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Nov 02, 2016

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EE3008 Principles of Communications, Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

© All Rights Reserved

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EE3008 Principles of Communications, Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

© All Rights Reserved

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Analysis

Fourier Transform

Energy Spectrum, Power Spectrum and Signal Bandwidth

Signal Transmission through a Linear System

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

A signal is a set of data or information, which can be

represented as a function of time: s (t )

Deterministic signal is a signal whose physical description

is known completely, either in a mathematical form or a graphical

form.

Signal Energy:

Es | s (t ) |2 dt

Signal Power:

1 T /2

Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt

T T T / 2

Signal Classification:

Continuous-time vs. Discrete-time signal

Periodic signal vs. Aperiodic signal

Lecture 2

Time domain

Frequency domain

S( f )

s (t )

s t e j 2 ft dt

cos(2f0t)

t

f0

1/ f 0

sn f 0 0 s(t )e j 2 nf t dt

0

sn e j 2 nf0t

nf0

EE3008 Principles of Communications

f

Lecture 2

Fourier Transform

Lecture 2

Fourier Transform

Given a time domain signal s(t), its Fourier transform is defined as follows.

Fourier transform:

S( f )

s t e j 2 ft dt

The time domain signal s(t) can be expressed by S(f) using an inverse transform.

Inverse Fourier transform:

s (t )

S f e j 2 ft df

S( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

s (t ) S ( f )

Lecture 2

1/

at t=0, and has unit area.

(t )dt 1

and

s (t ) (t )

(t)

t 0

(t )

0 t0

S( f )

j 2 ft

(

t

)

e

dt

area =1

s(t)

S(f)

0

f

Lecture 2

s (t )

A

s (t ) A

t

S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt

S(f)

S (0) A e j 2 0t dt A 1dt

A

0

S ( f ) A e j 2 ft dt 0 for f 0

S ( f ) A ( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

s(t)

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

S( f )

S(f)

1/2

-f0

j 2 ft

cos

2

f

t

e

dt

0

1

2

(e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt

f0

1

2

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t

dt 12

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t

e

dt

12 ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

x(t ) s(t ) cos(2 f 0t )

X(f )

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t ) e j 2 ft dt

1

2

s (t ) 12 (e j 2 f0t e j 2 f0t ) e j 2 ft dt

s (t ) e

j 2 ( f f 0 ) t

dt 12

s (t ) e j 2 ( f f0 )t dt 12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

S(f)

X(f)

-f0

f0

f

Lecture 2

10

s(t)

A

-/2

/2

A

s (t )

0

/ 2 t / 2

otherwise

S(f)

/2

S( f ) A

A

-2/

-1/

sinc( x)

sin( x)

x

/2

1/

2/

j 2 ft

e j f e j f

dt A

j 2 f

sin( f )

A sinc( f )

f

It has unit peak at x=0, and zero crossing points at x= non-zero integers.

Lecture 2

11

S1 ( f ) S2 ( f )

Linearity

s1 (t ) s2 (t )

S1 ( f ) S2 ( f )

Convolution

S (t )

s ( f )

Duality

s (t )

S ( f ) e j 2 f

Time shift

s (t )e j 2 f0t

S ( f f0 )

Frequency shift

s (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

s (at )

s1 (t ) s2 (t )

1

2

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

[ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

Modulation

1 f

S

a a

Time scale

Lecture 2

12

s (t ) (t )

Duality: S (t ) s ( f )

S( f ) 1

S( f ) ( f )

s (t ) 1

Modulation:

s1 (t ) cos(2 f 0t )

X ( f ) S ( f ) ( ( f f 0 ) ( f f 0 ))

1

2

12 [ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

1

2

[ S ( f f 0 ) S ( f f 0 )]

Convolution:

s1 (t ) s2 (t )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

S1 ( f ) S2 ( f )

Lecture 2

13

s (t ) n (t nT0 )

se

j 2 nf 0t

f0

1

T0

T0

2T0

S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

1

sn

T0

T0

s (t )e

j 2 nf 0t

1/ f 0

dt f 0 0

(t )e j 2 nf t dt f 0

0

S(f) f 0 n ( f nf 0 )

f0

f f0

2f0

f

Lecture 2

14

s (t )

sT0 (t )

0

T0 / 2 t T0 / 2

otherwise

Lecture 2

15

x(t ) s (t ) n (t nT0 )

X ( f ) S ( f ) f 0 n ( f nf 0 ) f 0 n S ( f nf 0 )

s(t)

x(t)

t

S(f)

X(f)

-2f0

-f0

f0

2f0

Lecture 2

16

and Signal Bandwidth

Lecture 2

17

Energy-type Signal: A signal is an energy-type signal if and

only if its energy is positive and finite.

s(t) is an energy-type signal if and only if 0 Es

| s (t ) |2 dt .

its power is positive and finite.

1 T /2

s(t) is a power-type signal if and only if 0 Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt .

T T T /2

a power-type signal from the frequency domain?

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

18

Energy of energy-type signal s(t):

*

j 2 ft

s

(

t

)

S

(

f

)

e

df dt

Es | s (t ) | dt

s (t ) s (t )dt

2

*

*

j 2 ft

dt df S ( f ) S ( f )df

S ( f ) s (t )e

S ( f ) df

U s ( f )df

Parsevals Theorem:

Es | s (t ) | dt

S ( f ) df

Energy spectrum: U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

19

Pulse

s(t)

A

-/2

/2

A

s (t )

0

/ 2 t / 2

otherwise

S(f)

A

Fourier spectrum:

S ( f ) A sinc( f )

-2/

-1/

1/

2/

2/

Us(f)

Energy spectrum:

A2

U s ( f ) | S ( f ) |2 A2 2sinc 2 ( f )

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

-2/

-1/

1/

Lecture 2

20

Power of power-type signal s(t):

s(t )

sT (t )

0

T / 2 t T / 2

otherwise

1 T /2

1 T /2

Ps lim | s (t ) |2 dt lim T /2 | sT (t ) |2 dt

T T

T T T / 2

1

1

2

2

T T

T T

Power spectrum:

1

| ST ( f ) |2

T T

1 T /2

Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt

T T T / 2

Gs ( f ) lim

Lecture 2

21

For periodic signal s(t) with period T0: s (t ) n sn e j 2 nf0t

Fourier spectrum:

S ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

Power spectrum:

1 T /2

1

Gs ( f ) lim s (t ) s* (t )dt

T T T / 2

T0

Gs ( f ) n sn ( f nf 0 )

s2

S(f)

s

s1 0 s1

-f0 0

T0 / 2

T0 / 2

s2

f0

j 2 nf 0

s (t ) s (t )dt n sn e

Gs ( f )

| s0 |2

| s1 |2 | s1 |2

| s2 |2

| s2 |2

-f0 0

f 0 1/ T0

f0

f

Lecture 2

22

Signal Bandwidth

Bandwidth of signal s(t): the amount of positive frequency

spectrum that signal s(t) occupies.

S(f)

0

Bs

included.

Gs(f)

Bs _ 90%

Bs _ 95%

90% power

95% power

Lin Dai (City University of Hong Kong)

Lecture 2

23

Linear System

Lecture 2

24

terms of its impulse response (the response of the system to a

unit impulse (t)).

response is the same no matter when the unit impulse (t) is

applied to the system.

s(t)

S(f)

Impulse Response

h(t)

Transfer Function

H(f)

y (t ) s (t ) h(t ) s ( )h(t )d

Y ( f ) S( f ) H ( f )

EE3008 Principles of Communications

Lecture 2

25

H(f)

1

-Bh

Bandwidth

Bh

S(f)

if Bh Bs

H(f)

x

-Bs

Bh

Bs

1

-Bh

Y(f)

Bh

-Bs 0

Bs

Lecture 2

26

H(f)

1

0

f c 12 Bh fc

f c 12 Bh

Bandwidth

Bh

S(f)

S(f)

Bs f

fc-Bs fc

frequency of S(f)

Y(f)

is shifted to fc

2) Bh 2Bs

H(f)

x

-Bs

fc+Bs f

=

0

f c 12 Bh

fc

f c 12 Bh

fc-Bs fc fc+Bs f

Lecture 2

27

Baseband channel

Bandpass channel

A baseband channel

efficiently passes frequency

components from dc (zero)

to the cutoff frequency Bh Hz.

passes frequency components

within a certain band, say,

between f c 12 Bh and f c 12 Bh Hz.

ideal low-pass LTI system and an ideal bandpass LTI system, respectively.

H(f)

H(f)

1

1

-Bh

Bh

f c 12 Bh

fc

f c 12 Bh

Lecture 2

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