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CE N T RE D T U D E S I N D P E N DA N T E S

MDM4U-C

Lesson 8 Assessment solutions

Task 1: How many postal codes can there be in Ontario?

1. Canadian postal codes are of the form letter number letter number letter number, such as

K2N3P8. In the province of Ontario all postal codes must begin with K, L, M, N, or P. How

many postal codes are possible for Ontario?

Solution

The only restriction is that the first letter must only be K, L, M, N or P, so there are 5 choices for

the first letter. Every other letter has 26 possibilities, and the numbers can each be selected in

10 ways. The calculation is 5 10 26 10 26 10 = 3 380 000. So, there are 3 380 000 possible

postal codes in Ontario.

Task 2: Cribbage hands

2. Answer the following questions.

a) In a cribbage game with 2 people, each player is dealt 6 cards to start a round. How

many 6-card hands are possible?

Solution

This is a combination of 52 cards taken 6 at a time. So, there are C(52, 6) possible 6-card

52!

52!

=

= 20 358 520. There are 20 358 520 6-card hands.

hands. C(52, 6) =

(52 6)!6! 46!6!

b) In a cribbage game with 3 or more people, only 5 cards are dealt to each player. How

many fewer 5-card hands are available than 6-card hands?

Solution

This is a combination of 52 cards taken 5 at a time. So, there are C(52, 5) possible 5-card

52!

52!

=

= 2 598 960. There are 2 598 960 possible 5-card hands.

hands. C(52, 5) =

(52 5)!5! 47!5!

Subtracting this number from the answer in part a) (20 358 520 2 598 960 = 17 759 560) gives

17 759 560 fewer 5-card hands than 6-card hands.

Task 3: Word contest

3. Suppose the city of Mississauga has a contest where they rearrange the letters of their city

name in a particular order. The city residents have to guess which order the city has chosen,

and the winner gets $10 000. The rules allow people to submit more than one entry, but they

each have to be mailed individually. A friend of yours wants to mail every possible entry to

be guaranteed to win the $10 000. Explain to your friend why this isnt a good idea, including

a mathematical argument.

Solution

11!

= 415 800 (note that there are 4 Ss, 2 Is, and 2 As in MISSISSAUGA) possible

4!2!2!

arrangements for the letters in MISSISSAUGA. At $0.96 per envelope to mail (85 cents plus

tax), it would cost 415 800 0.96 = $399168 to send in every possible entry, which is much more

than the $10 000 prize.

There are

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I N D E PE N D E NT LE AR N I N G C E N T R E

CE N T RE D T U D E S I N D P E N DA N T E S

MDM4U-C

Lesson 8 Assessment solutions

4. A family has 3 boys and 5 girls. For each question below, show your calculations.

a) In how many ways can their parents choose a basketball team of 5 people?

Solution

There are no restrictions in part a), so this is choosing a group of 5 from 8 people.

8!

8!

C(8, 5) =

=

= 56 . The parents could pick 56 different teams.

(8 5)!5! 3!5!

b) How many of these teams will contain at least 3 girls? Use the indirect approach to find the

answer.

Solution

Note: You cant have 0 girls and 5 boys or 1 girl and 4 boys because there are only 3 boys.

The only possible arrangements are 2 girls and 3 boys, 3 girls and 2 boys, 4 girls and 1 boy, or

all 5 girls and no boys. At least 3 girls means all of the last three listed in the previous sentence.

The indirect method uses subtracting the only other possibility (2 girls and 3 boys) from the total

P(5, 2) P(3, 3)

5 4 3!

= 56

= 56 10 1 = 56 10 = 46 . So

in part a): 56 C(5, 2) C(3, 3) = 56

2

3!

2!

3!

there are 46 ways to have at least 3 girls on the team.

c) How many of these teams will contain exactly 2 boys?

Solution

Exactly 2 boys means 2 boys and 3 girls. Using the multiplicative principle of counting, we

P(3, 2) P(5, 3) 3 2 5 4 3

get C(3, 2) C(5, 3) =

2!

3!

2

3!

team with exactly 2 boys.

Task 5: How many weights?

A pharmacist uses 6 separate weights: 1 g, 2 g, 4 g, 8 g, 16 g, and 32 g. If the pharmacist can

combine these weights to create new weights, how many different weights are possible? Show

your calculations.

Solution

There are two ways to do this.

Method 1: This question asks for all the ways we could arrange groups of these 6 weights

(including them individually).

P(6,1) 6

= =6

One at a time: C(6,1) =

1!

1!

P(6, 2) 6 5

Two at a time: C(6, 2) =

=

= 15

2!

2!

P(6, 3) 6 5 4

Three at a time: C(6, 3) =

=

= 20

3!

3!

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MDM4U-C

Lesson 8 Assessment solutions

I N D E PE N D E NT LE AR N I N G C E N T R E

CE N T RE D T U D E S I N D P E N DA N T E S

P(6, 4) 6 5 4 3

=

= 15

4!

4!

P(6, 5) 6 5 4 3 2

Five at a time: C(6, 5) =

=

=6

5!

5!

P(6, 6) 6 5 4 3 2 1

All six together: C(6, 6) =

=

=1

6!

6!

Four at a time: C(6, 4) =

Method 2: Since there are 6 weights being arranged, the number of ways they can be arranged

in groups from none (0) to all 6 is 26 = 64. Wed likely not bother including no weights being

arranged as a weight [C(6, 0) = 1], so subtracting 1 from 64, we get 63 (same as above).

Task 6: Athletic participation

In a class of 50 students, a teacher surveyed the students and collected the following data:

a) How many people play only badminton?

Solution

Venn diagram:

Start with the 10 people who play all 3 sports

and put them in the middle where all 3 circles

overlap. Next, because 14 play both basketball

and badminton, the overlap between badminton

and basketball needs 14. But 10 are already there,

so place 4 as shown. 16 play both badminton and

volleyball, but 10 are already there, so place 6 as

shown.

18 play both basketball and volleyball, but 10 are

already there, so place 8 as shown.

24 play basketball, but there are already 4 + 8 + 10

= 22 in the basketball circle, so place 24 22 = 2 in

the basketball-only part.

27 play volleyball, but there are already 8 + 10 + 6

= 24 in the volleyball circle, so place 27 24 = 3 in

the volleyball-only part.

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Basketball

Volleyball

8

4

10

6

9

Badminton

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Page 3 of 4

I N D E PE N D E NT LE AR N I N G C E N T R E

CE N T RE D T U D E S I N D P E N DA N T E S

MDM4U-C

Lesson 8 Assessment solutions

29 play badminton, but there are already 4 + 10 + 6 = 20 in the badminton circle, so place 29

20 = 9 in the badminton-only part.

From the Venn diagram, 9 people play only badminton.

b) How many students dont play any of the 3 sports?

Solution

Adding all the numbers from the Venn diagram, we get 2 + 8 + 3 + 4 + 10 + 6 + 9 = 42. Since

there are 50 students in the class, 50 42 = 8 students dont participate in any of the 3 sports.

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