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Network using Genetic Algorithm

Majid Jamil, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, D. K. Chaturvedi

Wavelet Transform [5], [8],

[9], S Transform [4] etc.

AbstractThe present paper proposes a very simple analyzes the signals in time

method for fault sorting of three-phase transmission line,

domain only, so the limited

which is based upon the wavelet transform and Genetic

can

be

Algorithm. Three phase currents of only one end areinformation

measured and features are extracted using discrete waveletextracted from this analysis

transform. These features are then used as inputs to the tool. The localization of

genetic algorithm. The training data set for genetic signal in Fourier Transform

algorithm is obtained by simulating the ten different types is also not possible, the

of faults using various values of fault inception angles and

fault resistances, so that the accurate results can beaccuracy of method is

obtained. The proposed genetic algorithm employs twenty affected by this inability.

S

transform

is

inputs and only one output for classifying the faults. The The

uniqueness of the proposed method is that all the features, relatively new tool in

inputs used in developing the algorithm are normalized, so electrical power system, the

that the method can be used for any system without any

validity and reliability of

substantial changes. The simulation of the three-phase

transmission line network and wavelet transform analysis this method is still a subject

are achieved in the tool boxes of MATLAB and geneticof study. The proposed

research paper uses the

Discrete Wavelet Transform

(DWT) for the analysis of

Index TermsWavelet transform, artificial neural

network, feed forward, fault inception angle, normalize. the measured signals, which

is a well proven tool in

power system and is in used

I. INTRODUCTION

for years. The DWT

The reliability and security of any electrical power transform can analyze the

system is governed by the fastness of fault detection, signals not only in time but

classification and restoration/removal of faulty section. also in frequency domain.

This not only affects the power quality of electricity Since the localization of the

provides to the consumer but also improves the transient signal is also possible by

stability of the power system. The invention of fast digital windowing function of the

computers and large data storage devices has digitalized DWT, therefore required

the entire power system. The methods of fault detection analysis can be done

are changing from analog to digital; hence the algorithms effectively.

for fault detection have to be changed accordingly. Some

traditional methods which are based upon the power The sampling of required

generates

large

frequency components of three-phase voltage and current signals

amount

data

and

it

is

not

signals (e.g. over current, distance, under/over voltage,

differential, etc.) are well known methods of fault possible to analyze this data

detection. But these techniques are suffered from their without any soft computing

Several

soft

inherent limitations and are system dependent. The process technique.

of fault detection and classification starts with the computing techniques (e.g.

measurement of three phase voltages and/or currents. The fuzzy logic, artificial neural

proposed method uses the current of respective three network, generalized neural

phases at one point of transmission network. The next very network, genetic algorithms)

important part is gathering of the information from the are available for analyzing

considered voltage/current samples. The following the data and to declare the

methods are generally used for this purpose: Fourier meaningful conclusion from

the sampled data set. A lot of

Transform [5],

work on Artificial Neural

Network (ANN) related to

Manuscript received August 08, 2015.

fault

detection

and

Majid Jamil, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of classification

has

been

Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India. (e-mail:

reported in the literature [3],

majidjamil@hotmail.com).

[8]. The proposed

Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Department of Electrical Engineering, [6],

Faculty of Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-11025, research work adopted the

India. (e-mail: sanjeev.eck@gmail.com).

genetic algorithm for fault

D. K. Chaturvedi, Department of Electrical Engineering,

Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) Dayalbagh, detection and classification in

Agra-282 005 (UP), India. (e-mail: dkc.foe@gmail.com).

three-phase

transmission

network. The performance of

any

genetic

algorithm

method network depends

upon the training and testing

of the developed genetic

algorithm. The rigorous

training and testing makes

the use of genetic algorithm

quite easy, efficient and

reliable. The method is very

easy and no rules are

required for detection and

classification of different

types of faults. Besides this

the system may be designed

for any types of three-phase

transmission

line

fault

without any threshold value;

the different problems related

to the variations in electrical

power system parameters are

also dealt with.

This paper is classified

into five parts: the first part

contains

the

brief

introduction of the related

research work already done

and introduction of the

proposed method, in the

second part discrete wavelet

transform

and

in

its

application

in

fault

classification is discussed.

The third part is about the

basic concepts of genetic

algorithm, its training, in

fourth part model under

consideration and its results

are discussed, the fifth part is

conclusion. The total twenty

inputs are used as inputs and

one output is assigned in

order to detection and

classification of the faults by

genetic algorithm. The results

of simulation establish the

validity of proposed method.

I.

SIGNAL PROCESSING

AND INFORMATION

GATHERING

process of fault classification

of three phase transmission

network is to acquire the

appropriate electrical signal,

which is used in the process

of fault detection and

classification.

The

knowledge acquired from the

analysis

84

www.ijeas.org

function known as

mother wavelet with the

help of translation and

form the signal is useful in declaring dilation property. A lot

the type of fault. Any electrical has been on the wavelet

Three-phase transmission network transform, still brief

has only two signals that can be theory about CWT is

acquired and analyzed effectively. presented here to make

The first is voltage and second is the proposed method

current. In this paper the current of easy for readers. The

respective

three

phases

of CWT of any signal f(t)

transmission network at bus one is is represented by

measured i.e. the proposed method

utilizes the signals of one location

only.

The continuous wavelet transform

(CWT) is a very commanding tool

for analyzing any electrical signal.

The CWT can analyze the signals in

time domain as well in frequency

domain, as it can decompose the

signal into different frequency

ranges by using fixed wavelet

The entire process can

be under stood easily

by Fig.1.

g(n)

g(n)

h(n)

g(n)

g(n)

h(n)

h(n)

g(n)

g(n)

h(n)

g(n)

x(n)

i.e. Multi Level

Signal Decomposition

h(n)

h(n)

h(n)

CWT (a, b)

t

b

f (t) (

level four (Db4) for analysis of three phase current, becau

)dt

(1)

windowing function, t is time, a and b are the dilation and

translation parameters respectively. The parameters a and b

both are continuous parameters with respect to time [11]. The

practical applications of CWT are limited as available signals

may vary in nature e.g. stationary to non stationary. Besides

this the data provided by CWT is very large, which makes the

analysis of data and decision making difficult.

The above problem is addressed with the Discrete Wavelet

Transform (DWT), which a digitalized form of CWT and can

be obtained easily. The DWT of any signal x(t) is represented

by

DWT (m, k)

1

a

x(t)

n

k nb0 a0 m

(

integer m such that a = a

0 0

acquired

that indicate to acurrent

number of asignal into

particular

various

sample of anfrequency

input signal[12]. ranges and

this

is

The practicalaccomplis

implementation hed

by

of

DWT

isdown

achieved by twosampling

stage filtering i.e.course of

one filter is aprocedure.

high pass filterThe

and second isacquired

filter low passcurrent

filter. The DWTsignal is

break

thepasses

are functions of an

and b = nb a

the input data set. There are total three signals respective

(2)

the level of four for obtaining detail and approximat

coefficients. The accuracy and performance depends upon

level of decomposition, the decomposition has done up to

level four, which provides required accuracy.

The MRA coefficients are is used for developing the in

data set for each types of fault e.g. faults involving one ph

and ground (LG), faults involving two phases and ground

(LLG), faults involving only any two phases (LL) and tri

line (LLL) faults also known as symmetrical fault.

thorough and careful observation of these coeffici

illustrate that the value of the detail coefficients is unique fo

given type of fault. These values are different for ten differ

types of three phase transmission line faults [14]. The det

coefficients of level three and level four are sum up, to fo

detail coefficients three for level three and three for four le

respectively. Total twenty different combinations ten for lev

three and ten for level four are formed based upon the det

coefficients of the three phase current signal. These twent

combinations of detailed coefficients of three phase curre

are used to make the inputs data set. This data set is emplo

for developing the proposed algorithm.

, k is an integer

low passMulti

Resolution

filter andAnalysis (MRA) i.e.

high passanalyzing the signal at

filter

various and different

simultane frequency levels. The

ously,

analysis provides the

hence

approximate and detail

broken

coefficients.

The

into

byapproximate and detail

high

coefficients achieved by

frequency down sampling course.

part andThese

details

and

low

approximate coefficients

frequency contain

useful

part. Thisinformation, based uponFig. 2 Three

Phase

method iswhich the types of

Transmissio

n Network

usually

85

Line

Currents

under

Normal

Conditions

www.ij eas.org

ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-2, Issue-7, July 2015

R

I

T

H

M

depicts

acquired

three phase

currents for

The

healthy

system. Thegenerated data

the

three currentsfrom

are balancedsimulation of

and

three

phase

symmetric. transmission

Fig.

1.3network

depicts

thecontain lots of

acquired

information

three phaseabout the fault

currents forand the data

line to groundcannot

be

fault on phaseanalyzed

A,

thewithout

any

distortion cansuitable

be observed.artificial

These threeintelligent

phase

technique.

distorted

Genetic

currents whenAlgorithm can

analyzed withbe applied for

the help offault

DWT givesclassification

different

effectively,

values

ofbecause it is a

approximate programming

and

detailtechnique

coefficients. applicable to

the problems

where

the

information

available

in

huge,

vague,

redundant,

distorted and

cannot sorted

out by any

linear

programming

method. In the

problems

of

fault

classification

they

are

effectively

applicable

because of:

Fig. 3 Three

Phase

Transmission

Network Line for

Line to Ground

Fault on Phase A

II

I.

G

E

N

E

T

I

C

A

L

G

O

canThey by

be

trained

off

data line

and

further

can

be

used on

line

There

are

several

factors

which

affects

the

fault

classificat

ion

e.g.

fault

impedanc

e,

fault

inception

angle,

distance

from

the

relaying

points

etc.

Thevery

results

of

genetic

algorithm

are

fast,

reliable

and

accurate,

if

it can

is

trained

properly

and

be

retrained

easily.

4The

weights

can

be

modified

easily,

even

in

during the

training

process.

The basic

Genetic

Algorithm

network has

four basic tools

in performing

its complete

task:

1

Selectio

npopulation

of

- means

the

input

data

set

which can

become

better

parents

Cross

over

from

the

selected

populatio

nreaching

near

to

better

solution

i.e.

from

the

parents

of

last

step

productio

nandofbetter

new

off

springs

3Mutatio

ns of offspringsremoval

of similar

solutions

i.e.

on

similar

offsprings is

used

further

selection

in

Sigmoid

function and

the second is

Gaussian

function. The

combination

of

both

provides the

ability to deal

with

the

nonlinearity

involved

in

the problem of

fault detection

and

classification.

The

typical

developed

genetic

algorithm

model

processes the

output

by

taking the sum

of the output

of

Sigmoid

function and

Gaussian

function.

Hence,

the

proposed

model

is

named

as

summation

type model.

The

final

output of the

genetic

algorithm is a

function

of

two

outputs

O and O,

where is

summation

function and

is aggregation

function. The

output

of

summation

part is given

by

1Survi is

val of

mightie

st and

fittestthe final

solution

i.e. the

best

results

are to

sustain

and

utilized.

The

performance

of

any

genetic

algorithm

depends upon

the training

of network.

The proposed

method has

adopted

dynamic

weights

method

so

that

the

algorithm can

be conversed

easily

and

quickly.

A.

Ba

sic

Co

nc

ept

s

of

Ge

net

ic

Al

go

rit

hm

an

d

Mo

del

ing

of

the

Ge

net

ic

Al

go

rit

hm

The

presented

paper

has

adopted two

basis

functions for

developing

the Genetic

Algorithm.

O

1

where, s _ net

Wi Xi X

o

The output

of the product

aggregation

part can be

represented as

where,

ep

GA output O

B. Error

minimiz

ation in

GA

The output of

the

genetic

algorithm

certainly will

contain error,

and this error

is calculated

and minimized

by comparing

it with the

desired output.

Basically the

sum squared

error

for

convergence

of model is

used. The sum

squared error

Ep is given by

E 2

where, Ei is

error i.e. Ei

(Yi Oi )

between input

Yi and

output Oi.

There

are

only ten types

of fault, which

can occur on a

transmission

line.

The

output matrix

can be formed

easily because

of this, as only

ten elements

are sufficient

for

representing

the all possible

faults on a

three

phase

transmission

line.

The

genetic

algorithm

model

is

trained

and

tested

again

and again in

order

to

minimize the

training

p _ net

86

www.ijeas.o

rg

degrees to 90 degrees

time with increase in accuracy and and different fault

performance. The coding of genetic resistances 0 to 100

algorithm is done in MATLAB.

. The graph in Fig. 6

VI.

fault

beginnin

g angle

are

varied

accordin

gly and

the

model is

Fig. 4

simulate

Single line d again

diagram of

and

three phase

transmissio again for

extensive

n line

study of

the fault

patterns.

The

accuracy

of

the

genetic

algorith

m

depends

upon the

size of

the

training

patterns,

more is

Fig. 5 Simulink

size of

model of the three

phase transmission training

network in MATLAB patterns

more is

the

Fig. 5 showsaccuracy.

the

completeThe

Matlab model,model is

which

issimulate

simulated

ford for all

the

proposedpossible

study. The faultten types

resistances andof fault

magnitude of

fault current,

which affects

the

fault

current

patterns. The

value of fault

beginning

angle is also

varied from 00

to 900 so that

all the possible

situations can

be taken into

account. The

sampling time

is 80e-6 s,

which cover all

the signals of

interests.

quantum

genetic

output

for500

4.5

4

3.5

3

fttness

location

as

shown in the

Fig. 4. The

value of fault

resistance for

all

three

phases

is

A

three

phase

transmission line isvaried from 15

developed

in

the to 60 for

SimPowerSystem toolground faults

box of MATLAB forand 0.10 to

studying the different0.75 for the

types of faults. Theline to line

for

single line diagram offaults

developed model isgenerating the

shown in the Fig. 4. Twotraining patters

generators are connectedrespectively.

fault

at the both the ends ofThe

beginning

the transmission line.

plays

The respective threeangle

phase

currents

arevery important

in

measured at the relayrole

IV.

INTRODUCTION

OF THE

SIMULATED

MODEL

developed

genetic

algorithm, which is

quite satisfactory.

2.5

2

G

A

1.5

1

0.5 0

50

100

Fig.

6

Gra

ph

CONCLUSI ON

This fica n line for

for

conditi

different ons

paper tion fault

paramete include

has and classificat

rs

tod

prop det ion,

it

generate differe

osed ecti makes the

the datant fault

a

on practical

locatio

set.

new

of implemen

ns,

simpl

faul tation of

differe

V.

ified

ts the

nt

R

techn on scheme

incepti

ES

ique a easy. The

on

U

angles

for thre accuracy

LT

from 0

fault e of

the

S

classi pha presented

A

ficati se method

N

on ontran has been

D

a

smi increased

DI

three ssio by

SC

phase n increasin

U

trans net g

the

SS

missi wor training

IO

on k. data set

N

line The of genetic

After

training,

the

proposed

genetic

algorithm

based

method

of fault

classifica

tion

is

tested

with 90

new fault

condition

s for each

type of

fault.

These

r

e

p

r

e

s

e

n

t

i

n

g

ork. er for

The has different

paper use operating

has d condition

utiliz the s

e.g.

ed curr fault

the ent inception

DWT sam angle,

and ples fault

genet at resistance

ic

one and ten

algor end different

ithm of types of

effect the faults.

ively tran The

for smi scheme is

classi ssio validated

t

r

a

i

n

i

n

g

again and

again by

testing

the

algorithm

for

different

data set.

The time

taken for

train the

ANN is

very less

and

occupies

less

memory

space of

the

system.

The

results

shown in

the given

figure

supports

that the

presented

method is

very

effective

and

robust in

classificat

ion of the

fault type.

All efforts

have been

made in

the

modelling

of the three

phase

transmission line

[2]

to match with

the real life

transmission

line. The mean

of all errors of

fault

classification is

less than 7% for

the system under

study.

[1]

1178,

July

1992.

A. G.

Phad

ke

and J.

S.

Thor

p,

Co

mput

er

Relay

ing

for

Powe

r

Syste

ms,

R New

York:

NCESWiley

,

1988.

R. J. Martilla, [3] Z.

Performanc

Mora

e of distance

vej,

relay

MHO

A. A.

elements on

Abdo

MOV

os

protected

and

series

M.

compensated

Sana

transmission

lines, IEEE

yeTrans. Power

Pasan

Delivery, vol.

d,

7, pp. 1167

A

new

appro

ach

based

on stransf

orm

for

discri

minat

ion

and

classi

ficati

on of

inrus

h

curre

nt

from

intern

al

fault

curre

nts

using

proba

bilisti

c

neura

l

netwo

rk, [4]

Tailo

r and

87

Fr

an

cis

,

El

ect

ric

Po

we

r

Co

m

po

ne

nts

an

d

Sy

ste

ms

,

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.

38,

pp.

11

94

12

10,

20

10.

Pr

ad

ha

nn,

, D.

AK.,

.

KWav

. elet

, fuzz

Ry

ocom

ubine

td

r appr

s oac

yh

, for [5]

Afault

. clas

, sific

Patio

a n of

ta

i seri

, es

Scom

. pens

, ated

a tran

nsmis

dsion

line,

P

r IEE

aE

dTra

hns.

a Po

ww w.i jeas.org

wer

Deliv

ery,

vol.

19,

No. 4,

pp.

1612

1618,

Octob

er

2004.

M. S.

ABD

EL

AZIZ

, M.

A.

MOU

STAF

A

HAS

SAN,

and

E. A.

ZAH

AB,

Hi

ghimpe

dance

faults

analy

sis in

distri

butio

n

netwo

rks

using

an

adapti

ve

neuro

fuzzy

infere

nce

syste

m,

Taylo

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Franc

is,

Electr

ic

Powe

r

Comp

onent

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Syste

ms,

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1318,

2012.

ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-2, Issue-7, July 2015

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88

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