0 Up votes0 Down votes

76 views6 pagesDescribes the theory required to filter substances in a laboratory setting.

Nov 02, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Describes the theory required to filter substances in a laboratory setting.

© All Rights Reserved

76 views

Describes the theory required to filter substances in a laboratory setting.

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

You are on page 1of 6

Filtration

FILTRATION

Introduction

Separation of solids from liquids is a common operation that requires empirical data to

make predictions of performance. These data are usually obtained from experiments performed

on a small-scale laboratory equipment. In this lab, you will first perform experiments with a

small batch filter and use your experimental data to predict operating conditions for a continuous

rotary drum filter commonly used in industrial applications. You will then verify your

predictions by experiments on the drum filter. The experiments are performed with a slurry of

diatomaceous earth in water.

In order to satisfactorily complete this laboratory exercise, it is important to have a

thorough understanding of the following concepts:

Filtration

Filter cake resistance

Flow through porous media

Controlling parameters: Pressure drop, time for filtration, concentration of slurry

Performance indicators: Filtrate flow rate, rate of cake formation.

Feed (slurry) is poured into a graduated cylinder and filtrate is collected in a conical flask. The

filter medium is a canvas cloth fixed at the bottom of the cylinder.

The batch filtration can be performed in two regimes:

1. Pressure-driven filtration. A constant vacuum pressure is applied to the conical flask via

pump induces liquid flow from the cylinder.

2. Gravity-driven filtration. The pump is disconnected from the conical flask and the fluid

flow from the cylinder into the flask is driven by gravity.

1-1

ECH 4224L

Filtration

The objective of the batch experiment is to determine the permeability and porosity of the

cake. Once these values have been obtained they can be used to make predictions of the rate at

which solids are produced in the continuous filter. These predictions are then tested by running

the continuous filter.

The pressure (either due to the weight of the slurry or the vacuum pump) is related to the

water flow rate by Darcys law for flows through porous media:

(1)

Here, is the cake permeability, is the fluid viscosity, p is the pressure drop across the fluid,

L is the cake thickness, Q is the volumetric flow rate of the liquid, and A is the area of filter

media. In Eq. (1) we neglected the resistance of the filter medium, since in our experiment it is

much smaller than that of the cake.

Values of the water viscosity at various temperatures are available in the literature and

values of L, A, and Q can be measured directly. In particular, Q can be measured by the bucket

and stopwatch method,

(2)

Here, V(t) is the volume of the filtrate collected at time t. Therefore, we can solve Eq. (1) for the

only remaining unknown, namely the cake permeability .

Note, however, that several quantities in Eq. (1) are time dependent. Clearly, the cake

thickness L grows with time. The pressure drop depends on the height H of the slurry, which

1-2

ECH 4224L

Filtration

decreases with time. Finally, solution of equations discussed below shows that Q also depends on

time. Therefore, if we solve Eq. (1) for using data measured at different moments of time, we

will observe some fluctuations in due to errors in experimental measurement.

A more convenient approach to measurement of is to perform a least-squares fit to

experimental data. For this, we need to rewrite Eq. (1) as a differential equation by substituting

Eq. (2) into Eq. (1):

(3)

The height of the cake L can be obtained from the mass balance for the solids. The mass of solids

in the cake is

(4)

Here, co is the concentration of solids in the slurry (kg of solids per m3 of liquid),

is the

is the

volume of pores in the cake of volume LA. In the wet cake, this volume is occupied by water.

Therefore, the cake porosity can be determined by comparing weights of the wet and dry cakes.

Assuming that

(5)

or

(6)

where

(7)

Eq. (6) can be easily solved if p is constant. In this case,

(8)

Therefore, plotting V vs. t1/2 and fitting the plot to a straight line, we can obtain the cake

permeability .

Note that in reality p is time dependent,

.

(9)

Here, ppump is the pressure drop generated by the vacuum pump, slurry is the slurry density, and

H(t) is the height of the slurry column above the cake. Dependence of H(t) on time is directly

related to that of V(t). Therefore, Eq. (6) can still be solved albeit the solution becomes more

complex. In the pressure-driven experiments, ppump = const and, if the contribution of the

gravity to p is negligible, one can assume that p= const.

1-3

ECH 4224L

Filtration

Controlling parameters: Pressure drop, concentration of slurry, drum speed.

Performance indicators: Filtrate flow rate, rate of cake formation.

Rotary drum filter consists of a drum rotating in a tub of liquid to be filtered (see Fig. 2).

The liquid to be filtered is sent to the tub below the drum. The drum rotates through the liquid

and the vacuum sucks liquid and solids onto the drum. The liquid portion is sucked through the

filter media to the internal portion of the drum, and the filtrate is pumped away. The solids

adhere to the outside of the drum, which is then blown off the surface by air. The rotating drum

continuously takes in feed from slurry tank and blows off the cake form the surface. This

establishes a continuous operation.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2. Rotary drum filter: (a) the Bird-Young filter installed in the Unit Operations Lab; (b)

Schematics of the filter operation.

The continuous filter operates at constant p and hence each element of cloth acts like a

batch filter. Therefore, the filtrate flow rate can be predicted by the batch filtration model

discussed above. Let us compute amount of filtrate V passing through the filter during a short

time interval t. Divide the drum surface into N segments of size wl, where w is the width of

the drum and l is the distance traveled by a point on the drum surface during time t,

(10)

Here, R is the drum radius and is the angular velocity of the drum. Area of each segment is

(11)

and the total area of the drum surface immersed in the slurry is

(12)

1-4

ECH 4224L

Filtration

Here, = Nt is the time during which a filter segment remains immersed in the slurry. This time

can also be expressed as

(13)

where is the angle corresponding to the portion of the filter immersed in the slurry (see Fig. 2b).

The segments on the drum surface are numbered so that the n-th segment spent time

(14)

inside the slurry. Then the amount of filtrate that passed through the n-th segment since its

immersion into the slurry is given by Eq. (8) with t = tn-1, i.e.

(15)

where K is given by Eq. (7). Volume of the filtrate passing through this segment during the next

t seconds is Vn = [V(tn) V(tn-1)]. Volume of the filtrate passing through the entire filter

immersed in the slurry during time t is

(16)

(17)

The 2nd equality was obtained by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by N. V() in

the right-hand side of Eq. (17) is given by Eq. (8).

Once V(t) is known, we can also obtain the cake thickness L on the surface of the filter

coming out of the solution. For this, we can assume that L = 0 when the filter segment enters the

solution and use Eq. (4) to obtain L(). In this experiment, we cannot measure L directly. Instead,

we can measure the rate of the cake production. A theoretical prediction for this rate can be

easily obtained once L() is predicted and the speed of the drum, R, and the filter width, w, are

measured. This prediction can then be verified experimentally.

1-5

ECH 4224L

Filtration

Objectives

The main learning objective is to gain experience in scaling up from a bench-scale operation to a

production operation.

Batch Filtration

1. Determine permeability and porosity of the cake from the batch experiment.

2. Determine effects of pressure drop, slurry concentration, and initial amount of slurry on the

filtrate flow rate and the porosity and permeability of the filter cake.

Continuous Filtration

1. Use results of the batch filtration experiment to predict dependence of the filtrate flow rate

and the rate of the filter cake production on the speed of the drum rotation, pressure drop, and

the slurry concentration.

2. Verify your theoretical predictions experimentally.

3. Determine porosity of the cake for various pressure drops and slurry concentrations and

compare these results with the results of the batch filtration.

1-6

- PFC-P102_engl.1Uploaded bykeyur1109
- Suspended Solid LabsheetUploaded byAidaFarzanaNana
- Kata DynUploaded byJohn Phillip Lamsis
- Raised Floor CalculationUploaded byKannan As
- Solidity Trade Shea Butter InformationUploaded bySolidity Trade
- Expt. 5 - Permeability (Pre & Post)Uploaded byUKissMeow
- Ts LCRBY FiltersUploaded byRazvan Teodor Bujicu
- Filtru curatitorUploaded byautentic123
- Juice Manufacturing Industry Research ReportUploaded byCAKRB
- EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR HIGH FLOW RATES OF OIL-WATER THROUGH HIGH PERMEABILITY MEDIAUploaded byari_si
- CHEM 232 - Experiment No. 1 Spring 2018-2019Uploaded byMohyeddine K. El Sayed
- Rotary Screen Defender Toro EquipmentUploaded byBruno
- FiltersUploaded byBhushan Verma
- Eaton Bag Filtration Systems CatalogUploaded byJaime Andres Villegas Mansilla
- Neut Sche CrystallizationUploaded byBusmin Ronald Pardosi
- FHUploaded byramaik achiem
- SCA1993-01Uploaded byRosa K Chang H
- Filteration 3Uploaded byapi-3739176
- Rapid Sand FiltersUploaded byShepherd Nhanga
- syllchemexptdocUploaded byanjnfsikfs
- Hydraulic Filters 3Uploaded bychristodoulos charalambous
- ProTech2Ch4.pdfUploaded bykarunakarandct
- M-481-USAUploaded bybangs
- activity 2 iet 120Uploaded byapi-249340591
- activity 2 iet 120Uploaded byapi-253425511
- FILTRATION PROCESS.docUploaded byKrishna Yeole
- Seal Caprock and Stratigraphic Trap Identification in TransitionUploaded byNo Realiti
- 1- Filtration Unit (17!2!2019)_ce256c40afb9994f6a330af8ce3dfeccUploaded byzhvankareem
- Camacho Velazquez 2014Uploaded byDaniela Nieto
- Silica FiltersUploaded byAndres Av

- Chapter 07Uploaded byanon_82540101
- probset10Uploaded bycommando1180
- Termotehnica Automotive EngeneeringUploaded bySchiopu George
- Bond Energies.pdfUploaded byRinaFaridaBuanget
- Microscopic TechniquesUploaded byRonaldo Júnior Fernandes
- lpg rfrigerationUploaded byNabin Chandra Sahu
- ANTHOR PATHIC CIRCUITUploaded bykaran007_m
- EE21L Experiment 7 1.2Uploaded byFilbert Saavedra
- Gravity- Www.vethathiri.inbookpdfgofg (1)Uploaded byAkshaya Kumar Rath
- EET1035C Chapter 8 No QuizUploaded bychanttel
- Q-BANK-EI-2404Uploaded byJagadish Babu Kondragunta
- Articol 9Uploaded byConstantin Dorinel
- Thermo exam questionsUploaded bysiskieo
- 130833_lab4Uploaded byRoshan Shrestha
- COCO SoftwareUploaded byEvangelista Linda
- 8 X-Rays Diffraction From FibresUploaded byJagesh Ranjan
- Handout Moving Charges and MagnetismUploaded byMax Kashyap
- 7) C1 DifferentiationUploaded byAhmed Khalil
- MW mile methodUploaded byD Avi Na Sh
- d Hudson Ormus Gold Australian PatentUploaded byDOMINO66
- Nr310203 Power Systems II Set1Uploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Thesis 001Uploaded byJames Harrill Torres Laydea
- S5 L07 Shear stresses in thin-walled beam.pptUploaded byduplexprabu
- BMPBE Series Sheet 13032011Uploaded byNirav Desai
- emeUploaded byapi-296698256
- Ignacio Franco et al- Tunneling Currents That Increase with Molecular ElongationUploaded byKomodoDS
- Ncert Physics11 SolutionUploaded byRebel Mad
- DYNAMIC BALANCING OF HYDRONIC SYSTEMSUploaded by黃偉哲
- Unlock-05-lienau-2Uploaded bygunjandpatel05
- 461-472Uploaded bybehzad

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.