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Project Documentation:

Automatic
Night Light

Submitted by: Arnel L. Remedios


Submitted to: Engr. Delan Zoe Arenga
Introduction

Have you ever wondered Why streetlights glow at night? or How could there always be
anyone to turn their lights every night without fail? the answer is, there is actually no one that
does that, for these devices does it themselves automatically.
In this project documentation, I am to explain how do these devices work and introduce a simple
way to make a miniature model to properly understand its concept and importance.

Purpose
The main objective of this documentation is for everyone to realize the importance of this
project. People nowadays are very fond of convenient devices, namely, automatic devices
which this project highly promotes. Consider an example of a 40-watt bulb was left unturned
throughout the whole night, imagine the power it consumes over the night that was wasted. Just
imagine many others of your devices experiencing the same way every once in a while, in result,
the electric bill of your house will most likely increase. Whereas by using the concept of this
project, one could save energy as well as save time and effort in turning on/off your devices not
just the LEDs, Bulbs, Fluorescents, but many other possibilities of application.

Description
I call this project, Automatic Night Light Project in response to its functions. Automatic night
light project is basically a miniature project that turns on when placed on a dim surface, while
turns off when placed on a bright surface. Its functions are similar to that of a streetlight. By
using a 9 volts voltage source, it is possible to create a circuit with similar functions to that of a
streetlight without spending a big sum of money. In truth, this project has many other circuit
diagrams composed of many components, but not to worry, I have made a simpler circuit that
only compose of fewer components that anyone could follow.

Materials that you will be needing:


Etching Materials (PCB board, Etching Sol., tape, cutter, pencil, basin)
Drill and Soldering Iron
1 LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)
1 47k resistor
1 MOSFET IRF540N
1 9 volts source
1 Battery clip
1 L.E.D. (small)
1 2N3904 (BJT)
TOTAL:

47k Resistor

LED

Bill of Materials
------------------------Php18.00
Php 0.35
Php 45.00
Php 36.00
Php 5.00
Php 2.00
Php 1.35____
Php 107.7

MOSFET
IRF540N

2N3904 (BJT)

LDR

battery clip

9 Volts

Simulations:
When there is light: LED is OFF

When there is no light: LED is ON

Actual Tests:
With Light:

Without Light:

Explanations:
LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful
especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the
resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high
as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with
light resistance drops dramatically.
In the images shown, when light is present, the LED is
turned OFF. It is because the LDR is currently
illuminated by light. While there is no light, the LED is
turned ON for there is no light present.
You can therefore see that there is a large variation between these figures. If you plotted this
variation on a graph you would get something similar to that shown by the graph shown above.

How to Make a Night Light Miniature Model

1. Get a 2x2 PCB board and cover the front with tape
2. On the tape, draw your PCB circuit layout.
3. Afterwards, use the cutter to peel off the excess part that does not belong to the circuit.
4.

Then, submerge the board on the basin with the etching solution in it.
5. Shake it until there is no copper visible on the front of the board.
6. When there is no more copper, wash the PCB board and peel off the remaining tapes.
7. After peeling, you can notice that the part of the PCB that is covered by the tape has
remained their copper.
8. Drill the noticeable circles and rectangle shapes on the board where you are supposed to
put your components.
9. After that, connect all the components by the following the simulator circuit diagram
shown above.
10.

F
i
n
a
l
y

check if all components are in their correct positions (particularly the battery), and then
turn-off the lights and see if it works.

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