallographic Contest
Display
International Metallographic
Society
IMR Test Labs

Booth
1317
1101
1507
1201
917
900
1207
1319
1500
919
1118
1110
807
1200
1210
1219
1217
1511
1310
1005
T12
1301
1107
707
1313
1410
903
1506
1501
1206
1023
700
T17
901
1111
1018
1517
1102
1019
1300
1025
1204
907
1122
1114
1401
1016
806
1202
1701

Company
INNOVNANO S.A.
JEOL USA Inc.
Keyence Canada Inc.
LECO Corp.
Maney Publishing
Metal Samples Co.
Metcut Research Inc.
Micro Materials
Micromeritics Instrument
Corp.
Momentum Press
MTI Corp.
MTS Systems Corp.
NANOVEA
Netzsch Instruments North
America LLC
NIST
Ocean Optics
Olympus Canada Inc.
OSIsoft Canada ULC
Oxford Instruments
PANalytical
Photon Etc.
Proto Manufacturing
PTX-Pentronix/Simac Ltd.
Pultrusion Technique Inc.
Quinn Process Equipment Co.
Rigaku Americas Corp.
Romquest Technologies
RPS Composites Inc.
Saudi Aramco
Sente Software Ltd.
Shape Memory & Superelastic
Tech. Society
Springer
SSAB
Strem Chemicals Inc.
Struers Inc.
Surface Combustion Inc.
Swiss Pavilion
TA Instruments
TEC
Tescan USA
Thermal Spray Society
Thermcraft Inc.
Thermo-Calc Software
TSI Inc.
UES Inc.
Union Process Inc.
University of California, Davis
Watson Valve Services Inc.
Wiley
Zhuzhou Kori Convertors Ltd.

Exhibitor list current as of 8/14/13

EXHIBITION DATES AND TIMES


Palais des congrs de Montral | Hall A-G

Tuesday, October 29
Show hours: 11 a.m. 6 p.m.
Lunch: 12:00 2:00 p.m.
Poster session: 2:00 6:00 p.m.
Happy hour reception:
4:00 6:00 p.m.
*Times are subject to change

Wednesday, October 30
Show hours: 9 a.m. 2 p.m.
Poster session: 9:30 10:30 a.m.
Lunch: 12:00 2:00 p.m.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

33

LECTURES
AND SPECIAL EVENTS
Tuesday, October 29
ASM Edward DeMille Campbell
Memorial Lecture 12:45 1:45 p.m.
Enrique J. Lavernia, FASM, University of
California, Davis, Stress-induced Grain
Growth in Ultra-fine Grained Materials
MS&T Young Professionals Reception
4:30 6:00 p.m.
Attend this reception to meet and network
with fellow young professionals.
MS&T13 Exhibit Happy Hour Reception
4:00 6:00 p.m.
Network with colleagues and build
relationships with qualified attendees,
buyers, and prospects.
ASM Awards Dinner and Presidents
Reception 7:15 11:30 p.m.
Come celebrate the wonderful
accomplishments of this years award
recipients and the 2013 Class of Fellows.
Tickets, which include the Presidents
Reception following the dinner, can be
purchased via the registration form.

EDUCATION SHORT COURSES


Saturday, October 26
Fundamentals of Glass Science and Technology 9:00 a.m. 4:30 p.m.
Instructor: Arun K. Varshneya, Saxon Glass Technologies, Alfred University
This course covers basic glass science and technology in order to broaden or
improve the understanding of glass as a material of choice. Topics include glass
science (commercial glass families, glassy state, nucleation and crystallization,
phase separation, glass structure); glass technology; batch calculations; glass
melting and glass forming; glass properties and engineering principles; and
elementary fracture analysis. This course is also offered on Sunday, October 27,
from 9:00 a.m. 2:30 p.m.
Sunday, October 27
Energy Management in the Materials Industry 8:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m.
Instructor: Cynthia Belt, Energy Management Consultant
This course is directed toward energy managers, engineers, supervisors, and
managers working in the materials industry who want to reduce their energy
usage. The training is meant to explain both general energy management
methods and those areas specific to the metals and materials industry.
A Practical Introduction to Modern Cold Gas Dynamic Spray
(cold spray) 8:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m.
Instructor: Dr. Julio Villafuerte, Wally Birtch, CenterLine
This course allows attendees to understand the science and practical benefits
of cold gas dynamic spraying (cold spray) technology for protecting and
enhancing surfaces of industrial products. Students will be exposed to current
commercial applications and cold spray equipment available in the
marketplace.
*Metallography for Failure Analysis 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Instructor: Frauke Hogue, Hogue Metallography
This class is designed for anybody involved in failure analysis of metallic
materials. The focus is on practical techniques for documentation, cleaning,
and sample preparation. Replication, making large mounts, grinding to specific
locations, and results of different etchants will be discussed.

Montral skyline from Mount Royal. Courtesy of


Tourisme Montral, Stphan Poulin.
Biosphre,
Environment
Museum.
Courtesy of
Tourisme
Montral.

Montral
Convention
Centre (Palais
des congrs de
Montral).
Courtesy of
Marc Cramer.

34

*Thermal Spray for Oil and Gas Industries 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Instructor: Andre McDonald, University of Alberta
Given the special needs of the oil and gas sector for wear and corrosion
resistant coatings with high longevity, the certification process and validation
of the coatings produced by those examining them needs to be different from
other industries. Therefore, this course will include training and testing
information that applies specifically to the oil and gas sector.
Corrosion Prevention and Maintenance Reliability in Hydrometallurgical
Plants 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Organizer: Wilson Pascheto, Xstrata
This course provides an overview of corrosion issues in hydrometallurgical
operations. Expert speakers from academia and industry will cover the
following topics: Corrosion fundamentals, corrosion prevention methods, case
histories of failures of hydrometallurgical plant equipment, and failure
prevention through engineering specifications and maintenance practices.
Managing Technical and Financial Risk in a New Technology Project
Environment 8:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Organizer: Mark Kennedy, ProVal Partners S.A.
This course reviews the past performance of major mining and metallurgical
projects. Students will learn to identify root causes of risk in mining and
metallurgical projects, particularly those with a high component of new
technologies. Standard project management techniques will be reviewed and
specific methods to identify and manage risks in new technology projects will
be introduced.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Simulation Techniques for Process Energy Modeling


Doing it Yourself with Excel 1:30 5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Arthur E. Morris, Thermart Software
This entry-level course uses simulation-based techniques to
prepare energy balance calculations in the production,
utilization, conservation, and conversion of materials during
processing. The emphasis is on simulation techniques based
on practical examples and relies extensively on the use of
Microsoft Excel and Excel-based tools for the balance calculations.
Thursday, October 31
*Additive Manufacturing 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Instructor: Howard Kuhn, The Ex One Company
This educational seminar reviews the transition of rapid
prototyping processes and materials to a full spectrum of
additive manufacturing (AM) processes over the past 25 years.
Examples are given of complex parts and customized shapes
that illustrate nearly unlimited flexibility in shapemaking and
property distributions within those shapes. Hybrid processes
are described in which AM is used to facilitate traditional
processes, such as machining, sand casting and investment casting.
*The Fundamentals of Aluminum Alloys 8:00 a.m. 4:00 p.m.
Instructor: Kevin Anderson, Mercury Marine
Aluminum is a widely used metal that is playing an
increasingly dominant role in the green economy. Aluminums
high strength-to-weight ratio, low cost, recyclability, and other
positive attributes are some of the reasons that aluminum is
being adopted as a material of choice by weight conscious
component engineers. Technical literature is provided as a
valuable resource. Students are encouraged to bring
questions and real-world problems to class for discussion and
resolution.
Electroceramics Basics: Applications and Devices
8:30 a.m. 5:30 p.m.
Instructor: R.K. Pandey, Texas State University
Electroceramics have become an integral part of modern
microelectronics because of advancements made in the past
decade and the advent of multifunctional oxides, multiferroics,
spintronics, radhard electronics, bioelectronics, detectors and
sensors, and other technologies. The objective is to review the
current state of knowledge in this field and emphasize
practical applications, potentials for inventions, and prospects
for commercialization.
Sintering of Ceramics 8:30 a.m. 5:30 p.m.
Instructor: Mohamed N. Rahaman, Missouri University of
Science and Technology
This course reviews sintering basics: Characterization of
sintering; driving forces; diffusion and defect chemistry;
solid-state and viscous sintering; microstructure development
and control; liquid-phase sintering; special topics; effect of
homogeneities on sintering; constrained sintering of
composites, adherent thin films, and multilayers; solid
solution additives (dopants); reaction sintering; viscous
sintering with crystallization; and sintering practice.
The course is also offered on Friday, November 1, from
8:30 a.m. 4:30 p.m.
* Indicates an ASM education class
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

35

Celebrating ASMs First 100 Years


in Supporting Materials Innovation
A

s we celebrate the 100-year anniversary of ASM International (1913-2013), we look at the many notable advancements in materials and
processes technology that occurred along the way. ASM has played a significant role in this by providing a forum for bringing together
engineers, scientists, and practitioners to exchange information on these advancements, and by disseminating information about them to
the engineering community in general. The society, which began in 1913 as the Steel Treaters Club, also went through several changes over
the years to its present ASM International. In each issue of AM&P in 2013, we are highlighting in 10-year increments significant advancements
in technology, as well as advancements in the society.

The ASM Thermal Spray


Society is launched at the
National Thermal Spray
Conference in June.

Dr. Allen G. Gray


(1915-1994)
Gray was the editor of
Metal Progress from
1958 to 1972, publisher
from 1972 to 1981, and
ASM Technical Director
from 1974 to 1983. A
Ph.D. metallurgist, he
worked on the Manhattan
Project during World War
II and on the Savannah
River Atomic Energy
Plant after the war. He
served as an advisor to
the Atomic Energy
Commission for 15 years,
and wrote the section on
alloy steels for the
Encyclopedia Britannica.

1994
The ASM Heat Treating
Society is formed, making its
debut at the Heat Treating
Conference in October.

ASM News is incorporated into


Advanced Materials &
Processes for the first time.

36

Cobalt-Chromium-Iron ternary
phase diagram, one of thousands
published in the 10-volume
Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase
Diagrams. The project is the
culmination of a massive six-year
effort by editors Alan Prince (left),
Pierre Villars, and Hiroaki Okamoto.

1995

1996

Renovated training center at Materials


Park. More than a dozen companies
donate $1.7 million in equipment and
services to build a state-of-the-art
laboratory and classrooms for the
Materials Engineering Institute.

1997

ASM enters
the Internet
age with
AccessASM
online at
www.
asm-intl.org.

First issue of Heat Treating


Progress, the official voice of
the Heat Treating Society. It is
published every other month
as part of Advanced Materials
& Processes.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

1998
The Electronic Device
Failure Analysis Society
becomes an Affiliate
Society of ASM.

Induction
heating of a
test gear for a
Gear
Research
Institute
project to
characterize
the results of
nine induction
heating
approaches.
An article in
the August
issue of Heat
Treating
Progress
reports the
findings.

Ed Langer (left) retires


in December after 11
years as Managing
Director, and Dr.
Michael J. DeHaemer
becomes ASMs
fourth director.

First four volumes of


ASM Handbooks are
available on a
compact disc. The
CD-ROM does not
contain any scanned
images, says Dr.
William W. Scott, Jr.,
associate managing
director. Every word
and phrase is live and
searchable.

ASM introduces free online access


to the Metals Handbook Desk
Edition and Engineered Materials
Handbook Desk Edition as a new
member benefit. The entire 20volume set of ASM Handbooks is
available online at an affordable
price. All are easy to search via
click-and-go navigation.
Materials Camp debuts
ASM celebrates the beginning
of the third millennium by
holding its first Materials
Camp. For five days in
August, 30 high school
students from the U.S.
and Canada experience
the excitement of
experimenting with
materials in the
renovated training center.

ASM introduces the Alloy Data


Center, a searchable online version
of ASMs collection of hundreds of
alloy data sheets.

ASM Managing Director


Stanley Theobald
ASM Managing Director Michael J.
DeHaemer steps down after five
years. Stanley Theobald, executive
director at SAE International, is
named as the new Managing
Director. Theobald had served as
associate managing director of
ASM from 1990 to 1996.

The Center for Heat Treating


Excellence opens as part of
the Metal Processing Institute
at Worcester Polytechnic
Institute in Massachusetts.
Executive Director is Diran
Apelian, FASM, who is still
executive director in 2013.


1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

SR-71 Blackbird
ASM celebrates the Centennial of Flight by presenting
the 2003 AeroMat Conference in Dayton, Ohio, home
of the Wright Brothers. Advanced Materials &
Processes features a significant aircraft each month.
The SR-71 Blackbird, whose structural weight was
93% titanium, first flew in 1964. It was a long-range
strategic reconnaissance aircraft that could fly more
than 2200 mph at an altitude of 85,000 ft.

Eisenman Memorial Garden


The Eisenman Memorial Garden is rebuilt after
40 years. It contains 60 specimens of mineral
ores and more than 70 varieties of perennials,
shrubs, and flowering trees. The central
fountain is replaced by a titanium-copperstainless steel water sculpture called ASM
Singularity, shown here. ASM founder William
Eisenman is honored in a separate area with a
plaque featuring his image and Daniel
Burnhams famous quote that begins,
Make no little plans

McIntyre Louthan
becomes editor
of ASMs new
publication,
Practical Failure
Analysis. After
two years, the
name is changed
to Journal of
Failure Analysis
and Prevention.
Mac remains
editor for 11
years, during
which time the
journal becomes
an international
success.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

37

SEPTEMBER 2013 VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

INDUCTION
HARDENING OF
CRANK/CAMSHAFTS
PAGE 17

ACTIVE SCREEN
PLASMA NITRIDING
PAGE 24

hts.asminternational.org

SEPTEMBER 2013 VOLUME 1 ISSUE 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
10 HEAT TREAT 2013 EXHIBITOR SHOWCASE

The exhibit hall at the 27th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and
Exposition in Indianapolis will be packed with quality company displays.
A few exhibitors are highlighted.

13 ICME TOOLS CAN HELP CONTROL


GEAR DISTORTION FROM HEAT TREATING
Junsheng Wang, Xuming Su, Mei Li, Ronald Lucas and William Dowling

17 LOW-DISTORTION, HIGH-QUALITY
INDUCTION HARDENING OF CRANKSHAFTS
AND CAMSHAFTS
Gary Doyon, Valery Rudnev, and John Maher

20 MODELING DISTORTION
AND RESIDUAL STRESSES OF
AN INDUCTION HARDENED TRUCK AXLE

Zhichao (Charlie) Li, B. Lynn Ferguson, Valentin Nemkov, Robert Goldstein,


John Jackowski, and Greg Fett

EDITOR Frances Richards


CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Ed Kubel
ART DIRECTOR Barbara L. Brody
PRODUCTION MANAGER Joanne Miller
NATIONAL SALES MANAGER
Erik Klingerman
Materials Park, Ohio
tel: 440/338-5151, ext. 5574
fax: 440/338-8542
erik.klingerman@asminternational.org

24 ACTIVE SCREEN PLASMA NITRIDING


H.-J. Spies, H. Biermann, I. Burlacov, and K. Brner

DEPARTMENTS

4 EDITORIAL
4 HEAT TREATING SOCIETY NEWS
8 CHTE UPDATE

Editorial Opportunities for HTPro in 2014


The editorial focus for HTPro in 2014 reflects some key technology areas
wherein opportunities exist to lower manufacturing and processing costs, reduce energy consumption, and improve performance of heat treated components through continual research and development.
March
June
September
November

ABOUT THE COVER: Induction hardening of


triple-lobe cast iron cams. Courtesy of
Inductoheat Inc. www.inductoheat.com.

Energy Conservation/Combustion Control/ Heating


Process Control
Surface Engineering
Atmosphere/Vacuum Heat Treating

To contribute an article to one of these issues, please contact Frances Richards


at frances.richards@asminternational.org. To advertise, please contact Erik
Klingerman at erik.klingerman@asminternational.org.

HEAT TREATING SOCIETY


EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
Thomas E. Clements, President
Terrence D. Brown,
Immediate Past President
Roger Alan Jones, Vice President
Randall S. Barnes, Executive Director
HTPro is published quarterly by ASM International,
9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073; tel: 440/3385151; www.asminternational.org. Vol. 1, No. 1. Copyright
2013 by ASM International. All rights reserved.
The acceptance and publication of manuscripts in HTPro
does not imply that the editors or ASM International
accept, approve, or endorse the data, opinions, and conclusions of the authors. Although manuscripts published
in HTPro are intended to have archival significance, authors data and interpretations are frequently insufficient
to be directly translatable to specific design, production,
testing, or performance applications without independent examination and verification of their applicability
and suitability by professionally qualified personnel.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

45

HTPRO

New Supplement to Serve HTS Members


ts a bittersweet time for me, as I prepare to transition to my next role with the ASM Heat Treating Society (HTS). That new role is Past President, and while Im happy to turn over the reins to Roger Jones
of Solar Atmospheres, Im also sad to see my term as President come to a close.
Weve done some really great things in HTS over the past two years, and one of the most notable is
the release of the first print issue of HTPro in Advanced Materials & Processes magazine, a copy of
which you are holding in your hands right now. Let me share the back history on this. After many
years, Heat Treating Progress ceased publication in 2009 after the economic downturn and decisions
based on what was best for the Heat Treating Society. We entered into a relationship with Industrial Heating magazine to continue to provide our members with Heat Treating Society updates via the HTS Insider, and we enjoyed
that partnership into 2013.

Where is Vision 2020 in 2013?

In 1999, the ASM Heat Treating Society Research


& Development Committee created its Research & Development Plan, an implementation plan to achieve the high-priority research
initiatives needed to accomplish Vision 2020
a vision of what heat treating would look like
in the year 2020. Vision 2020 describes the
changes in both the structure of the industry
and in heat treating processes required to reduce energy consumption, operating costs,
and environmental impact by the year 2020.
The 1999 R&D Plan identifies needs in three
areas: Equipment and Hardware Materials,
Processes and Heat Treated Materials, and Energy and Environment. In 2006, the R&D Committee reviewed each area, identifying
research completed or underway by industry,
labs, and universities that directly or partially
addressed various initiatives.
We are now operating in a different environment than we were at the last update of Vision 2020. A further update to show the
progress in achieving objectives requires identifying completed and ongoing research and
emerging technologies that address Vision
2020 goals. The Committee has taken on this
task with a plan to prepare and publish an
update on research progress, both to establish where we are now and to provide a
framework for action to drive future research
activities. The information will be included in
updated initiatives and will also be shared in
several overview articles to be published by
the ASM Heat Treating Society in the newly
launched HTPro quarterly magazine supplement. These overviews will help structure a
framework for action to promote future research activities to achieve Vision 2020.
If you would like to contribute to this endeavor,
you can provide information on completed and
ongoing heat-treating related research at your
organization. Please include the project name
with a brief description of objective(s), results,
benefits to heat treaters, and any supporting
graphics. Send your material to Ed Kubel at
ed.kubel@asminternational.org.

46

Our continued focus on generating quality technical content and the demand for print advertising with HTS, combined with an opportunity to join
our efforts with ASMs Advanced Materials & Processes magazine, resulted
in the launch of the HTPro print publication, a quarterly supplement to
AM&P, and the hard copy cousin of our HTPro eNewsletter. By putting ourselves in the ASM flagship print vehicle, we are expanding our audience
within the ASM family and adding to the overall content growth strategy of
ASMs position as Everything Material.
As I come to the end of my term as HTS President, I want to thank all the
committed men and women of our organization who devote their time and
talents to the development of their professional society. You are the heart of
HTS and your efforts are appreciated. To those of you who have not volunteered with HTS or ASM, I encourage you to consider doing so. Volunteering makes you a better professional; it broadens your understanding of our
industry and enhances your professional and personal networks, improving
you in ways you never dreamed of.
I look forward to seeing you at the HTS Conference and Exposition in
Indianapolis.

Thomas E. Clements
President, Heat Treating Society

Heat Treating Society Announces Creation of the


ASM HTS/Surface Combustion Emerging Leader Award

The ASM HTS/Surface Combustion Emerging Leader Award was established in 2013 to recognize an outstanding early-to-midcareer heat treating professional whose accomplishments exhibit exceptional achievements in the heat treating industry. The award was created in
recognition of Surface Combustions 100-year anniversary in 2015. The award acknowledges
an individual who sets the highest standards for HTS participation and inspires others around
him/her to dedicate themselves to the advancement and promotion of vacuum and atmosphere heat treating technologies. Rules for submitting nominations:
Candidates must be submitted by an ASM International member.
Nominations should clearly state the nominees impact on the industry and/or service and
dedication to the future of the HTS. Three support letters should be included with the
nomination.
Nominees must be 40 years of age or younger, and employed full time in the heat treating
industry for a minimum of five (5) years.
The award shall be presented to one (1) recipient every two (2) years at the General Membership Meeting at the HTS Conference and Exposition. Winner receives a plaque and $4000 cash
award funded by Surface Combustion.
For rules and nomination form for the ASM HTS/Surface Combustion Emerging Leader Award, visit
the Heat Treating Society Community Web site at http://hts.asminternational.org and click on Membership & Networking and HT Awards. For additional information or to submit a nomination, contact Sarina Pastoric at 440/338-5151, ext. 5513, or sarina.pastoric@asminternational.org.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

HTS Names New Board Members for 2014

Roger A. Jones is corporate president of Solar Atmospheres Inc., Souderton, Pa. After graduating
from Hocking Technical College, he joined ABAR
Corp. in 1975. In 1978, he joined Vacuum Furnace
Systems Corp., founded by his father William R.
Jones, FASM. In 1983, he helped found Solar Atmospheres Inc., serving as vice president, became president in 1993, and became corporate president in
2001. He has been a member of the Metal Treating
Institute since 1983, serving on the Board of Trustees
(19982004, and 2009present), and as president
(20042005). Roger has been a member of ASM
Philadelphia Liberty Bell Chapter since 1983, and
chapter president (19931994). He was chair of the
ASM Heat Treating Society (HTS) Immediate Needs
Committee and the HTS Education Committee,
served on the Nominating Committee for two separate terms, and is a member of the HTS Technology
& Programming Committee. He was elected to the
HTS Board in 2005.
Steven G. Kowalski is president of Kowalski Heat
Treating Co., Cleveland, assuming the position in1997
for the second-generation family business. He earned
his B.S. degree in business administration from Miami
University in 1984. Kowalski is a member of the Metal
Treating Institute and was a founding member of the
ASM Heat Treating Society. He served on the Heat
Treating Society Board from 20032010, served as
chair of the HTS Membership Committee from
20062013, and also served as chair of the ASM
Membership Committee from 20122013. Kowalski
served on many non-profit boards working to enhance private and public partnerships. He has also
worked with local, state, and national employment organizations to develop and implement training programs to enhance worker retention rates. Steve has
published several papers on furnace systems controls,

HTPRO

The HTS Awards and Nominating Committee named


new board members including Steve Kowalski to serve
as vice president for the
20132015 term; Stephen
Mashl, James Oakes, and
Jin Xia, to serve on the HTS
Jones
Kowalski
Board for the 20132016
term; Aaron Birt to serve as student board member
for the 20132014 term; and Jeff Sigelko to serve as
young professional board member for the 20132014
term. Terms begin September 1, 2013. Leaving the
board are Terrence Brown (past president), Subi
Dinda (member), John Keough (member), Mike
Schneider (member), Benjamin Bernard (young
professional board member), and Charles Hartwig
(student board member). Thomas Clements becomes past president, and Roger Jones becomes president on September 1, 2013.

5
Mashl

Oakes

Xia

Birt

high-pressure gas quenching, and government financing of business development.


Stephen J. Mashl is research professor at Michigan
Technological University, Houghton, and heads ZMet Inc., a materials consulting company. He also
worked for Ames Laboratory (Iowa), the U.S. Naval
Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.), and Bodycote (Mass.). Stephen is currently chairman of the
International HIP Committee and was program
chair of HIP 08. He is past president of the Advanced Particulate Materials Association, past member of the MPIF Board of Governors, and was
technical co-chair of PowderMet 2009. He also
served as Bodycote representative in the Center for
Heat Treating Excellence (CHTE) at WPI. He authored more than 50 publications including the
chapter on HIP of metal castings in the 2008 ASM
Metals Handbook. Mashl is an active member of
ASM International, the ASM Heat Treating Society,
TMS, APMI, EPMA, and MPIF.
Jim Oakes is vice president of business development
for Super Systems Inc. (SSi), Cincinnati. Since joining SSi in 2005, Jim has overseen marketing, helped
develop product innovation strategies, and drives
SSis commitment to quality and continuous improvement in the companys heat treating-related
products. Prior to joining SSi, Jim worked at Oracle
Corp., Redwood City, Calif., helping organizations
leverage technology to become more competitive
and improve processes with enterprise software solutions. Jim is on the board of the Metal Treating Institute and is a member of several committees
focused on bringing value back to the members. He
has been involved with ASM International for many
years at the local chapter level, and contributed to
the revised ASM Handbook on Heat Treating.
Dr. Jin Xia is Chief Materials Engineer for The
Timken Co., Americas, Canton, Ohio. He earned his
B. Eng. degree in materials science and metallurgical
engineering from University of Chongqing, China,
in 1982; his Ph.D. in materials science and metallurgical engineering from cole Polytechnique de Montral; and his MBA from Universit de Paris
Dauphine, France, and Universit du Qubec Montral in 2003. Prior to joining Timken, he was an investigator at Analyse et Prvention de Dfaillance
Ltd. in Montreal (19891991); project manager and

Sigelko

The new
board will
begin its
term on
September 1,
2013.

HTS/Bodycote
Student Paper
Contest

Student papers are


being solicited for
the ASM HTS/
Bodycote Best
Paper in Heat
Treating Contest.
The award is
endowed by
Bodycote Thermal
Process-North
America. The
winner receives a
plaque and a check
for $2500. Paper
submission
deadline is
December 13,
2013. To view rules
for eligibility and
paper submission,
visit http://hts.
asminternational.
org/portal/site/
hts/HTS_Awards.
Submissions should
be sent to: Sarina
Pastoric, ASM Heat
Treating Society,
9639 Kinsman Rd.,
Materials Park, OH
44073;
440/338-5151 ext.
5513;
sarina.pastoric@
asminternational.
org.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

47

HTPRO
6

5th International
Conference on
Thermal Process
Modeling and
Computer
Simulation

(co-located with
AeroMat)
June 1618, 2013
Gaylord Palms Resort
& Convention Center
Orlando, Fla.
Abstract submission
deadline is November
11, 2013. To submit
an abstract, or for
conference details,
visit www.
asminternational.
org/modeling.

metallurgical dept. manager at Exceltor Inc., Canada


(19921994); and heat treat supervisor, quality manager, and manager of engineering and new product
development at Torrington Co., Bedford, Mass.
(19942003). He joined Timken in 2003 as chief materials engineer for China, assuming his current position in 2009.
Aaron M. Birt earned his B.S. degree in mechanical engineering at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., in
2012, and is pursuing a M.S. degree in materials
science at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI),
Mass. His research involves creating a process control model for laser-assisted cold spray, and enhancing the process with an in-situ heat treating
laser. He is a member of the Venture Forum and is
chair of WPIs Material Advantage Chapter.
Jeff Sigelko graduated from Michigan State University, East Lansing, with a B.S. degree in materials sci-

ence and engineering in 1999. During his undergraduate years, Jeff had several papers published on leadfree soldering research conducted under the
direction of Prof. K.N. Subramanian, including one
published in Advanced Materials & Processes in
March 2000. Jeff joined American Axle & Manufacturing (AAM), Detroit, in 2000, working in the Corporate Materials Lab, and as a process metallurgist
for induction hardening and conventional gas carburizing in the driveline division. While at the company, he received his M.S. degree in materials science
and engineering from Wayne State University, Detroit, in 2003. Jeff currently is metallurgy leader for
MSP Industries Corp. (an AAM owned company),
Leonard, Mich.
Continuing board members include Timothy De
Hennis, William Disler, Bill Flower, Robert Goldstein, Richard Howell, and Christopher Klaren.

Hubbard Receives 2013 George Bodeen


Heat Treating Achievement Award

Mr. John D. Hubbard, CEO (retired), Bodycote plc, headquartered in Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK, is the recipient of the 2013 George H. Bodeen Heat Treating Achievement Award.
Established in 1996, this award recognizes distinguished and significant contributions to the field of heat
treating through leadership, management, or engineering development of substantial commercial impact.
Hubbard is recognized for a lifetime of devotion to and advancement of heat treating by transforming
numerous small localized commercial heat treat providers into a network of knowledgeable and technologically strong heat treating facilities to meet the needs of the worldwide manufacturing community.

Hubbard worked nights at Warner & Swasey while earning a B.S. degree in metallurgical engineering at
Cleveland State University. After graduating in 1970, he was appointed metallurgical engineer and promoted
to manager of heat treating departments for six facilities. He received his MBA from Cleveland State in 1973 and
was a part-time adjunct professor for Business Ethics and Statistics at the university. He and a partner founded
Furnace Services and Furnace Controls in Cleveland in 1973, and sold the companies in 1976. He joined Hinderliter Heat Treating Inc., North American Heat Treating Group in 1976 as general manager, and became
2013 HTS/Bodycote Best Paper
president in 1983. Bodycote plc acquired the company
in Heat Treating Award
in 1996 and Hubbard became president of Bodycotes
The winner of the 2013 HTS/Bodycote Best Paper in Heat
North American Thermal Processing Div. In 2002, he
Treating Award is entitled, Localized Surface Modificabecame CEO of Bodycote plc, growing the company
tion on 1018 Low Carbon Steel by Electrolytic Plasma
from 479m (~$745m) and 5700 employees to 730m
Process and its Impact on Corrosion Behavior, by (pri(~$1.1b)and 11,000 employees in more than 300 facilmary author) Dr. Jiandong Liang, who recently received
ities in 32 countries when he retired.
his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Louisiana
State University, Baton Rouge. The award will be preHubbard was on the Board of Trustees for the Metal
sented at the HTS General Membership Meeting on
Treating Institute (19831986 and 19942002), and
Tuesday, September 17, at the ASM Heat Treating Soci- Winner of the
HTS/Bodycote
was MTI president (20002001). He was a founding
ety Conference and Exposition in Indianapolis.
2013 Best
member of CHTE, was on the Heat Treating Society
Paper in Heat
Board
of Directors (19942000) and HTS president
The ASM Heat Treating Society established the Best Treating
(20002001), and received the ASM Distinguished
Award, Dr.
Paper in Heat Treating Award in 1997 to recognize a Jiandong
Life Member Award in 2005.
paper that represents advancement in heat treating Liang.
technology, promotes heat treating in a substantial
The award will be presented at the HTS General
way, or represents a clear advancement in managing the business of
Membership Meeting on Tuesday, September 17, at
heat treating. The award includes a plaque and $2500 cash prize enthe ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and Exdowed by Bodycote Thermal Process-North America.
position in Indianapolis.
48

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

The Center for Heat Treating Excellence Joins Industry


with Academia to Address Critical Research Needs

HTPRO

While research and discovery are necessary


for innovation, not all segments of the industry are able to keep pace. To bridge this
gap, industry leaders working together with
university researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institutes (WPI) Center for Heat Treating
Excellence (CHTE) are solving business challenges and improving manufacturing
processes. Projects are aimed at reducing
cycle times, increasing furnace efficiency,
enhancing heat treating process control, improving surface treating processes, and increasing energy savings, efficiency, and
conservation in heat treating operations.

Since its launch in 2000, CHTE continues to


provide a forum for the heat treating industry to pool its resources and engage in collaborative and innovative research to
advance the industry. Members include leaders from both industry and academia, and
by joining forces, CHTE created an organization of unsurpassed technical expertise and
results-oriented networking.
Collaborative Research
CHTE industry members collaborate with WPI
faculty and students on research projects
targeted at solving real-world problems by
selecting projects that meet their most demanding business needs. Projects focus on
high-priority issues including: Surface engineering (carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding); Improvements in furnace fixtures
and alloy service life; Cycle time reduction;
Energy efficiency and savings; Nondestructive examination; Gas quenching; Induction
tempering; Quality control; Control of distortion and residual stress; and Solutionizing
and aging of aluminum alloys.
A few of the Centers recent projects include:
Nondestructive Testing
for Surface Hardness and Case Depth
The heat treating industry requires accurate,
rapid, and nondestructive techniques to
measure the surface hardness and case depth
on carburized steels for process verification
and control. The objective of the present study
is to identify, develop, and verify nondestructive techniques that overcome the limitations
of current measurement methods.
Carbonitriding Fundamentals, Modeling,
and Process Optimization
CHTE collaborators are working to model the

CHTE members often work together to


achieve concrete business results. As an
example, Thermatool, a producer of pipe
and bar harden and temper lines, asked
CHTE researchers to model applications
of its Precision Slot Quench Ring. The application is a critical heat treating
method for the industrial bearing and
specialty steel company of CHTE member Timken Co. Thermatool was able to
show, through the simulation modeling
and technical knowledge of CHTE, that
its product could meet Timkens needs.
CHTE provided an avenue of communication between the companies that allowed them to perform trusted
independent analysis with everyones
best interests in mind, resulting in a
win-win proposition for all parties.

CHTE tested and modeled


Thermatools precision slot quench
ring to achieve winning results.

process and determine boundary conditions


for carbon and nitrogen absorption, and diffusion coefficients of carbon and nitrogen in
steel during the carbonitriding process.
Nitriding Fundamentals, Modeling,
and Process Optimization
Gas nitriding often suffers from poor performance reliability, limiting its application. To help
achieve reliable performance, CHTE researchers are building an effective model to
simulate gas nitriding of steels, based on the
fundamental understanding of thermodynamics and kinetics.
Gas and Vacuum Carburizing
To save businesses time and money, CHTE researchers are optimizing industrial carburizing process parameters by developing
effective gas and vacuum carburizing models
through a simulation program called CarbTool,
which calculates the carbon concentration
profile during the processes.

Induction Tempering
CHTE collaborators are developing a fundamental understanding of the induction tempering process, including the effects of
induction process parameters of power (kW)
and frequency (kHz) on the microstructure
and properties of the induction tempered
part. A comparison of the microstructures,
residual stress distribution, and mechanical
properties (hardness, impact toughness, and
torsional properties) of induction tempered
steels with furnace tempered steels is also
underway.

High Pressure Gas Quenching


CHTE is actively working to develop a standard
method (procedure and device) for evaluating
material hardenability for gas quenching,
which involves slower cooling rates than are
encountered in oil and water quenching. Researchers are also developing a standard
method to characterize the cooling in a given
gas quench system.
Heat Treating Energy Use and Reduction
Energy costs are a major concern for the heat
treating industry, so collaborators use the U.S.
Department of Energys PHAST software to
identify energy losses in a variety of furnaces
and recommend methods for conservation.
Results-Oriented Networking
CHTE members include leaders from commercial and captive heat treaters, suppliers,
and manufacturers. Membership offers the
opportunity to network and share ideas and
knowledge on common problems and issues.
Industry members include: Air Liquide, Air
Products, ALD, ASM International, Bluewater,
Caterpillar, Chrysler, Cummins, Deformation
Control Technology, GKN Sinter Metals,
Harley-Davidson, John Deere, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Sikorsky, Praxair, Sousa
Corp., Spirol, Surface Combustion, Thermatool, Thermo-Calc Software, Timken Co., and
others.
Unsurpassed Technical Knowledge
and Expertise
CHTE is supported by WPI one of the top engineering universities in the world. The CHTE
team consists of research experts in surface
treating, process modeling, heat and mass
transfer, solidification processing, aluminum
alloy development, computer-aided fixture design, and degradation phenomena.

CHTE makes it easy to tap into a pipeline of invaluable knowledge and a far-reaching network of excellent
people with countless years of heat treating experience. Alexander Brune, Sikorsky Aircraft
For more information about CHTE and its member services, visit www.wpi.edu/+chte.
50

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

HTPRO

Can-Eng Furnaces International Ltd.

2013

EXHIBITOR SHOWCASE

10

The exhibit hall at the 27th ASM Heat Treating Society

Conference and Exposition in Indianapolis will


be packed with quality company displays.
A few key exhibitors are highlighted here. Visit them on
September 17 (9:00 a.m. 6 00 p.m.) and 18
(9 a.m. 5:00 p.m.) at the Indiana Convention Center.
Be sure to attend the Networking Reception
5:00 p.m. 6: 00 p.m. on Tuesday night.

AFC-Holcroft

Offering thermal processing solutions to meet the increasing demand for flexible, scalable heat treatment systems with consistent,
repeatable metallurgical results.
Our featured UBQ (Universal Batch Quench) system is capable of running a variety of metallurgical processes; whether a single unit or as a
complete, fully-automated cell integrated with
companion equipment. With its compact, modular design, additional cells can be added for maximum production flexibility.
When high volume production is needed, our
classic pusher-style furnace offers continuous
throughput under protective gas atmosphere. Many of
the largest manufacturers worldwide rely exclusively on AFC-Holcroft pusher furnaces for maximum control and economy.
With offices on 3 continents
and partners worldwide, AFC-Holcroft stands ready to help you meet your specific heat treatment
needs. ISO 9001:2008 certified. www.AFC-Holcroft.com

Established in 1964, CAN-ENG Furnaces International Limited is a


leading designer and manufacturer of thermal processing equipment for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Whether manufacturing
a simple, manually controlled furnace or a turnkey
automated system, CAN-ENG
focuses on the development
of high volume batch and
continuous industrial furnaces for challenging applications. CAN-ENG leads
improvements and changes
in the industry with its Research and Development
programs. Its R&D has three
areas of focus: developing new technology, developing new
processes and improving and optimizing existing technology. CANENGs strength is the ability to custom engineer a furnace for any
customer requirement. CAN-ENG is an ISO 9001:2008 certified company. www.can-eng.com

Booth 1817

Dry Coolers Inc.

Solanus Quench Oil Cooler


Dry Coolers of Oxford, Michigan, leads the heat treat industry
with the design of fluid cooling systems. Dry Coolers is introducing its new global
standard
Solanus
Quench Oil Cooler.
The Solanus features
include removable coverplates for ease of cleaning, direct drive low-noise
fans, and non-plugging
large diameter finned
tubes. Dry Coolers manufactures and designs
cooling systems for vacuum furnaces, atmosphere furnaces, induction systems, and salt baths. Whether an
air-cooled, evaporative, or chilled fluid cooling
system is needed, Dry Coolers has the coolest solution!
www.drycoolers.com

Booth 1723

BeaverMatic Inc.

Jack Beavers began a determined journey toward furnace innovation with simplified yet sophisticated equipment designs 50
years ago. From our past successes and solid installation base,
BeaverMatic remains steadfastly focused
on its core competency to build simplified
yet dependable performance-proven
equipment. Today, BeaverMatic is a
family-owned manufacturer of custom,
standard, batch and continuous
atmosphere heat-treating equipment.
Best known for the Internal Quench
Furnace with Beaver Ram transfer
system, BeaverMatics product line
includes temper furnaces, washers,
endothermic gas generators, box
furnaces, pit furnaces, continuous
pushers, carbottom furnaces, and tip up
furnaces. Come visit us in booth 2016 where we will feature the
various Internal Quench Furnace configurations that we have available. www.beavermatic.com

Booth 2016
52

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Booth 1710

GeoCorp Inc.

GeoCorp Inc. is a manufacturer of thermocouples and thermocouple wire. GeoCorp keeps an extensive inventory so thermocouple and thermocouple wire lead-times are DAYS NOT WEEKS to ship.
We can even inventory your products at our plant through our blanket order system so the product is ready to ship the same day. All
thermocouples and thermocouple wire meets Boeing BAC 5621 K,
AMS 2750 Rev.E, CQI-9 and P10TF3 requirements. GeoCorp can offer
thermocouples and thermocouple wire with a maximum temperature tolerance of +/- 2F or 0.2%, whichever is greater. We have an
on-site ISO 17025:2005 accredited calibration lab that provides temperature certification for thermocouples and thermocouple wire.
www.geocorpinc.com

Booth 1706

Induction Tooling Inc.

Kureha America Inc.

Kureha has the solution for you! Specializing in carbon and


graphite fiber products, whether you need stock boards or custom
machined parts for your high temperature applications, Kureha can
handle it. With production sites located in Japan, China, and the
U.S., Kureha Carbon Products Division has the capacity and variety
of products to meet your carbon and graphite fiber needs. Our
Kreca Felt, Kreca RGS, or Kreca FR materials will be the right choice
to insure your heat stays where it should. Contact us today.
www.kureha.com.

Booth 1728

Inductoheat Inc.

Inductoheat Inc. will again be attending the ASM Heat Treating


Society Conference and Exposition September 16th through 18th. We
encourage everyone to take advantage of this opportunity to view
our latest advancements in induction heating technology. Inductoheat Inc. will be located at booth #1701 and our Team is looking forward to walking you through our exhibit and introducing you to our
new IFP (Independent Frequency & Power) power supply.
For more information about our induction heating, heat treating and
forging equipment, please visit our website, www.Inductoheat.com.

HTPRO

Induction Tooling Inc. has received ISO/IEC 17025 Accreditation for


Mechanical Testing. Since our core business is the design, fabrication and repair of heat treat inductors
and associated tooling, it made
sense to integrate our induction and
metallurgical laboratories. The induction laboratory is a valuable extension of our services, allowing us
the ability to not only design and
fabricate high quality inductors, but
also characterize them on-site. The
Metallurgical Laboratory will record
process parameters for production
and formally validate the results in
a format that can be submitted directly
to the end customer. We recognize a significant reduction in the
time required to get inductors from design and into production. Additionally, ITI will provide testing services to the general heat treating industry. www.inductiontooling.com

11

Booth 1744

Surface Combustion Inc.

Diverse Thermal-Processing Equipment


Surface Combustion has excelled at applying original technology and broad thermal
processing abilities to new and
unique material processing challenges since 1915.
Whether its enhancing past or
existing technologies to the latest
requirements, or innovating new
and exciting technologies through
extensive research efforts, Surface continues to work with our customers in providing them the best in high
performing and reliable equipment
to meet all of their needs.
Our designs address a diverse
field of applications with high-tech
automated furnace lines,including
batch, continuous, vacuum carburizing and vacuum tempering
equipment. www.surfacecombustion.com

Booth 1701

Ipsen Inc.

How will you build yours?


Ipsen believes that innovation drives excellence, and we definitely believe that such excellence should be rewarded. So show
Ipsen your innovative excellence and visit Ipsens booth, #1529, to
build your paper airplane for a
chance to win an iPad and other
great prizes. Chat with Ipsen experts
while you construct your aerodynamic masterpiece.
But the innovation doesnt have to
stop there!
Share your heat treating story with
Ipsen and find out how you can construct your dream facility and get the process results you want
most with our dependable and durable Ipsen technology. Our dedicated research and development team - Team Innovation - is constantly pushing the boundary of possibilities and dreaming of a
future of thermal processing excellence.
So come show us what youve got and well show you what
weve got! www.IpsenUSA.com

Booth 1529

Booth 1601

United Process Controls

United Process Controls provides process control, flow control,


and automation solutions to furnace OEMs and customers with
thermal processing equipment and operations. Products range from
probes, analyzers, flow meters, programmable controllers, generator and gas mixing control systems, SCADA to complete turnkey
systems.
The company is comprised of four brands - Furnace Control Corp,
Marathon Monitors, Process-Electronic, and Waukee Engineering.
www.unitedprocesscontrols.com

Booth 1823
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

53

HTPRO

ICME TOOLS CAN HELP CONTROL


GEAR DISTORTION FROM HEAT TREATING

INTEGRATED COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS ENGINEERING TOOLS ENABLE ACCURATE SIMULATION


OF GEAR HEAT TREATMENT TO PREDICT PHASE TRANSFORMATION KINETICS AND DISTORTION.

13

Junsheng Wang, Xuming Su, and Mei Li


Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Lab, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich.
Ronald Lucas and William Dowling*
Powertrain Manufacturing Engineering, Ford Motor Co., Livonia, Mich.
Most gears used in industrial applications
are carburized and quenched to meet
surface and core hardness and overall
fatigue strength requirements. Low
pressure vacuum carburizing (LPC) combined with high pressure gas quenching (HPGQ) offers the opportunity to
minimize environmental impact, eliminate oxidation and surface decarburization, accurately control case depth and
core hardness, and produce consistent
microstructure, and thus, fatigue performance from batch to batch.
LPC/HPGQ has the potential to minimize distortion by controlling such parameters as gas flow velocity, operating
pressure, chamber geometry, and fixture
materials. A time-efficient, cost-effective
way to optimize those parameters is to
integrate various computational tools
such as computational fluid dynamics
(CFD), finite element analysis (FEA), and
microstructure modeling to perform numerical tests for specific type of gears.
This article discusses the development of
an integrated computational materials
engineering (ICME) tool and its practical
application in product development.
Manufacturing challenges
Increasing demand for vehicle fuel effi-

ciency has led to weight reduction of


transmission components, and transmission gears of thinner cross section
are more sensitive to distortion during
manufacture[1-2]. Transmission gears
have very tight dimensional tolerances
to meet durability, as well as noise,
vibration, and harshness (NVH)
requirements. This creates processing
challenges from machining through
heat treating. Along with the effects of
residual stresses from machining, distortion is caused by nonuniform plastic deformation due to thermal and
phase-transformation stresses during
heat treatment. Parts that do not meet
quality control specifications may require additional grinding and other
corrective measures to meet dimensional tolerances, which significantly
increases costs.
Low pressure carburizing combined
with high pressure gas quenching produces less distortion compared with
other heat treating methods[3-4]. It consists of vacuum carburization at an
austenitizing temperature of ~930C followed by high pressure nitrogen gas
quenching at 120 bar (Fig. 1a). Acetylene is supplied at low pressure in sev-

eral boost intervals, because its decomposition is catalyzed by iron atoms at the
gear surface, providing high carbon potentials for diffusion into the austenitic
structure[5]. After achieving the desired
0.31.0 mm carburized case depth, the
workload is transported into the
quenching chamber where controlled
cooling using high pressure, turbulent
nitrogen gas flow produces the desired
microstructure[6]. Surface and core hardness, as well as properties such as fatigue
strength, wear resistance, and pitting
corrosion resistance are determined by
the microstructural constituents resulting from different cooling rates and carbon profile[6].
For example, a straight quench at constant pressure and velocity leads to a
large temperature difference between
the gear surface and core, introducing
nonuniform thermal and martensitetransformation stresses, which can
cause distortion as shown in Fig. 1b.
Stop quench, dynamic quenching, and
reversing quenching are recent developments[1-5] used to control cooling rate
(and thus phase transformation) in three
steps: (1) high quench severity prior to
martensite phase transformation to

*Member of ASM International


(b)

27C

Temperature

C2H2 2C + H2

N2 flow
Heating

Austenite

Carburizing

Diffusion

N2 + acetylene
boost

N2 flow

High pressure
120 bar
~870C
Pearlite
~400C

Bainite

Ms
Quenching

Pearlite
T

Step quench
P, v constant

Tcore

Bainite

Ms
Tsurface

Time

(c)

Straight quench
P, v = constant
Tcore

Temperature

~930C, low pressure <20 mbar

Time

Temperature

(a)

Pearlite
Tsurf.

Bainite

Ms
T 0
Time

Fig. 1 (a) LPC and HPGQ heat treating process and schematics of (b) straight quench and (c) step quench.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

55

HTPRO

Carburizing temperature vs. time


Martensite
Carbon potential vs. time
Nucleation &
distribution
growth kinetics:
Carbon
Carbon
V0 (phase, C,)
content
diffusion
a (phase, C,)
analysis
b (phase, C,)
C (x, y, z)
c (phase, C,)
C(x, y, z, t),
T(x, y, z, t)
C(x, y, z, t)
Phase transforCFD
mat
ion
analysis
analysis T(x, y, z, t)
fi

14

Mechanical properties:
f (phase, T, )
E (phase, C,)
CTE (phase, C,)
transformation (phase)
Mechanical
analysis

Thermodynamics:
(phase, C, T)
Ms (C,)
CP (phase, C, T)
(phase, C, T)
TTT (C,)
N2 (T)
Hardness
Temperature
L (dT(x, y, z)/dt) distribution
Displacement 100
distribution
Fig. 2 ICME-GearHT is a suite of integrated computational materials engineering (ICME)
tools to predict quantitative processing-structure-property relationships for gear heat
treatment.

avoid pearlite formation, (2) temperature equalization in each part, and (3)
fast cooling to generate martensite for
surface and core hardening (Fig. 1c).
The prediction of heat transfer in combination with the phase-transformation
process during HPGQ has become increasingly important as more attention
is paid to optimizing the quenching
process to minimize distortion[8-10]. The
need for CAE tools that can predict the
conjugate heat transfer during high
pressure gas quenching and couple it
with phase transformation distortion
analysis led to the development of
ICME-GearHT.
Computational tool development
The ICME-GearHT tool enables accurate simulation of the transmission gear
heat-treatment process, predicts phase
transformation kinetics and distortion,
and provides cost-effective, time-efficient evaluation of new equipment designs. These will ensure high quality
product launch and help achieve a firsttime-through manufacturing vision
(Fig. 2). This was accomplished by gaining a clear understanding of the fundamentals of carburizing, conjugate heat
transfer, phase transformation, and micromechanics during the gear heat
treatment process; and integration with
the most advanced models in different
disciplines[8-10] and related leading industrial experimental validations.
ICME-GearHT analysis is broken down
into four parts: carburization, CFD,
phase transformation, and mechanical
analysis. Figure 2 shows the data requirements and how the analyses are coupled.
Each analysis starts from diffusion-based
carburization at high temperature using
56

carbon potentials and diffusivities measured from experiments. The Abaqus


(Dassault Systmes) FEA model calculates the kinetic process of carbon diffusing into austenitic interstitial sites, which
expands the lattice, and introduces a carbon gradient into the gear. The resulting
nodal carbon concentrations serve as
input to the subsequent high pressuregas quench analysis. Transient heat transfer is calculated using the Fluent (Ansys
Inc.) CFD model, in which the latent heat
of phase transformation is implemented
as a subroutine. Carbon concentration
(from FEA) and temperature values
(from CFD) are fed into the DANTE (Deformation Control Technology Inc.) microstructure model. Finally, the coupled
Abaqus CAE and DANTE database performs structural analysis for mechanical
properties of each phase. As shown experimentally by previous authors[1-4], surface carbon concentration has little effect
on gear distortion. Temperature and
phase evolution at different locations/orientations control thermally and transformation-induced plasticity.
Model validation
The following example case illustrates
thermal model validation and compares
predicted and experimental results. Because different cooling rates result in
different volume fractions of martensite,
nonuniform cooling rate on a single gear
results in nonuniform distribution of
martensite in the gear (Fig. 2). Martensite transformation causes a 25% volume increase[11] depending on the
composition and releases about 3.1 108
J/m3 latent heat[12], which complicates
the temperature profile of each gear.
Therefore, it is important to include
transformation kinetics in modeling the
transient temperature history of gears

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

during quenching[12]. However, commercial CFD codes are intrinsically unable to accurately predict the thermal
history of the gear quenching process
due to the lack of a phase-transformation model. We implemented a subroutine in the commercial Fluent CFD code
to take the latent heat effect due to
phase transformation into account.
Model validation is accomplished using
experimentally measured temperature
data (Fig. 3 I-a) at 40 and 100% fan
speeds. Figure 3 I-b shows that higher
cooling velocity results in higher heattransfer coefficient. The predicted thermal profile captures the effect of latent
heat release, agreeing well with experiments for different gear orientations (Fig.
3 I-c). Temperature uniformity during
HPGQ is critical for improving process
performance to minimize distortion and
maximize gear service life. Therefore, the
ICME-GearHT model was used to evaluate properties of furnace-fixture materials, chamber configurations, and parts
loading in the furnace.
Experimental validations
New kinetic parameters were developed
for 5130 alloy steel, which is widely used
for transmission gears. Kinetic parameters in the phase transformation models
were determined using an optimization
approach that matches model predictions
with experimental measurements. The
parameters were implemented into the
DANTE materials database, allowing accurate prediction of phase transformation and seamless integration with the
micromechanical model for calculating
both thermal and transformation plasticity during the gear quenching process.
Distortion analysis using ICME-GearHT
is validated by mapping the distortion at
various locations of the load and at three
different quenching conditions including
step quench, 40% fan speed, and 100%
fan speed. The experimental setup is
shown in Fig. 3 II-a. Experimentally
measured distortion at three different
conditions (Fig. 3 II-b) agrees well with
previous studies[7]. Step quenching produces less distortion and better product
quality. Distortion calculations determined using the ICME-GearHT approach are compared with experimental
results to provide efficient, effective solutions for process design and optimization. Figure 3 II-c shows predicted gear

(l-b)

1000 (l-c)
100% fan speed
40% fan speed

1400

1000

200

200
0 1 2 3 4 5

400
Circularity

(II-a)

300
200
100
0

600

400

600

500

800

6 7 8 9

700
After straight After
600
straight
quench at
500
quench
40%
fan
Max
at 100%
speed
fan speed 400
Min
300
200
After
stop
Before
quench
heat
100
treatment
0

0
0

(lI-b)

circularity, replicating the influence of


gear location on distortion and matching
experimental measurements in locations
8 and 9. Results show the model can be
used to optimize production processes
and identify the best heat-treatment
recipe for minimized distortion.
Recent experimental studies by others[1-4]

TC #08
TC #09

TC #07
10

20

30
40
Time, s

50

60

100%
fan
speed,
straight
quench
Circularity from major (Sim.)

Gear #07
Exaggerated
distortion 100
8
9
10
Gear Number

Circularity from major (Expt.)

(lI-c)

have shown that use of carbon-fiber


composite (CFC) fixtures reduces distortion by 25%, and by 50% by combining CFC fixtures with a step quench.
Computations were performed using
both alloy and CFC fixtures to quantitatively evaluate the benefits of new fixture materials. CFC fixtures significantly
improve temperature uniformity within

Fig. 3
(I-a) experimental
setup for measuring
the temperature field,
(I-b) heat transfer
coefficients
calculated from
experiments,
(I-c) predicted
temperature
compared with
experimental results,
(II-a) experimental
setup for distortion
analysis,
(II-b) distribution of
measured distortion
values, and (II-c)
predicted distortion
for 100% straight
quench
(exaggerated/
magnified by 100).

HTPRO

HTC, W/m2 K

1800

TemperatureC

(I-a)

15

the load and within individual gears with


the same load volume as in a steel basket. An improvement of 2025% in temperature uniformity is possible using
CFC fixtures. Evaluation of modifications to the quenching system using
ICME-GearHT shows that a proposed
new cooling fan and stator design along
with velocity filtering improves temper-

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

57

ature uniformity prior to martensite


transformation by more than 20%.

HTPRO

Summary
The ICME-GearHT model incorporating latent heat release due to phase
transformation was validated using experimental data. The entire workload is
a complex thermal body subjected to
large temperature variations during
quenching. ICME-GearHT captures
those variations. It was used to investigate and validate a new gas quenching
process, propose cost-effective, time-efficient recommendations for new transmission-product development, and
accelerate new process development. It
was also used to evaluate the benefits of
using different heat treating furnace-fixture materials and different quenching
furnace stator and fan designs to improve temperature distribution uniformity for reduced distortion.

16

Fundamental and experimental methods


developed using ICME-GearHT can be
extended to any high pressure gas
quenching process such as sun-gear and
pinion-gear heat treatments. It can be ex-

58

tended to any case-hardening process


such as induction hardening, oil quenching, and molten salt quench[8-10]. HTPRO
Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the support of Dr. Zhi-Chao
(Charlie) Li at Deformation Control Technology Inc. and Dr. Ibrahim Yavuz at
ANSYS Inc.
References
1. V. Heuer, et al., Low distortion heat treatment of transmission components, Gear
Tech., Oct., 2011.
2. V. Heuer, et al., Distortion Control of
Transmission Components by Optimized
High Pressure Gas Quenching, J. Matls.
Engrg. & Perf., 22, p 18331838, 2013.
3. Q. Ming, et al., Uniform Quenching Technology by Using Controlled High Pressure
Gas after Low Pressure Carburizing, SAE
Tech.
Paper
2008-01-0365,
2008,
doi:10.4271/2008-01-0365.
4. K. Lser, V. Heuer, and D.R. Faron, Distortion control by innovative heat treating, Gear
Tech., 8, p 5457, 2008.
5. Z. Li, et al., Modeling the Effect of Carburization and Quenching on the Development
of Residual Stresses and Bending Fatigue Resistance of Steel Gears, J. Matls. Engrg. &
Perf., 22, p 664672, 2013.
6. W.E. Dowling, et al., The Influence of Heat

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel, SAE Tech. Paper
1999-01-0600, 1999.
7. A. Goldsteinas, High Pressure Gas
Quench Technologies: Distortion Control &
Mechanical Properties Improvement, SAE
Tech. Paper 2008-01-0433, 2008.
8. W.E. Dowling, et al., Development of a
Carburizing and Quenching Simulation
Tool: Program Overview, Proc., 2nd Intl.
Conf. on Quenching and Control of Distortion, ASM Intl., 1996.
9. B. Ferguson and W.E. Dowling, Predictive
Model and Methodology for Heat Treatment Distortion, Natl. Ctr. for Mfg. Sci. Report #0383RE97, 1997.
10. B. Ferguson, Z. Li, and A. Freborg, Modeling Heat Treatment of Steel Parts, Comput.
Matl. Sci., 34, p 274281, 2005.
11. R.H. Leal, Transformation toughening of
metastable austenitic steels, Ph.D. thesis,
MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1984.
12. S.J. Lee and Y.K. Lee, Finite element simulation of quench distortion in a low-alloy
steel incorporating transformation kinetics,
Acta Mater., 56, p 14821490, 2008.
For more information: Junsheng Wang is
research scientist, Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Lab, 2101 Village Rd.,
Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI 48124,
313/390-5503, jwang134@ford.com.

HTPRO

LOW-DISTORTION, HIGH-QUALITY
INDUCTION HARDENING
OF CRANKSHAFTS AND CAMSHAFTS

17

REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF HEAT GENERATED WITHIN A PART


AND PROVIDING UNIFORM HEATING WITHOUT APPLYING FORCE GO A LONG WAY
IN CONTROLLING PART DISTORTION DURING INDUCTION HARDENING.
Gary Doyon*, Valery Rudnev, FASM*, and John Maher*
Inductoheat Inc., Madison Heights, Mich.
Crankshafts, typically made of plain- and
low-alloy medium carbon steels (e.g.,
SAE 1039M, 1042, 1538M), consist of a
series of crankpins (also called pin journals or pins) and main journals (mains)
interconnected by crank counterweights.
Journal diameters on crankshafts used in
automobiles, tractors, and other vehicles
range from 35 to 60 mm. Several induction hardening methods are used to surface harden crankshaft features such as
pins, mains, and oil seals, providing hardness in the range of 52 to 56 HRC after
hardening and tempering. Hardened case
depth typically ranges from 0.75 to 2 mm
after grinding.

Depending on crankshaft design and


process requirements, crankshaft journals are induction hardened using either
band hardening or band-and-fillet hardening (often simply referred to as fillet
hardening). Band hardening is used to
harden only the bearing surfaces. The
hardness pattern typically ends about 0.5
to 1.5 mm from the journal fillet. Figure
1 shows induction band hardening patterns on etched crankshaft journals for
a V-8 automobile engine. Roll hardening
is applied after induction band hardening to induce useful compressive residual stresses in the fillet area. Band
hardening results in smaller distortion,
which reduces the amount of grinding
stock required.
Induction hardening
using the rotational process
From the 1960s to 2000, most induction
crankshaft-hardening machines used
non-encircling U-shaped inductors,
which physically ride on the journal
using carbide guides (also called locators
or spacers), while the crankshaft rotates

in centers during heating and quenching. The complex crankshaft geometry


lacks symmetry, in particular around pin
journals (pin axes are offset radially from
the main axis). Therefore, pins orbit the
main axis during rotation. The circular
orbital motion of a massive induction
heating and quenching system (often exceeding 900 kg including a set of watercooled inductors, buswork, cables, etc.)
must be precisely maintained using a
special control tracking system. Such
systems provide time-dependent power
modulation for each heated journal during its rotation, depending on specific
counterweight geometry and the presence of oil holes.
U-shaped inductors inherently produce
a nonsymmetrical heating pattern at any
given time, because heat is only applied
to less than half of the crankshaft journal. The rest of the pin/main undergoes
a soaking-cooling cycle. Nonsymmetrical heating requires relatively prolonged
heating times (8 to 20 s), which, in turn,
heats an appreciable mass of metal, resulting in greater shape distortion and
causing nonuniform hardness profiles
around the perimeter. In addition, Ushaped inductors are fabricated either by
banding or brazing copper in the shape
of a figure eight containing multiple
bands/joints (Fig. 2, top). Both coil fabrication methods raise concerns about the

Fig. 1 Induction band hardening patterns


on etched crankshaft journals for a
V-8 automobile engine.

*Member of ASM International and ASM Heat Treating Society


ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

59

HTPRO

precision and repeatability of complex


coil geometry construction, which requires extensive process validation after
a new set of inductors is installed.
Induction hardening
using a nonrotational process
The development of nonrotational induction hardening technology was an
advancement in the induction hardening
of crankshafts. The patented SHarP-C
(Stationary Hardening Process for
Crankshafts) technology was introduced
in early 2000, and continual improvements established it as a proven process
that eliminates the need to rotate the
crankshaft during heating and quenching cycles. Millions of crankshafts have
been heat treated using SHarP-C since
its introduction.

18

Fig. 2 U-shaped inductors are fabricated


either by banding or brazing copper in the
shape of a figure eight containing multiple
bands/joints (top); the inductor for
nonrotational hardening consists of two
sections machined from a copper block
(bottom).

Fig. 3 Cam lobe shape varies depending


on engine design.

60

The inductor for the nonrotational hardening process consists of two sections
(Fig. 2, bottom) machined from a copper
block: a top (passive) inductor and bottom (active) inductor. The
bottom inductor is
connected to a medium-frequency power supply,
and the top inductor
represents (electrically) a short circuit
(closed loop). The bottom coil is stationary, while
the top coil can be opened and closed.
Each inductor has two semi-circular
areas to locate journals to be heat
treated, while the top inductor is in the
open position.
A robot loads the crankshaft into the
heating position, the top coil pivots
into a closed position, and power is
applied to the bottom coil. Electrical
current flows in the bottom coil, and
with a lamination pack that serves as
a magnetic flux coupler, both top and
bottom coils are tightly electromagnetically coupled. Current flowing in
the bottom coil instantly induces
eddy currents that begin to flow in
the top coil. According to Faradays
law of electromagnetic induction,
the induced currents are oriented in
a direction opposite that of the
source current, similar to a transformer effect.
The heated crankshaft journal sees the
nonrotational inductor as a fully encircling, highly electrically efficient induc-

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

tion coil. Crankshaft journals are heat


treated sequentially resting on V-blocks.
No axial force is applied.
SHarP-C technology dramatically
reduces distortion and offers simple
operation, equipment reliability and
maintainability, and a substantial reduction in life cycle cost.
Inductors are CNC machined from a
solid copper block; eliminating brazed
and banded components makes them robust, rigid, and repeatable. This reduces
the possibility of inductor distortion during fabrication, thereby eliminating the
associated hardness pattern drift.
Shape and size distortion and total indicated runout (TIR) are very important
parameters of the crankshaft hardening
process. TIR directly affects the amount
of metal required to be ground off after
hardening. One of the most important
factors that impacts crankshaft distortion
is the amount of heat generated within
the crankshaft body. The greater the mass
of metal heated, the greater the thermal
expansion, which, in turn, causes greater
distortion of components with complex,
nonsymmetrical geometry.
Nonrotational technology also shortens
heating time by an average of 3 to 4 fold
compared with that for the rotational
process, which reduces the mass of
metal heated. Journal cores remain relatively cold during the entire heating
cycle, serving as a shape stabilizer and
practically eliminating shape distortion.
A smaller heat-affected zone (HAZ) also
reduces thermal expansion.
Rotational hardening applies appreciable
axial force on the crankshaft to rotate it
during hardening, which results in residual stress in the crank. By comparison,
the SHarP-C process places no axial
forces on the crankshaft as it rests in Vblocks during hardening, thereby minimizing stresses in the shaft. Lateral
growth is minimized and distortion and
TIR typically does not exceed 25 microns.
Hardening camshafts
Camshafts consist of several sets of cam
lobes and bearings. Cam lobe shape
varies depending on engine design as
shown in Fig. 3. Depending on camshaft
geometry and production requirements,
shafts may be induction hardened using

scan or static (single shot) heating of one


or more lobes, which can be rotated or
motionless during heat treating.

In contrast to scan hardening, static, or


single-shot, heating of multiple lobes is
commonly used when surface hardening
small and medium size automotive
camshafts with lobes of the same size

Short heating times, the ability to develop


a uniform austenitized layer, and processing camshafts horizontally without applying any pressure during heat treating are
factors that contribute to a reduction in
camshaft distortion. Low distortion can
potentially eliminate the camshaft
straightening operation and reduce the allowance for grinding stock. Figure 4 illustrates true contour hardening of camshaft
lobes using inductors that provide uniform
coil-to-lobe gaps and short heat times.
The nonrotational SHarP-C technology
developed for crankshafts can easily be
applied for low-distortion camshaft
hardening, providing true contour-hard-

HTPRO

Scan inductors offer the greatest flexibility by enabling lobes of various lengths to
be heat treated using minimum power,
because only a portion of the lobe is
heated. Low production rates, due to single-lobe processing, are the main limitation of using a scanning technique to
surface harden automotive camshafts.
Trying to produce the required range of
minimum-maximum hardness case
depths is also a challenge. In addition,
heating lobes that have an appreciably
different ratio of cam-nose diameter-tobase-circle diameter is difficult unless
lobes are stationary during processing
and properly oriented with respect to the
profiled inductor. Scan hardening is also
difficult when lobes are in close proximity to each other (i.e., triple-lobe cams).

and shape and having the same or very


similar axial gaps between them. In this
scenario, deeper case depth typically occurs in the nose compared with the base
circle (the heel). The cam-lobe nose has
a closer electromagnetic coupling with
the inside diameter of the copper coil.
This is one of the main causes of deeper
case depth in the lobe nose area compared with its base circle region, leading
to camshaft distortion.

Fig. 4 True contour hardening of


camshaft lobes use inductors that provide
uniform coil-to-lobe gaps and short heat
times.

19

ening profiles, dramatically minimizing


distortion, and potentially eliminating
the need for post-hardening camshaft
straightening. HTPRO
Bibliography
G. Doyon, V. Rudnev, and J. Maher, Induction hardening of crankshafts and camshafts,
ASM Handbook, Vol 4C: Induction Heating
and Heat Treating, ASM Intl., Materials
Park, Ohio, 2014 (to be published).
G. Doyon, et al., Taking the crank out of
crankshaft hardening, Industrial Heating, p
41-44, December, 2008.
V. Rudnev, et al., Induction Heating Handbook, Marcel Dekker, N.Y., 2003.
For more information: Dr.Valery Rudnev,
FASM, is Director, Science and Technology,
Inductoheat Inc., an Inductotherm Group
Co., 32251 N. Avis Dr., Madison Heights, MI
48071, 248/629-5055, rudnev@inductoheat.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

61

HTPRO
20

MODELING DISTORTION
AND RESIDUAL STRESSES OF
AN INDUCTION HARDENED TRUCK AXLE
ELECTROMAGNETIC AND THERMAL-STRESS MODELING OF INDUCTION SCAN HARDENING
HOLD PROMISE FOR OPTIMIZING PART DESIGN, PREVENTING IN-PROCESS FAILURE,
AND PREDICTING SERVICE PROPERTIES.
Zhichao (Charlie) Li*
B. Lynn Ferguson, FASM*
DANTE Software, Cleveland
Valentin Nemkov*, Robert Goldstein*,
and John Jackowski
Fluxtrol Inc., Auburn Hills, Mich.
Greg Fett*
Dana Corp., Maumee, Ohio

Changes in thermal distribution


throughout an induction hardening
process create complicated phase transformations and stress evolutions in the
component. Both residual stresses and
mechanical properties of the hardened
pattern have a significant impact on
service performance of the heat treated
parts. Induction hardening of steel components is a highly nonlinear transient
process, and understanding the changes

Fig. 1 Geometry of the full-float truck axle.


(a)

Fig. 2 Power distribution predicted


by Flux2D (a) and temperature predicted
by DANTE (b).

(b)

in stress state due to hardening is not intuitive. Electromagnetic and thermal


stress analyses of induction hardening
have matured with the development of
FEA modeling capability, and they are
applied to understand and solve industrial problems[1]. FEA is used to predict
mechanical properties and residual

stresses, which are further used to analyze the mode and location of fatigue
failures[2]. Component geometry and
process can also be optimized to reduce
part weight, trim manufacturing costs,
and improve performance.
Induction hardening of steel components is a common processing method
due to fast heating times, high efficiency,
and ability to heat locally. However, predicting final properties of a hardened
component adds another layer of complexity. Temperature and structure must
be considered, as well as electromagnetism. When hardening steel, magnetic
properties change throughout the
process, affecting thermal distribution
and structure. Coupling these phenomena to achieve end properties after treatment is a state-of-the-art technology. In
a simple case, stress and distortion modeling of ID and OD hardening of a tubular product was investigated[3]. To study
a component common in industry with a
more complex geometry and subjected
to external stresses in service, a full-float
truck axle with dimensions typical to
those manufactured by Dana Corp. was
selected. Using an axle (a common automotive component) enables comparing
simulation results to desired axle properties. Results are compared to typical
performance criteria for the selected
axle. The goal is to produce results representative of actual part performance.
Part geometry and model for
thermal/stress analysis
Axles must be surface hardened for
durability to prevent failure in service.
Hardening is commonly performed
using induction scanning. Induced
stresses and distortion are affected by
the method in which the induction scan
process is performed. Bowing distortion
and change in length are the main con-

*Member of ASM International and ASM Heat Treating Society


62

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Heat treating process


During the scanning induction hardening process, the axle is positioned vertically with the flange on the bottom of
the fixture. The distance between inductor and spray is 25.4 mm. The process

starts with static heating of the


flange/fillet for 9 s followed by scanning
with a 15 mm/s inductor travel speed.
Scan speed is decreased to 8 mm/s after
1.5 s and remains at this speed. Power is
turned off after an additional 119.65 s,
just before the shaft end is austenitized.
Spraying continues after power is turned
off to complete transformation of the
austenitized section of the shaft to
martensite.
Inductor design
and power density modeling
It is critical not only to meet the hardened depth requirement, but also to prevent excessive heating in regions such as
the flange, core, and shaft end. Too
much heat in these regions increases the
possibility of cracking, and can lead to
excessive distortion. The minimum case
depth requirement for this axle shaft is
5.4 mm, and case depth is defined by a
hardness of 40 HRC.
Inductor design must prevent cracking
and excessive distortion. A machined
two-turn coil with a Fluxtrol A magnetic
flux concentrator was configured using

Flux2D FEA software. Figure 2a shows a


finite element meshing used to model
the axle by Flux2D, with a schematic
temperature distribution focusing on
flange and fillet regions. The axle material is magnetic, and power density distribution varies greatly as the
temperature exceeds the Curie point. Inductor frequency is 10 kHz, the common operating frequency of Danas
induction machines for this class of
parts. Different finite element meshes
are used for Flux2D and DANTE models
due to different physics and accuracy
requirements.

HTPRO

cerns during induction hardening of


truck axles with shafts more than 1 m
long. Bowing distortion can be minimized by proper inductor design,
process control, and structural support
mechanisms. Excessive heating of the
shaft core is the main contributor to distortion, which can be evaluated by simulation. Change in length is affected by
both shaft heating and cooling rates, a
nonlinear process. The shaft studied
here is a full-float truck axle made of
AISI 1541 from Dana Corp. A simplified
CAD model is shown in Fig. 1. Shaft dimensions: 34.93 mm diameter, 1008 mm
long, 9.52 mm fillet radius between
flange and shaft, flange diameter and
thickness are 16.5 mm and 104.5 mm,
respectively. The spline has 35 teeth; a
single tooth sector with cyclic symmetric boundary condition is modeled in
this study.

21

A 3D finite element mesh of a single


spline tooth is used in the DANTE software for thermal, phase-transformation,
and stress analyses. Fine surface elements are used to effectively model the
thermal and stress gradients near the
surface. Power densities in the axle predicted by Flux2D are imported and
mapped into DANTE. The mapping
process is implemented at 0.5-s intervals, and the power between two power
snapshots is linearly interpolated. Figure
2b shows temperature distributions pre-

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

63

HTPRO

transformation. The displacement in Fig.


3 is magnified 10 times, so shape change
can be clearly viewed.

22

Fig. 3 From left to right: temperature, austenite phase, hoop stress, radial displacement,
and axial displacement distributions at the end of 16.5 s in the induction heating process:
Heat transfer coefficient = 25 kW/m2 C.

Fig. 4 Axial residual stresses (left) and


axial distortions predicted from three
quenching rate models (right).

dicted by DANTE at various times of the


process. Temperatures predicted by
Flux2D and DANTE agree well.
Stress and phase-transformation
modeling
The first step of the induction hardening
process is a 9 s dwell allowing heat to
build in the flange/fillet region; the inductor is stationary with no spray
quenching. Following the dwell, the inductor moves up at a speed of 15 mm/s
for 1.5 s, after which the speed drops to
8 mm/s and spray quench starts and
continues for the duration of the
process. Power and temperature distributions are stable during scanning over
most of the shaft length. Figure 3 shows
temperature, austenite, hoop stress, and
radial and axial displacements at 16.5 s
after the process begins, using a 25
kW/m2 C heat transfer coefficient as a
boundary condition. The austenite layer
transforms to martensite during spray
quenching. Figure 3c shows in-process
hoop stress distribution, which shows
the effect of thermal gradient and phase

64

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Cooling rate has a significant effect on


residual stresses in the part. Figure 4
(left) shows axial residual stresses predicted using the three cooling rates with
heat transfer coefficients of 5, 12, and 25
kW/m2 C. A faster cooling rate generates
higher residual compression on the surface. To balance the surface stress, the
core also shows higher tension. The
highest tensile stress in the axial direction is located at the centerline of the
shaft above the flange, which is mainly
due to the extra heat required to harden
the fillet. Predicted axial displacements
for the three cases are shown in Fig. 4
(right). Axial growth is
predicted for all cases.
The same legend is
used for the three contours in Fig. 4 (right),
so the color difference
represents the magnitude of axial distortion. Axial displacement in the shaft is not
linearly distributed
along the axis, because
it is not stabilized during early scanning of
the shaft. Axial displacement from the center to the surface of the shaft varies. Comparing the
three cases modeled shows that a
higher cooling rate leads to higher axial
growth. HTPRO
References
1. G. Goldstein, V. Nemkov, and J. Jackowski, Virtual Prototyping of Induction
Heat Treating, 25th ASM Heat Treating
Society Conf., 2009.
2. B. Ferguson and W. Dowling, Predictive
Model and Methodology for Heat Treatment Distortion, NCMS Report 0383RE97,
1997.
3. V. Nemkov, R. Goldstein, and J. Jackowski, Stress and Distortion Evolution
During Induction Case Hardening of Tube,
26th ASM Heat Treating Society Conf.,
2011.
Fluxtrol A is a registered trademark of
Fluxtrol Inc. DANTE is a registered trademark of DANTE Software. Flux2D is a registered trademark of Cedrat.
For more information: Zhichao (Charlie)
Li is principal engineer, DANTE Software,
7261 Engle Rd., Suite105, Cleveland, OH
44130, 440/876-7578, zli@deformationcontrol.com, www.deformationcontrol.com.

Gas inlet

Gas inlet

(a)

(b)

Gas outlet

Work table (floating)

Bias
generator

Pulse
generator

Work table (cathode)

(anode)

24

Furnace wall

Pulse
generator

HTPRO

Active screen (cathode)

Gas outlet

Fig. 1 Schematic view of DC (a) and AS (b) plasma nitriding systems.

ACTIVE SCREEN PLASMA NITRIDING

NITRIDED LAYERS PRODUCED USING ACTIVE SCREEN PLASMA NITRIDING (ASPN)


CAN MEET PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS IN A WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS.
H.-J. Spies, H. Biermann, I. Burlacov,
and K. Brner
TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of
Materials Engineering, Germany

Fig. 2 Active screen plasma nitriding of


22,000 piston rings. Courtesy of J.
Georges.

Plasma nitriding and plasma nitrocarburizing are used to improve wear and
corrosion resistance, as well as fatigue
strength of steel components. Compared
with conventional gas and salt-bath nitriding methods, plasma nitriding offers
advantages of lower energy and gas consumption and the ability to be integrated
into in-line manufacturing processes.
The process is environmentally friendly
as well. Additionally, partial nitriding is
possible by masking areas where nitriding is not required; surface enrichment
with nitrogen and carbon occurs only at
areas exposed to the plasma glow discharge. Glow-seam thickness is highly
dependent on process parameters, especially gas pressure. Adjusting working
pressure improves the plasma seam for
true shape coverage of components with
a complex geometry.
Limitations of plasma nitriding stem from
applying the plasma discharge energy directly onto the surface of parts to be
treated, resulting in a nonhomogeneous
temperature distribution through the
workload, especially for components with
different surface-to-volume ratios. Therefore, only parts with similar geometries
can be treated together in the same batch.
Furthermore, parts must be arranged in
the chamber in a specific manner.
Plasma nitriding equipment can be improved by placing resistance heating elements in the furnace wall and
implementing pulsed mode plasma discharge with controlled pulse frequency

66

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

and duty cycle[1]. However, even when


operating state-of-the-art plasma nitriding systems equipped with multizone
wall heaters and running in fully automated pulsed discharge mode, close attention must be paid to the uniformity
of component geometry and the
arrangement of parts in the chamber.
ASPN process
New plasma nitriding capabilities evolved
with the development of the active
screen process, in which the plasma discharge is applied to a metal mesh screen
(active screen) surrounding the entire
workload, rather than directly onto the
components[2]. Highly reactive gas species
are produced on the active screen and directed to the component surface. The
principles of the ASPN process are based
on the well known phenomenon of nitriding in after glow[3]. Another function
of the active screen is to heat the workload by radiation, providing a very uniform temperature throughout the entire
load independent of the complexity of
component geometry. Schematics of
equipment and experimental arrangement for the ASPN process and conventional DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) are
shown in Fig. 1.
In ASPN, parts to be treated are placed
on a worktable with a floating or negative (cathode) potential (bias) applied.
Flow of the active species generated on
the active screen and directed onto the
components is effectively controlled
using the bias voltage setting. Bias power

Varying the N2-to-H2 gas ratio in the N2H2 plasma has a strong influence on compound-layer growth rate and structure up
to the point of suppressing layer growth.
Figure 3 shows the microstructure of the
nitrided layer and the x-ray diffraction
(XRD) spectrum of the compound layer
of active screen plasma nitrided 1045 carbon steel, which has a single-phase
layer thickness of about 5 m.
Bias activation can also be used to control nitrogen concentration near the
component surface. The role of bias
power in the ASPN process is shown in
Fig. 4. An increase in bias power leads to
a significant improvement of compound-layer thickness. Surface hardness, hardness profile, and hardness
depth are not dependent on compound
layer thickness.
Nitriding with or without a very thin
phase compound layer typically results
in decarburization of the nitrided layer,
which prevents precipitation of carbides
along grain boundaries up to 70 to 100

Intensity/Imp.s-1

400

200
0
20

(a)

25

30 40 50 60 70 80
Diffraction angle 2/grad

(b)

10 m

Fig. 3 XRD-pattern (a) and metallographic cross section (b) of the active screen plasma
nitrided sample of 1045 carbon steel with compound layer: TN = 580C, tN = 4 h.

m below the surface. It is possible to


produce a nitrided layer free of a compound layer without a reduction of edge
hardness due to the fine control of nitriding potential in ASPN. Reduction of
edge hardness is often an issue when nitriding using low nitriding potential.
Figure 5 shows a key advantage of
ASPNuniform nitriding a 304 stainless
steel component with multiple 0.1-mm
diameter drill holes, which confirms the
high reactivity of the gas species generated at the active screen.
ASPNC process
Active screen technology is also being
applied to the controlled nitrocarburizing process, called active screen plasma
nitrocarburizing, or ASPNC[5]. Typically,
-carbonitride layers are produced in
conventional plasma nitrocarburizing
using CH4 and C3H8 as carbon-bearing
gases. The risk of cementite precipitation in the compound layer is still high
even at 2% CH4 admixture to the process
gas. This significantly limits the ability to
vary carbon potential of the process gas
in conventional plasma nitrocarburizing
compared with bath nitriding[6].

16
CL thickness, m

ASPN involves a large number of independent process parameters to produce


a desired nitrided layer. Controlled
plasma nitriding and nitrocarburizing in
the ASPN process enables producing an
entire spectrum of nitrided-layer structuresfrom a nitrided layer without a
compound layer, through a mixed +
phase, to a pure -phase compound
layer. Composition of the process gas
and bias activation are the most important process parameters.

600

4142 alloy steel


H11 tool steel

12
8
4
0

(a)

600
Hardness, HV0.1

Figure 2 shows a dense workload consisting of about 22,000 Type AISI 304
stainless steel piston rings that were
treated in a single batch using the ASPN
process. Treating a similar workload in a
conventional plasma nitriding unit is not
possible. Even using gas nitriding, surface activation of the high-alloy steel
would present severe problems due to
the influence of various uncontrollable
parameters in the pretreatment step.

800

HTPRO

applied to the workload in ASPN does


not exceed 10% of the discharge power
used in conventional plasma nitriding,
which enables processing dense loads
without the risk of hollow cathodes and
arcing. Application of bias is essential in
large industrial scale ASPN units to obtain the desired nitriding result[4].

500

0.13
0.26
0.39
Bias, W/in.2
Bias
0.13 W/in.2
0.45 W/in.2
4142 alloy steel

400
300

(b)

4
8
12
16
20
Distance from surface, mm

Fig. 4 Influence of plasma power density


of the bias on white layer thickness of
4142 alloy steel and H11 tool steel (a) and
hardness profile of 4142 (b): TN = 580C,
tN = 4 h.

In the ASPNC process, the ability to vary


bias and process gas composition (dual
control) makes it possible to produce carbonitride layers comparable to those obtained in bath nitriding. Figure 6 shows a
thick, cementite-free -carbonitride layer
with 0.85 to 1.0 wt% carbon produced
using the ASPCN process with 3% CH4
admixture and a pressure of 400 Pa.
Both oxidizing and carburizing effects can
be achieved by varying the CO2-to-H2 gas
ratio in the process gas. Carburizing can
also be controlled by means of the CO2-toN2 gas ratio. Figure 7 illustrates the transi-

Fig. 5 True-shape active screen plasma


nitriding of AISI 304 stainless steel parts
with 0.1-mm diameter holes.

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

67

(a)

00

C
5 10 15 20 25 30
Distance from surface, m

60
40

Fe

20

0 Fe C
3
20
30
40
50
60
(b)
Diffraction angle 2/grad
Fig. 6 Carbon- and nitrogenconcentration profiles of active screen
plasma nitrocarburized 4142 alloy steel
(a) and XRD pattern of active screen
plasma nitrocarburized 1045 carbon steel
(b): TN = 580C, tN = 8 h.

68

CO2:H2

0.19
1.0
2

6
4

2
0

results in considerably higher carbon concentration in a thinner compound layer.

3
Carbon conc., wt%

10
Nitrogen conc., wt%

80
Intensity/Imp.s-1

Carbon conc., wt%

Nitrogen conc., wt%

HTPRO
26

N2:H2 (+CH4) = 3:1(+3%)


4
N2:H2 = 3:1

0
5
10
15
20
Distance from surface, m

Fig. 7 Nitrogen- and carbonconcentration profiles of active screen


plasma nitrocarburized 4142 alloy steel:
TN = 580C, tN = 4 h.

tion from a plasma oxinitriding to the


plasma nitrocarburizing process.
Process gas for oxinitriding typically has a
CO2-to-H2 gas ratio of 1. A thick compound layer and high nitrogen concentration are characteristic for the nitrided layer
obtained with this process. Reducing the
CO2-to-H2 gas ratio from 1 to 0.19 and increasing the CO2-to-N2 gas ratio from
0.15 to 0.4 significantly improves the carburizing effect of the process gas, which

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

A goal of ongoing investigations is to


develop sensor-supported process
control in ASPN on the basis of results of different plasma diagnostic
methods [7]. HTPRO
References
1. H. Wilhelmi, S. Strmke, and H. Pohl, HTM
J. Heat Treatm. Matls., 37, p 263, 1982.
2. J. Georges, U.S. Patent 5,989,363, 1999;
HTM J. Heat Treat. Met., (Birmingham, UK)
28, p 33, 2001.
3. A. Ricard, Surf. & Coat. Technol.,59, p 67, 1993.
4. P. Hubbard, et al., Surf. & Coat. Technol.,
204, p 1145, 2010.
5. K. Brner, H.-J. Spies, I. Burlacov, and H. Biermann, HTM J. Heat Treatm. Matls.,68, p 3, 2013.
6. T. Lampe, Plasmawrmebehandlung von
Eisenwerkstoffen in stickstoff- und kohlenstoffhaltigen Gasgemischen, Dissertation,
Universitt Braunschweig, VDI-Verlag, Reihe
5, Nr. 93, 1985.
7. I. Burlacov, et al., Surf. & Coat. Technol.,
206, p 3955, 2012.
For more information: Dr. Igor Burlacov,
TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of
Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str.
5, 09599 Freiberg, Germany, burlacov@
tu-freiberg.de, http://tu-freiberg.de.

ASMnews

www.asminternational.org/ASMnews

ASMs 2013 Class of Fellows


In 1969, ASM established the Fellow of the Society honor to
provide recognition to members for their distinguished contributions to materials science and engineering and to develop
a broadly based forum of technical and professional leaders
to serve as advisors to the society. Following are the members
recognized by their colleagues for 2013. The solicited guidance, which the Fellows provide, will enhance the capability
of ASM as a technical community of materials science and engineering. Awards will be presented at ASMs annual Awards
Dinner, Tuesday, October 29, in Montral, Canada, during
Materials Science & Technology 2013 (MS&T13).
Dr. David J. Alexander, FASM
Engineer
Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.
For excellence in the understanding of
deformation processing and effects of inservice conditions on microstructure/
property relationships through novel testing
techniques and innovative processing routes
in a wide variety of structural materials.
Dr. Steven M. Arnold, FASM
Chief of the Mechanics
and Life Prediction Branch
NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland
For pioneering work in the area of constitutive modeling of metallic and composite
materials, including the development of

Official Notice:
ASM Annual Business Meeting
The Annual Business Meeting of members of ASM International
will be held in conjunction with MS&T13 on:
Monday, October 28, 2013
4:00 5:00 p.m.
Palais des congre`s de Montral, Canada
The purpose of the ASM Annual Business Meeting is the
election of officers for the 2013-14 term and transaction of
other society business.

the associated multi-scale modeling tools; and for leadership


in helping ASM play a role in the Materials Genome Initiative and Integrated Computational Materials Engineering.
Dr. Julie Christodoulou, FASM
Director, Naval Materials Division
U.S. Office of Naval Research,
Arlington, Va.
For outstanding technical leadership and
management of Department of Defense materials research efforts, especially including
development and support for new programs
in integrated computational materials engineering, functional
and structural materials, and joining technologies.
Dr. Edward I. Cole, FASM
Senior Scientist
Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, N.M.
For revolutionizing microelectronics failure analysis by the development of charge
induced voltage alteration, light induced
voltage alteration, and soft defect localization techniques for analyzing integrated circuits.
Dr. David P. Field, FASM
Professor
Washington State University, Pullman
For important contributions to the technical development of electron backscatter
diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy, and applying these techniques
commercially to engineering materials
characterization.
Dr. Richard Fonda, FASM
Section Head
Naval Research Laboratory, Washington,
D.C.
For groundbreaking research in friction

...in this issue


71 2013 Class of Fellows

77 Solar Atmospheres Furnace Donation

74 Managing Directors Perspective on the Society

78 Chapter News

76 Members in the News

79 Emerging Professionals

Submit news of ASM and its members, chapters, and affiliate societies to
Joanne Miller, editor, ASM News ASM International, 9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073
tel: 440/338-5151, ext. 5662 fax: 440/338-4634 e-mail: joanne.miller@asminternational.org
Contact ASM International at 9639 Kinsman Road, Materials Park, OH 44073 tel: 440/338-5151, ext. 0, or 800/336-5152, ext. 0
(toll free in U.S. and Canada) fax: 440/338-4634 e-mail: MemberServiceCenter@asminternational.org website: www.asminternational.org
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

71

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...ASM Fellows 2013

stir welding and microstructural evolution in high strength


steels and weldments.

tions and leadership in the fields of heat treatment, powder


metallurgy processing, and hot isostatic pressing technologies.

Dr. Jude R. Foulds, FASM


Principal and Managing Member
Clarus Consulting LLC, Charlotte, N.C.
For significant contributions to the development and application of materials
testing and integrity evaluation methods
for the condition and life assessment of operating industrial power plant equipment.

Mr. Timothy McKechnie, FASM


President
Plasma Processes, Huntsville, Ala.
For pioneering development of thermal
spray coatings, and establishing a successful materials near-net shape forming and
coatings company that produces products
for international aerospace, defense, energy, medial, and commercial customers.

Mr. Robert J. Fulton, FASM


President, Retired
Hoeganaes Corp., Riverton, N.J.
For sustained technical leadership and
development of manufacturing processes,
in particular powder metallurgy.
Mr. Robert Hill, Jr., FASM
President
Solar Atmospheres of Western Pa., Inc.
Hermitage
For expanding the applications and
technical knowledge of vacuum heat
treating titanium for the future of lightweight and energy efficient commercial
and military airframes.
Mrs. Frauke Hogue, FASM
Metallographer
Hogue Metallography, Pacific Palisades,
Calif.
For sustained professional contributions
to the field of metallography, for excellence
in mentoring and teaching, and dedicated
promotion of the science of metallography
as a profession through volunteerism in the
ASM Materials Camp program.
Dr. Thomas J. Lienert, FASM
Technical Staff Member, R&D Engineer IV
Los Alamos National Laboratory, N.M.
For sustained impact and pioneering advancements in welding metallurgy and
welding process understanding.
Dr. Alan A. Luo, FASM
Professor
Ohio State University, Columbus
For outstanding contributions to the research and automotive applications of lightweight magnesium and aluminum alloys and
leadership in international collaboration of
light metals research and developments.
Dr. Stephen J. Mashl, FASM
Research Professor
Michigan Technological University,
Houghton
For industrial and academic contribu72

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Dr. Kamachi V. Muldali, FASM


Professor
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research,
Kalpakklam, India
For outstanding contributions in the development and application of corrosion-resistant advanced materials and coatings for
critical uses in nuclear and related industries.
Dr. Burton R. Patterson, FASM
Adjunct Research Professor
University of Florida, Gainesville
For lasting contributions in the fields of
advanced quantitative microscopy, powder
processing, grain kinetics, and physical
metallurgy.
Dr. Anthony Petric, FASM
Professor
McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
For sustained contribution to the development of membrane materials and coatings for energy storage and fuel cells.
Dr. Appajosula Srinivasa Rao, FASM
Materials Engineer
United States Nuclear Regulatory
Commission, Washington, D.C.
For significant contributions to the understanding of nuclear reactor core internals
materials degradation due to irradiationassisted stress corrosion cracking, and to the
development of modeling methods for microstructure evolution and deformation.
Mr. Len Reid, FASM
Vice President, Technology
Fatigue Technology Inc., Seattle
For sustained contributions in the development and directions for extending aerospace materials and bettering the
structural integrity of aircraft components.
Dr. Satyam S. Sahay, FASM
Senior General Manager
John Deere Asia Technology Innovation
Center, Pune, India
For successful implementation of model-

based optimization in heat treating industries; outstanding


research in the area of process modeling and non-isothermal phase transformations; and for significant contributions
towards professional societies, journal boards, and academic
institutions.
Dr. Shankar Sastry, FASM
Christopher I. Byrnes Professor of
Engineering
Washington University in St. Louis
For pioneering contributions to deformation of ordered alloys and deformation
processing of structural materials.
Dr. Huseyin Sehitoglu, FASM
John, Alice, and Sarah Nyquist Chair
Professor
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
For distinguished contributions in the
area of plasticity and thermal fatigue of
structural materials.
Mr. Andrew Sherman, FASM
CEO
MescoCoast Inc., Euclid, Ohio
For the development and commercialization of microencapsulated and nanohierarchically structured particle technology,
and the application of these new materials
in thermal spray coatings, high temperature coatings, and cellular composites.
Dr. Wolfgang Sigmund, FASM
Professor
University of Florida, Gainesville
For important advances in modern materials synthesis technologies, including
direct casting of ceramics, oxide ceramic
nanomaterials, nucleation and growth
modeling of metallic nanowires, and aqueous sol-gel processing of transition metal oxides.
Dr. Preet M. Singh, FASM
Professor
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
For significant contributions in the scientific and engineering aspects of materials
reliability and stress corrosion cracking by
developing a mechanistic understanding
of complex phenomena.
Dr. Charles H. Ward, FASM
Lead, Integrated Computational Materials
Science and Engineering
Air Force Research Laboratory,
Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio
For sustained contributions to advocacy
and leadership of materials research in the
U.S. and Europe including direct research
contributions to aerospace structural materials and for U.S.
National Leadership of the Materials Genome Initiative.

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...ASM Fellows 2013

Nomination Deadline
for the 2014 Class of Fellows
is Fast Approaching!
The honor of Fellow of the Society was established to provide recognition to members for distinguished contributions in
the field of materials science and engineering, and to develop
a broadly based forum for technical and professional leaders
to serve as advisors to the Society.
Criteria for the Fellow award are:
Outstanding accomplishments in materials science or
engineering
Broad and productive achievement in production,
manufacturing, management, design, development,
research, or education
Five years of current, continuous membership in ASM
International
Deadline for nominations for the class of 2014 is November
30, 2013.
Complete information including the rules, interpretive comments, and online nomination forms are available on the ASM
website at www.asminternational.org/awards, or by contacting Christine Hoover, ASM International, 440/338-5151, ext.
5509, christine.hoover@asminternational.org.

Seeking Nominations
for Thermal Spray Hall of Fame

The Thermal Spray Hall of Fame, established in 1993 by the


Thermal Spray Society of ASM International, recognizes and
honors outstanding leaders who have made significant contributions to the science, technology, practice, education, management, and advancement of Thermal Spraying. For a copy
of the rules, nomination form, and list of previous recipients,
go to www.asminternational.org/tss and click Networking and
Membership and then TSS Awards. Or contact Sarina Pastoric
at sarina.pastoric@asminternational.org. Nominations are due
September 30, 2013.

IMR Increases Impact factor to 7.48!

International Materials Reviews (IMR) again demonstrated its value


to the technological fields of metals, structural ceramics, composite
materials, and the electronic materials industries by reporting an increase of 7.5% on its impact factor. The two-year impact factor has increased from 6.96 to 7.48. The five-year impact factor has increased
from 6.57 to 7.15. Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports ranks
IMR 16th in the materials science/multidisciplinary category.
IMR publishes eight issues a year, which include
full and leading edge reviews providing comprehensive yet concise summaries of the current state of the
technologies that impact materials science. Reviews
are written by experts for the non-experts who have
an interest in the areas covered in the journal. Content quality is maintained through a rigorous peer
review process. International Materials Reviews is
published on behalf of ASM International and the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining by Maney Publishers.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

73

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...Managing Directors Perspective

ASM Managing Director Shares His Perspective on the Society


On October 15, 2012, Thom Passek became
ASM Internationals 6th Managing Director,
succeeding Stan Theobald, stepping into the top staff role
with the support of ASMs Board of Trustees.
Mr. Passek most recently served as the Associate
Managing Director for the Society for the past 10 years.
Joining ASM in 1986, Thom held various positions in the
organization from 1986-1999, including Director of
Society Activities and Executive Director, ASM
Foundation. He returned to ASM in 2003 after serving
as the Executive Director for the American Society for
Nondestructive Testing and soon became the Executive
Director of ASMs five Affiliate Societies.

t has been nearly a year since I assumed the role as ASMs


Managing Director. My biggest challenge has been to look
at the Society through fresh eyes. When you walk into any
organization as the new person from the outside, it is relatively easy to be able to view things from a fresh perspective
and create a list of things to change, tweak, or keep. People,
internally and externally, expect that. When you have been
part of the organization as I haveback now for 10 years
you have to see the forest through the trees. Change is
harder, but is essential for any organization. You will see
some changes, but not others. Some you might like and some
you wont. That is the reality when serving 30,000 members
and tens of thousands
Members rarely say they
of customers. However,
joined ASM to buy a
everything is done with
reference book. Rather,
the best intentions in mind
for ASM and its members,
they joined due to the
and
to ensure that ASM is
encouragement of someone,
here
for another 100 years.
and remained a member
My focus is to work
because it allowed them to
with ASM leadership, volbuild a network of contacts
unteers, staff, and industry
and relationships. The ASM
leaders to strengthen our
staff and I are committed to
core. I believe the basic
help facilitate that.
role of professional membership organizations is to
Thom Passek
inform, educate, and facilitate networking for individuals and businesses. In particular, ASMs role is to help the materials community solve
As a plenary speaker at AeroMat
2013 in Bellevue, Wash., Passek
highlighted ASMs integral role in
the industry through his
presentation, ASM Turns 100:
Materials Advancements and
Their Impact on Aerospace.
During the equipment installation
on February 21, Thom Passek
thanks George Abraham (left) and
Clay Smith (middle) of Allied High
Tech Products Inc. for their
generous donation of
metallographic lab equipment
that will strengthen ASMs
education offerings.
74

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

engineering problems, help individuals and companies be


more successful, and to protect and promote the profession.
I would like us to accomplish the following:
Ensure members receive value and are engaged in the
Societys activities. We cannot be successful without
active members. While membership numbers are
declining, I believe it is more important to measure
success not only in the number of members, but also in
their level of engagement.
Better inform members of the great products and
services available (many of which are free of charge), and
encourage greater use.
Focus on ASMs core content and education/training,
being good stewards of content accumulated over the
past 100 years, and accelerate the process of acquiring
and developing new content.
Strengthen ASMs relationships with industry leaders
and promote the value that ASM brings to them, which
can translate into helping them grow their businesses.
Connect with graduating university students early to
encourage them to become active in ASM, help them
transition into the materials profession, and establish
and advance their careers.

In his role as Secretary of the ASM Foundation, Passek addresses


the Eisenman Camp graduates in the Mineral Garden at Materials
Park in July.

Strengthen and leverage our partnership with the ASM


Materials Education Foundation and its great work in
engaging students and teachers to excite young people
in materials, science, and engineering careers. This is a
phenomenal program that is critical to the future of our
community.
Leverage our network of more than 100 local chapters
around the world, which serve as our connection to the
grassroots members. Every year while attending our
Leadership Days Event here at Materials Park, I am
reminded of the great work done locally by our Chapters
Volunteer Leadership. If you are not already engaged
with your local chapter, get involved!
I want to ensure that we do these well. Some of these activities are done for the good of the
I want to
community and not for a financial
ensure
that we
return. Others are done as a businurture
the
ness to provide a sound reserve for
community,
accomplishing our goals and inbecause that
vesting in our future. ASM has
been, and continues to be, on
really is what
sound financial footing. We can
we are all
maintain this inherited legacy by aboutbringing
building solid business
together groups
practices, which ensure
of people
ASM is financially sucwho
help each
cessful and can more
other.
than just sustain itself
into the future.
Thom Passek
I will visit more chapters, attend conferences, meet with business
leaders, and engage our student and faculty
members moving forward. I hope to meet
many of you and learn about your needs and
how ASM can help you be more successful at
what you do. The materials community really
does make a difference, such as improving the
safety in the automobiles and planes we travel
in, developing materials to address energy challenges, creating armor to protect our troops,
and manufacturing new medical devices that
improve the quality of life or even save lives.
Look around you, materials are everywhere.

Thom discusses goals with Finance Committee members,


John Tirpak, FASM, and past president Mark Smith, FASM,
in San Antonio in March.

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...Managing Directors Perspective

Collaborating with government to advocate for ASMs interests


was part of Thoms agenda as he met with Congressman
David Joyce at the Dome in February flanked by ASM staff
Skip Wolfe (left) and Scott Henry (right).
Leadership Days
2013 provided
Passek with an
opportunity to
speak to a
gathering of
ASM chapter
leaders
and delegates.

Andy Nydam (center), senior master teacher and trustee of


ASM Foundation, receives his certificate of appreciation for
serving as an Eisenman Camp mentor from Managing
Director Thom Passek and ASM President Gern Maurer.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

75

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...Members in the News

IN MEMORIAM
In July, just short of his 95th birthday, James
M. Taub, FASM, of Tucson, Ariz., passed
away. He was born and raised in Cleveland and
earned his B.S. from Case School of Applied
Sciences and returned to Case for night school
to earn his M.S. in metallurgical engineering.
For two years he worked for Republic Steel
Corp., and then returned to Case to work in a
research and development program. In 1944, he was invited to
Los Alamos, N.M., for a top-secret government program, which
turned out to be the Manhattan Project. He became group leader
of CMB-6 for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (now LANL)
and held that position for 29 years. He retired in 1981 after nearly
37 years with the lab. In 1963, he received a letter from President
Kennedy authorizing the Atomic Energy Commissions recommendation that he be awarded the prestigious Ernest Orlando
Lawrence Award. He was the first metallurgical engineer to receive that recognition.
Prof. Samuel Stanford Mansons name survives in decadesold formulas still in use to predict metal fatigue on Earth and in
space. The NASA Lewis Research Center (Cleveland) retiree
died July 7 in Santa Barbara, Calif., at age 93. Stan Manson
earned a masters degree at the University of Michigan. In 1942,
Manson joined the Langley Research Center, a Virginia facility
of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, later
NASA. A year later, he transferred to Clevelands Lewis Laboratory. He helped discover the Manson-Coffin Law and the
Manson-Hirschberg Method of Universal Slopesfindings
crucial to space engines and heat shields. He later became chief
of Lewis new Materials and Structures Division. Manson retired from NASA in 1974 and began teaching at Case Western
Reserve University (Cleveland). Prof. Manson was coauthor,
with Gary Halford (also now deceased), of two ASM books: Fatigue and Durability of Structural Materials and Fatigue and
Durability of Metals at High Temperatures. He was also past
president of the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis.
Mr. David J. Chellman passed away on July
15 at the age of 66. He was a long time Senior
Technical Fellow at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) in the Advanced Development Program organization (aka Skunk
Works) with more than 36 years of experience
in the aerospace industry. In addition to 21
years as an LM Technical Fellow, Chellman
was also an AIAA Associate Fellow. He was recognized for outstanding work in the development, evaluation, and application
of advanced metallic materials, ranging from low density and
high temperature aluminum alloys to creep resistant titanium
alloys. He served as technical consultant on numerous LM
committees and was an executive committee member for AeroMat and ASM annual technical meetings. He was a co-recipient of both the 2003 Defense Manufacturing Technology
Achievement Award for Laser Additive Manufacturing Technologies and the 2001 R&D 100 Award for High Temperature
Supersonic Aluminum Alloy Development. He received his
M.S. in metallurgy and materials science from the University
of California at Los Angeles.

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ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

Members in the News


Norman R. Augustine, Life Member
In July, CRDF Global (Arlington, Va.) announced the recipients of its annual George
Brown Award for International Scientific
Cooperation including Mr. Norman R. Augustine, retired chairman and CEO of the
Lockheed Martin Corp. Augustine is cited
for scientific and humanitarian achievements and critical work advancing international cooperation. The award will be presented at the 2013
CRDF Annual Awards Gala on November 6 in Washington,
D.C. The Gala recognizes individuals for their critical work
advancing international cooperation in science and technology. The George Brown Award for International Scientific Cooperation commemorates the late Congressman George E.
Brown, Jr., by recognizing individuals whose work honors
Browns vision. CRDF Global is an independent, nonprofit organization authorized by the U.S. Congress to promote international scientific and technical collaboration through grants,
technical resources, and training.
Hu Named a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry
Yun Hang Hu, the Charles
and Carroll McArthur Professor at Michigan Technological
University, was admitted as a
Fellow to the Royal Society of
Chemistry (RSC). His research
accomplishments include developing a method for converting carbon dioxide to carbon nitrides. He also made
significant contributions in the field of hydrogen storage materials, and his investigations into the use of graphene to improve solar cells efficiency led to his selection as a presenter
at the National Science Foundations USA-Egypt Solar Workshop in 2012. Hu published 110 papers in peer-reviewed
journals, edited three American Chemical Society series
books, and served on the editorial boards of five international journals. Hu is on the faculty of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Michigan Tech.
Dresselhaus Invests in MIT
When Mildred (Millie) S.
Dresselhaus was awarded a $1
million Kavli Prize last year,
the Institute Professor Emerita
of Physics and Computer Science and Engineering decided
to invest her prize money in an
institution she knows quite
well: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
During a career spanning From left: Polina Anikeeva and
more than five decades at the Mildred S. Dresselhaus
Institute and Lincoln Laboratory, Dresselhaus helped usher
in the age of nanotechnology with her research on the fundamental properties of carbon. By establishing the Mildred S.
Dresselhaus Fund to support MIT women or junior members of the faculty, she hopes to shape its future as well. The

inaugural recipient of the Dresselhaus Award is Polina Anikeeva, the AMAX Career Development Assistant Professor
in Materials Science and Engineering. Anikeeva's research
focuses on materials and devices for neural prosthetics.
ASTM Honors Brandt
Michael Brandt, senior staff manager,
quality systems, at Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, Pa., received the ASTM International
Award for Merit for exceptional and sustained leadership and technical contributions within Committee B07 on Light
Metals and Alloys. The Award of Merit,
which also includes the honorary title of
Fellow, is ASTMs highest organizational recognition for individual contributions to standards activities.
A member of ASTM International since 2004, Brandt currently serves as Committee B07 recording secretary. He is also
secretary of Subcommittee B07.01 on Aluminum Alloy Ingots
and Castings and chairs the U.S. Technical Advisory Group
National Committee for ISO/TC 79 on Light Metals and Alloys (B07.09). Brandt is a member of ASM International, the
American Society for Quality, and SAE International.
Nanoengineering at NC State
North Carolina State University is launching a masters degree program in nanoengineering. There has long been a
tremendous focus on nanoscience, but for that science to
benefit society, we need nanoengineering, says Dr. Justin
Schwartz, Kobe Steel Distinguished Professor and head of
NC States Materials Science and Engineering Department,
which will house the new degree program. The program begins this fall and will hold classes on campus, but will also
be the first masters degree program in nanoengineering offered online. This is one of only a few comprehensive, engineering-specific
masters
degrees
focused
on
nanotechnology and nanomaterials, says Dr. Jay Narayan,
FASM, the John C. Fan Distinguished Chair Professor of
Materials Science and Engineering at NC State and senior
advisor to the degree program.

ASM Receives
Solar Atmospheres
Vacuum Furnace Donation
for 100th Anniversary

ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, is proud to announce the donation of a new $250,000 lab-sized furnace,
designed specifically for use at Materials Park, by Solar Atmospheres Inc., Souderton, Pa. The gift commemorating the
ASM 100th Anniversary will better enable and further education efforts at ASM. The official dedication ceremony was
held July 20 with a ribbon cutting as part of the Annual
Chapter Leadership Days and the ASM Materials Education
Foundations Eisenman Materials Camp. The students attending the camp were excited to be the first users of the
new furnace.

Representatives from Solar Atmospheres Inc., including Roger


Jones, corporate president (center), are joined by ASM President
Gern Maurer (second row) and ASM Managing Director Thom
Passek, at the furnace ribbon cutting.

Nominations Sought for


2014 ASM/TMS Distinguished Lectureship in Materials & Society
Nominations are currently being taken for the ASM/TMS
Distinguished Lectureship in Materials & Society. The Lecture was established in 1971 and is jointly sponsored by The
Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) and ASM International. The topic of the lecture shall fall within these
objectives:
To clarify the role of materials science and engineering in
technology and in society in its broadest sense.
To present an evaluation of progress made in developing
new technology for the ever changing needs of technology
and society.
To define new frontiers for materials science and
engineering.
The qualifications of the lecturer must include:
A person experienced in national or industrial policy-

making in the field of materials science and engineering.


An eminent individual who possesses a keen sense of how
technology and society are affected by development in
materials science and engineering.
A person associated with government, industry, research,
or education.
Nominations may be proposed by any member of either Society. Submit your nominations by October 15, 2013, for consideration. Recommendations must be received at the headquarters
of either Society.
For a complete listing of the rules and nomination form, visit
ASMs website at www.asminternational.org/awards or contact
Christine Hoover at 440/338-5151 ext. 5509, christine.hoover@
asminternational.org. Deb Price of TMS may also be contacted
at awards@tms.org.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

77

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...ASM/TMS Lectureship

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS... Profile of a Volunteer

Chapter News
Lehigh Valley Materials Camp in the News
Students who attended Materials Camp at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., held July 8-12, found themselves in the
news. The site www.azom.com
published the story, Teenagers
Fabricate Chocolate Composites, which described such fun
experiments as determining
which two candy types, when
combined with chocolate, will
form the strongest composite.
Its a lesson in bonding and fracture aimed at exciting students
in materials, engineering, and
science. The camp, hosted each
year by Lehighs department of
For their chocolate composite,
materials science and engineerKenny Gahler (left) of Boyertown
High School and Eric Scott of
ing and the ASM Lehigh Valley
Southern Lehigh High School chose Chapter, also received sponsorWhoppers for impact resistance and
ship from several local compaGummy Worms for their stretching
nies, including Carpenter
ability.
Technologies of Reading, Pa.
Lehigh is the first ASM Materials Camp to be taught by
graduate students. The camps faculty adviser, Wojciech Misiolek, and two former instructors, Ryan Deacon and Clifford Prescott, explained why in 2006 in the International
Journal of Engineering Education. The concept behind this
new format is simplethe young teaching the young, they
wrote. Teenagers relate better to slightly older students than
to faculty members, they said, and graduate students learn
how to teach and present engineering concepts.

Ottawa and Calgary Teachers Camps


Again this summer, the NACE Foundation of Canada and
the ASM Materials Education Foundation, along with ASM
Materials Camp Canada, collaborated in organizing 5-day
camps on materials, including corrosion, for teachers in Ottawa, Ontario, and Calgary, Alberta. The Ottawa Camp was
held on July 8-12, and the Calgary Camp, June 17-21. Chris
Miedema, chemistry teacher at Ashbury College, hosted the
fifth annual camp in Ottawa, attended by 30 teachers from
Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. The master teachers who presented the course in Ottawa were Debbie Goodwin and Eric Towers.
The Calgary Camp was held, for the third year, at SAIT
Polytechnic. Twenty-one teachers from Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario attended. The host on the SAIT Campus was Ed Leong, Chemical Technologies program advisor,
supported by Emily Lees, head of the Chemical Technologies Department. The master teachers were Roger Crider
and Ed Leong. Courtesy of Carboline, each teacher received
a NACE cKit for conducting corrosion-based experiments.
At the camps, teachers learn hands-on experiments to inspire their own students to pursue STEM careers.
Teachers get a
lesson on
corrosion in the
lab at Ashbury
College
in Ottawa.

VOLUNTEERISM COMMITTEE

Profile of a Volunteer

Prof. Behzad Bavarian


California State University, Northridge

ith his Ohio State Ph.D. in metallurgy engineering in hand, Behzad


Bavarian moved his young family across
the U.S. in 1985 to begin a career in academia at California State University,
Northridge. Being new to the area, I did not have many social contacts in the field, recalls Bavarian, a native of Tehran.
ASM meetings were a tremendous vehicle for networking
and learning about local industry.
Bavarian is now firmly rooted as a professor in the Department of Manufacturing System Engineering and is a true ambassador for ASM, recruiting students to monthly meetings
of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) chapter. We have a very
strong program and encourage students to become members,
says Bavarian. He proposed the innovation of having chapter
meetings on campus every other month, as there is no student chapter. The meetings attract 25 to 40 students, giving

them the opportunity to get involved in current research in a


region rich with industry, from aerospace and biomedical engineering to electronics and manufacturing.
I strongly believe STEM education is critical. We see a
shortage of these students, so it is very rewarding to have
support from ASM and the SFV executive board, he explains. Bavarian has seen his local chapter evolve, with more
diverse topics as local industry changes. The chapter has
broadened their focus from metals and metallurgy to nanotechnology and non-metallics.
Bavarian served on the executive board and is now Education chair, developing courses open to the public and continuing to promote ASM to students. He created and directs
the universitys award-winning Materials Engineering Undergraduate Research Program.
Joining ASM has been very rewarding. I have grown with
it, says Bavarian. I enjoyed the early support in my career.
Now he tries to convey that sentiment to students, telling
them how important it is to be involved with a professional
society like ASM.

For a list of upcoming ASM Training Courses, see our ad on pages 38-39 of this issue.

78

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

EMERGING PROFESSIONALS

Whats Inside the Blue Box?


Shuhui Ma
Tiffany & Co.

ll girls love jewelry and so do I. Before


I worked at Tiffany & Co., I could spend
hours lingering around jewelry counters and
staring at the beautiful trinkets. I completed
my graduate work studying traditional metals,
never realizing I would be working with platinum and gold.
My first thought was how difficult can it be to make
jewelry? It may be relatively easy for a designer to make one
piece of jewelry. The challenge is figuring out how to make
tens of thousands of similar pieces with a high first pass yield.
Although precious metals have been used in jewelry manufacturing for centuries, it is hard to find any peer-reviewed
publications with relevant technical information. As a
process engineer, I enjoy using the skills and knowledge
gained in my graduate work to figure out unknowns and
solve issues on the job.
So what is inside the blue box? All the products we make

Student Papers Sought for


ASM HTS/Bodycote Contest
The ASM Heat Treating Society established the Best Paper
in Heat Treating Award in 1997 to recognize a paper that
represents an advancement in heat-treating technology, promotes heat treating in a substantial way, or represents a clear
advancement in managing the business of heat treating.
The award, endowed by Bodycote Thermal ProcessNorth America, is open to all students, in full-time or
part-time education, at universities or colleges. Students
who have graduated within the past three years and whose
paper describes work completed while an undergraduate
or post graduate student are also eligible.The winner will
receive a plaque and a check for $2500.
Submission deadline is December 13, 2013.
Visit http://hts.asminternational.org/portal/site/hts/HTS_
Awards, or contact Sarina Pastoric at 440/338-5151 ext.
5513, sarina.pastoric@asminternational.org.

today start with CAD design. Depending on the


geometry and complexity of a particular product,
we determine how to achieve relatively high yield
at a competitive cost in the production process. We
perform engineering test runs to ensure that the
piece can be produced consistently and repeatedly
to the satisfaction of designers and our internal
quality standards. Then the manufacturing team
takes over the process to create the final hardware.
So when you receive a gift in familiar Tiffany wrapping,
you know that what is inside the blue box is not just a piece
of jewelry. The gift also represents the dedication and skilled
effort of the craftsmen to their product.
As new technologies emerge in jewelry manufacturing, increasing engineering input is needed to improve the manufacturability of products and efficiency of processes. This requires
engineers like me to further adapt principles and knowledge
of traditional metallography to precious metals manufacturing. Today I may still linger at the counters not only for gazing
at the beauty of the jewelry, but also understanding the passion
and hard work behind the quality I observe.

Eisenman Materials Camp

Materials Park, Ohio, was the site of the 14th annual ASM
Eisenman Materials Camp, sponsored by the ASM Materials
Education Foundation. Jaret J. Frafjord, technical director at
IMR KHA in Portland, Ore., served as curriculum leader. A
team of mentors assisted him in developing the weeks activities to excite high school juniors and seniors to explore careers
in materials, science, and engineering.
Dr. Daniel P. Dennies,
FASM, senior
managing engineer at
Exponent, shows a
microstructure to
campers microstructure
to campers Quentin
Chaillet (France) and
Isaac Luther (Ohio), and
mentor Philippe Maret
(France).

ASM Indian Institute of Metals


Announces Recipients of 2013 Visiting Lecturers

The cooperative Visiting Lecturer program of ASM International and the Indian
Institute of Metals (IIM) is pleased to announce the five distinguished individuals
named to participate in the 2013 Visiting
Lecturer program: Prof. Arun Gokhale,
FASM, Georgia Tech, Atlanta; Dr. Sandip
Harimkar, assistant professor, Oklahoma
Gokhale
Harimkar
Kumar
Singh, D
Singh, N.
State University, Stillwater; Dr. Prabhat
Kumar, FASM, H.C. Starck Inc., Framingham, Mass.; Dr. Dileep Singh, materials scientist, Argonne National Laboratories, Lemont,
Ill.; and Prof. Narsingh Singh, FASM, University of Maryland, Baltimore. The award includes an $800 honorarium to be used for
travel expenses within India during the lecturers visit and a certificate of recognition to be presented at the ASM Leadership Awards
Luncheon scheduled for October 28 in Montral, Canada during MS&T13.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

79

ASMnews

HIGHLIGHTS...IIM Visiting Lectureres

products &

literature

FEI, Hillsboro, Ore., introduced three new transmission


electron microscopy (TEM) systems for application-specific workflows. Metrios for semiconductor manufacturing metrology features
advanced automated metrology to ensure
greater precision than manual methods.
Talos for materials and life sciences applications combines high-resolution, highthroughput TEM imaging with fast, precise, and
quantitative energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Titan Themis
enables direct measurements of properties such as magnetic fields on the nanometer-length scale and electric
fields to the atomic scale. www.fei.com/tembyfei.
Phenom-World BV, the Netherlands, introduced the Phenom ProX desktop scanning electron microscope featuring a magnification range to 100,000 and 17 nm
resolution. A fully integrated EDS detector analyzes x-rays
generated by the electrons from the electron beam interacting with the sample. An integrated element identification software package allows users to identify any hidden
elements within a sample via point-and-shoot functionality. Additionally, the software can be expanded with a
combined elemental mapping and line scan option; map-

80

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

ping reveals the distribution of elements within the sample. www.phenom-world.com.


Sonoscan Inc., Elk Grove Village, Ill., announced an enhanced Digital Image Analysis Toolbox used for automated acoustic analysis of individual IC components,
various types of bonded wafers including MEMS devices,
and other devices. The toolbox automatically sorts components into accept/reject or multiple defined categories.
It also contains many predefined common analysis tools,
such as: Interface analysis to nondestructively determine
the bond between two surfaces in a package; wafer bond
analysis to quantify the number of voids or non-bonds between two bonded wafers; and chip on wafer analysis to
measure the quality of bumps and underfill between the
chip and wafer. www.sonoscan.com.
Royal DSM, the Netherlands, launched Arnite A HR, reportedly the first high performance PET engineering plastic
that is highly resistant to hydrolysis. Grades are available
in 35% and 50% glass fiber reinforcement. It is targeted at
a variety of automotive applications, including throttle valve
bodies, sensors, control valve housings and covers, and
ignition systems. www.dsm.com/automotive.

classifieds
Apple Rubber Products, Lancaster, N.Y., offers two new silicone
compounds with UL 50 and UL 50E certifications for use with and
without environmental considerations. 14SL7ML and 35SL5ML provide an ultra-low compression set, even at elevated temperatures,
and offer quality and durability needed for safe operations. Included
in the UL listings are end uses for both atmospheric and generated
ozone. The compounds do not contain phthalate plasticizers, which
would craze plastic-based enclosures, or require any anti-corrosion
inhibitors for metal enclosures. www.applerubber.com.
Park Systems, Santa Clara, Calif., introduced Park NX-HDM, a
fully automated defect review and sub-angstrom surface roughness atomic force microscopy system for device substrates
and disk media. The system increases throughput up to 1000%
and offers a 30% higher success rate than the prior system, analyzing, identifying, and scanning media for all wafer sizes to 150
mm. The survey scan, zoom-in scan, and analysis of imaged defect types are automated with a wide range of optical inspection
tools. www.parkafm.com.
KLA-Tencor Corp., Milpitas, Calif., announced the 2910 Series
optical wafer defect inspection platform with NanoPoint technology and new eDR-7100 electron-beam wafer defect review
system. These tools combine increased speed with seamless
connectivity to quickly find and identify defects that inhibit yield
and reliability. The 2910 Series improved defect capture and the
eDR-7100s enhanced review resolution have been demonstrated
by detecting and imaging unique defects located at the bottom of
3D or vertical pattern structures such as FinFETs.
www.kla-tencor.com.

To advertise in the classifieds, or to order article reprints,


please contact Kelly Sukol at 440/338-5151, ext. 5569;
kelly.sukol@asminternational.org.

ad index
Advertiser

Page

AFC-Holcroft
49, 52
Allied High Tech Products Inc.
BC
Applied Test Systems Inc.
82
BeaverMatic Inc.
51, 52
Bose Corp.
3
Can-Eng Furnaces International Ltd.
52
Carl Zeiss MicroImaging Inc.
31
Carpenter Technology Corp.
24
Centorr Vacuum Industries Inc.
82
Clemex Technologies Inc.
19
Consarc Corp.
40
Dry Coolers Inc.
52
Epsilon Technology Corp.
81
GeoCorp Inc.
44, 52
Goodfellow Corp.
IBC
Harper International Corp.
25
Induction Tooling Inc.
53, 68
Inductoheat Inc.
53, 54
Instron
23
Ipsen Inc.
IFC, 4243, 53
JEOL USA Inc.
5, 7
Kureha America Inc.
53
Master Bond Inc.
80
Nitrex Metal Inc.
58
NSL Analytical Services Inc.
30
Portable Heat Treating Repairs, LLC
68
Proto Mfg. Ltd.
80
Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, subs. Shimadzu Corp.
11
Struers Inc.
16
Surface Combustion Inc.
53, 65
Thermo-Calc Software Inc.
29
Tinius Olsen Inc.
69
Ulbrich Stainless Steels & Special Metals Inc.
9
United Process Controls
53, 57
Westmoreland Mechanical Testing & Research Inc.
81
The ad index is published as a service. Every care is taken to make
it accurate, but Advanced Materials & Processes assumes no
responsibility for errors or omissions.
ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

81

editorial preview
OCTOBER

Nondestructive Testing

Highlighting:
Modeling NDE Processes
Advanced NDE Techniques
Integrated Computational Materials
Engineering (ICME)
Bonus Distribution:
International Symposium for Testing and Failure
Analysis (ISTFA) 2013,
November 3-7, San Jose, Calif.
Advertising closes September 4, 2013

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER
Materials Testing/Characterization

Highlighting:
Fracture Toughness Testing for Ductile
Materials
Robotic In-line Testing for Automotive
Applications
Critical Materials and Conflict Minerals
Special Supplements:
International Thermal Spray and Surface
Engineering newsletter covering emerging
technologies in the thermal spray industry.
HTPro newsletter covering heat treating
technology, processes, materials, and
equipment, along with Heat Treating Society
news and initiatives.
Advertising closes October 4, 2013
Contact us:
9639 Kinsman Road
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
Tel: 440/338-5151
Fax: 440/338-4634
Web: www.asminternational.org/AMP
Subscriptions/Customer Service: 800/336-5152, ext. 0
E-mail: MemberServiceCenter@asminternational.org
Sales Staff:
Skip Wolfe, Director, Sales and Marketing
440/338-5151 (ext. 5226)
Fax: 440/338-8542
skip.wolfe@asminternational.org
AM&P/ASM Web Media
Erik Klingerman,
National Sales Manager
440/338-5151 (ext. 5574)
Fax: 440/338-8542
erik.klingerman@asminternational.org
iTSSe/Affiliate Sponsorships
Kelly Thomas, CEM.CMP
National Account Manager
440/338-1733
Fax: 614/948-3090
kelly.thomas@asminternational.org
82

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

pastimes
Selected items from the pages of ASM Internationals monthly magazine: Metal Progress was published
from 1930 to 1986, after which Advanced Materials & Processes came into being.
Critical materials remain a timeless concern
From the article, Where Will We Get Our Future Metals?
Metal Progress, January 1950
The U.S. mining industry does not supply many necessary metals. For example, in recent years we have been
dependent on foreign sources for more than 90% of our beryllium, chromium, cobalt, columbium, nickel and tantalum.
Numerous problems of the domestic mining
industry were not solved satisfactorily in World
War II. These problems may be even more
important in a future emergency. Table source:
Special Study No. 30Import Policies and
Programs of the War Production Board and
Predecessor Agencies, May 1940 to November
1945, by David Horton. Washington, Civilian
Production Administration, May 1, 1947.

Marvelous metallurgical microscope


From an advertisement for a new microscope from George Scherr
Co., Metal Progress, October 1938
The New Busch Metaphotthe metallurgical microscope with
the built-in reflex camera.
Range of magnification:
3 to 2500.
Inverted Stage
specimens of any size or
shape can be used.
Highly Corrected
Objectivesin universal mount for
bright or dark field illumination, reflected
or transmitted light, polarized light.
Photographic Cameravariable eyepiece
permits change of magnification at the
turn of a dial. Bellows are
completely eliminated.
Groundglass remains in fixed
and inclined position right in
front of observer. Saves time
and prevents fatigue.
The complete microscope
occupies very little space, the
diameter of the base being 14 inches
and the height only 21 inches.
Because of its compact design this
high quality instrument can be sold
at a moderate price.

Micrographic rodent
From the Letters department,
Metal Progress, August 1980
A Mouse of Steel
I have been intrigued by the structural
animals (or animal structures) that occasionally
appear in Letters. To my great surprise, I
discovered a similar encroachment in the
microstructure of a carbon steel casting: An
energetic mouse! The 200 photomicrograph
shows microshrinkage with sulfide slag.
Yngve Bostrom, Dept. of Materials Testing,
AB Motala Verkstad, Motals, Sweden

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013

83

Ultimate bad taste car accessories

Headlight eyelashes were voted the worst


car accessory in the UK, according to a
survey conducted by CarShop.

CarShop, UK, reveals the top 10 most hated car


accessories in the United Kingdom, with more than 70%
of drivers claiming their hatred for headlight eyelashes.
The supersized black lashes, inspired by the trend for
women wearing eyelash extensions, beat fluffy dice and
spoilers to claim the title, in a survey commissioned by the
used car retailer. Also making the top 10 list of despised
car accessories were novelty horns (58%), Powered by
Fairy Dust stickers (58%), and nodding dogs (47%).
CarShop conducted the survey of 2000 drivers in order
to help buyers and sellers better understand how
accessories can impact a cars value, as well as to educate drivers about
depreciation and how to avoid devaluing their assets. The top 10 bad taste car
accessories include spoilers, subwoofers, steering wheel covers, racer seatbelts,
chrome gearknobs, novelty sun shades, and tinted windows. Nearly 93% of
respondents admitted to never buying a car with objectionable accessories, with a
further 40% admitting that they may be inclined to break up with someone who
showed up with a newly attached embellishment. www.carshop.co.uk.

The beauty of rust

Gizmodo rust photography winner,


Sandstone by Andre Papineau.

Rust includes any variety of powdery or scaly reddish-brown or reddish-yellow


hydrated ferric oxides formed on iron and iron-containing materials by lowtemperature oxidation in the presence of water. It often symbolizes neglect and
rotting infrastructure. However, a photography contest sponsored by Gizmodo
challenged contestants to capture its beauty. The winner is called Sandstone. The
photo was taken by Andre Papineau using a Nokia Lumia 920 ISO: 100 F 2.0 with
shutter speed of 1/400. Papineau is an engineer working at a 40-year-old air
separation plant with an ample amount of rust. He named the image after the
Garden of the Gods and Red Rocks, both in Colorado. The photo is actually of a
rusting support beam with paint chipping off the steel. He used Photoshop to
adjust the colors and dodge or burn a few areas to accentuate the subtle details.
http://gizmodo.com.

Innovative teaching technique turns organic chemistry reactions into song

At the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 273 students in Neil Gargs
popular organic chemistry course, Chemistry 14D, created 98 music videos
detailing various chemical reactions they learnedthe most videos in the four
years Garg has offered the extra-credit assignment. Perhaps none is as creative
as Alkenes Are Used for These, an animated video made by Jessica Lee, Emily
Chuang, Christine Nguyen, and Maggi Lai. In the video, a student studying
chemistry falls asleep and is transported into a nightmarish world where she is
tormented by the Joker from Batman. Just as death appears inevitable,
professor Garg, in a cameo as the Caped Crusader, comes to the rescue and all
is right in the worlduntil the student wakes up and must find a rhyme for
ozonolysis.
Still from video by team Chem 14Dreamers (l-r):
What do the students learn from making these music videos? Nguyen
Laura Lorenzana, Michael Sianturi, Andy Truong,
learned a great deal about audio and video editing, and Chuang learned about
Sayda Hartoonian. Courtesy of the team.
animation. Lee values the teamwork with her fellow students. One student noted
We invite contributions for this page!
how it is impossible to get the reaction mechanisms out of my head. I literally
Please send cartoons, trivia, jokes, photomicrographs,
etc., to stressrelief@asminternational.org.
dreamt about organic chemistry three nights in a row. At this point, Im not
If we use your idea, we will send you
forgetting those organic reactions, because we made them rhyme. Visit
a cool mini multi-tool.
http://ucla.in/15Ur2uv and http://ucla.in/L38Gze to watch the videos.
84

ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES SEPTEMBER 2013