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ISSN 1822-6515
ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT: 2010. 15

THE ANALYSIS OF KEY ELEMENTS OF SOCIO-TECHNICAL


KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Svetlana ajeva
Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania, svetlana.sajeva@ktu.lt

Abstract
There are different approaches to knowledge management. So, a knowledge management system
could be analyzed from different viewpoints. Usually the term a knowledge management system is used as
a synonym for the information and communication tools, and rarely is defined from a social or socio-technical
perspective. This paper acknowledges the socio-technical approach to knowledge management system.
Analyzing a socio-technical knowledge management system, these three aims are achieved in this
article: 1) different approaches to knowledge management and knowledge management system are explained;
2) the existing socio-technical models of knowledge management systems are presented and analyzed; 3) the
key elements of socio-technical knowledge management system are explored. Based on this analysis the
model of socio-technical knowledge management system is constructed. This model includes all essential
elements that could characterize the ideal socio-technical knowledge management system. It could be used for
better understanding how the organizations could construct the socio-technical knowledge management
system and practice knowledge management successfully.
Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management system, socio-technical approach.

Introduction
Nowadays, all organizations are competing in a complex and challenging context that is being
transformed by many factors as globalization, hyper competition, technological development, and
virtualization. These new environments require from organizations to think and behave differently in order to
survive and prosper. That is why most of them are seeking for new methods to achieve the competitive
advantage.
Today scientists and practitioners acknowledge that the foundation of organisational competitiveness
has shifted from an emphasis on physical and tangible resources to knowledge-based resources. So, the
competitive advantage of an organization depends on how successful it in exploiting, applying and
integrating its knowledge management capabilities.
Knowledge-based resources include all the intellectual abilities and knowledge possessed by
employees, as well as their capacity to learn and acquire more knowledge (DeNisi, Hitt, Jackson, 2003, p. 9).
Knowledge management capability could be defined as firms ability to mobilize and deploy its knowledgebased resources in combination with other resources and capabilities (Chuang, 2004). Knowledge
management is a planned, structured approach to develop knowledge management capabilities and to
manage the identification, creation, sharing, and leveraging of knowledge-based resources as an
organizational asset in order to enhance a companys competitiveness. As Maier (2007, p. 103) states,
knowledge management provides instruments to build capabilities which can be used to achieve competitive
advantage.
Knowledge management incorporates ideas and processes from a wide variety of disciplines such as
information management, information technology management, communication, human recourses
management and other. It is dealing with various processes such as knowledge identification, creation,
capture, sharing, retention, and utilization. So, it can be conceptualized differently and applied to numerous
areas of organizational activities related to people, technologies, and processes. In order to see the whole
picture of knowledge management in the organization, it should be analyzed as a system.
In general, a system is defined as a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a
unified whole (Webster's Online Dictionary, 2010). In terms of organizations, systems are typically
composed of people, technologies and data/information. These components interact with one another for
some specific purpose (e.g. product distribution system) (Gallupe, 2000). In terms of knowledge
management, a system could be seen as composed of various components that interact in order to maintain
and ensure the management of knowledge in the organization.
The idea that knowledge management could be seen as a system is confirmed by different authors. For
example, Grundstein and Rosenthal -Sabroux (2007) say: knowledge management becomes a reality in the
implementation of a system, which is a set of components in dynamic interaction organized according to a
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purpose. Abdullah et. al. (2005) stress that there is a need for a system known as knowledge management
system in order to allow people to work together at any given time, place and also regardless of any platform
that they have. Bartholomew (2008) notes: one of the commonest mistakes in knowledge management is to
think about it as a set of separate tools and processes rather than as an integrated system with business
objectives.
However, the conception of knowledge management system is not commonly accepted yet. While
there are different approaches to knowledge management, a knowledge management system is analyzed from
different perspectives. The socio-technical view is considered to be the most adequate, taking into account
the idea that it will be the mistake to concentrate only on the one aspect of knowledge management
(technological or social), and to ignore the other. So, the socio-technical approach which recognizes the
interplay between social and technological factors is emphasized in this article.
In developing a socio-technical perspective to knowledge management system, however, we need to
understand the socio-technical approach to knowledge management and to identify the main elements of
socio-technical knowledge management system.
So, the objective of this paper is to explore the specific of socio-technical knowledge management
system and to analyze its key elements. The main result is the conceptual model of socio-technical
knowledge management system which is developed based on the research of the structure and content of the
existing models of socio-technical knowledge management systems.
In order to achieve this purpose, a systemic and comparative scientific literature analysis was selected
as the main research method.
The paper is structured as follows. First, the overview of different approaches to knowledge
management and knowledge management system is presented. Second, the existing models of sociotechnical knowledge management are analyzed, underlying the key components of these systems. Finally, the
conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system is developed.

Different Approaches to Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System


During several decades the concept of knowledge management changed from its whole comparison
with information management till contemporary view which strengths organizational learning, social
interaction and knowledge creation. The rapid development of knowledge management is one of the reasons
why there is still a difference between various perceptions of what is it knowledge management and how
organizations could manage knowledge.
According to Maier (2007), generally, there is agreement about the distinction between human
oriented (social, organizational, people-centred) and technology oriented (technological, technology-centred)
knowledge management approaches. Bibikas et al. (2008) explained that these different perceptions were
developed during the proceeding discussion about the distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge
utilization: easily codified and documented knowledge could be managed through a technology -oriented
approach, whereas knowledge that resides on peoples thoughts and beliefs requires people-oriented actions.
First, the literature emphasized mostly the technological aspects of knowledge management. Later, the
literature on knowledge management was less technology and information focused and more recognized the
need for organizational learning and cultural change. Recently, however, begins to dominate the agreement
that it is the mistake to concentrate only on the one aspect of knowledge management information
technology tools or human activities, and to ignore the other. For example, Hasan and Crawford (2007) state,
that a focus on knowledge management technologies, without consideration of the social processes that
surround them is a recipe for failure. Bibikas et al. (2008) propose that overly stressing the importance of
either technological or social components of knowledge management can sometimes be misleading and
conducive to less effective organizational initiatives. Maier (2007) stress the importance of more holistic
knowledge management conceptualization which encompasses both human and technology oriented
directions. So, the authors recognize the importance of integration and balance between the technological and
social aspects of knowledge management. As Hlupic, Pouloudi, Rzevski (2002) argue, that it is the
integration of hard (technological) and soft (organizational and human) parts of the knowledge base that
are critical to business success.
Next technological, social and socio-technical perspectives of knowledge management are briefly
presented in the paper.
Technological approach to knowledge management. The technological approach concentrates on
technical and technological aspects of knowledge management. The starting point of this approach is the
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equalization of knowledge with information, and knowledge management with information management.
Knowledge is viewed as a thing or object that exists on its own, that can be captured, transmitted among
individuals, and stored in multiple ways within the organization.
According to Grant, Shahsavarani (2006), in technological approach the main focus is on the
collection, codification, storage, and manipulation of knowledge using technical systems. These systems
include various information and communication technologies, for example, groupware, e-mail, databases,
intranet and other. Choi and Lee (2002) name the technological approach as a system strategy. According to
them, the main features of this strategy are: 1) the emphasis on codified knowledge in knowledge
management processes; 2) the focus on codifying and storing knowledge via information technology, and 3)
the attempt to share knowledge formally.
Although it is obvious that information and communication technologies are the key element in
knowledge management, it is not the one and the only, and not the dominant aspect of knowledge
management. As Coakes (2002) stresses, effective knowledge management is more than about the managing
the technology.
Social approach to knowledge management. In acquaintance with social approach, it is recognized
that the effective management of knowledge involves more than simply exploiting the data held on
information systems (Hlupic, Pouloudi, Rzevski, 2002). According to them, knowledge management requires
more attention to the human, organizational, and cultural aspects.
The starting point of social approach is the acknowledgement that knowledge is personal in nature.
This means that knowledge resides primarily in the heads of individuals, and in the social interactions of
these individuals (Grundstein, 2008) . That is why, in contrast to technological knowledge management,
social based knowledge management emphasizes knowledge that can be acquired and shared via a socially
interactive process (e.g., through experienced and skilled people, trust, and reciprocal relationships among
employees) to support knowledge management activities (Yang, Chen, 2009).
According to Mason and Pauleen (2003), social approach to knowledge management includes the
management of people and processes. The authors noticed that the organizational behavior and culture need
to be changed. The aim here is to get people to share what they know. So, the processes are what matter, not
technology. According to Grant, Shahsavarani (2006), social approach is more concerned with nature of
learning, the organizational culture and structure, and harnessing tacit forms of knowledge as an
organizational resource. Analyzing human and organizational aspects of knowledge management Hlupic,
Pouloudi, Rzevski (2002) notice these main elements: organizational learning, business intelligence, cultural
aspects of knowledge management, organizational structures that support knowledge management, best
practices in knowledge management, human resource management in the context of knowledge management,
project management in the context of knowledge management, and operational management in the context of
knowledge management. Choi and Lee (2002) emphasize these three main things: 1) the dialogue through
social networks and person-to -person contacts; 2) focus on acquiring knowledge via experienced and skilled
people, and 3) the attempt to share knowledge informally.
So, a social approach to knowledge management integrates mostly intangible elements. However, as
Prieto and Revilla (2003) state, the compatibility between both (technological and social) approaches is the
key to satisfy customer needs and to improve the competitive position of the organization.
Socio-technical approach to knowledge management. According to Pan, Scarbrough (1998, p. 57),
the term socio- technical was first suggested by Trist to describe a method of viewing organizations which
emphasizes the interrelatedness of the functioning of the social and technological subsystems of the
organization, and the relation of the organization as a whole to the environment in which it operates. From
this perspective, it is acknowledged, that both the technological and social aspects are important.
Theoretically a socio-technical paradigm combines the social and technical paradigms, and could be
described as the study of the relationships between the social and technical parts of any system (Coakes,
2002). As Grant, Shahsavarani (2006) state, this approach suggests the combination of effective use of
technology with the appropriate and humanistic use of individuals. The socio-technical view of knowledge
management focuses on a firms strategy for harmonizing knowledge management activities with
technological drivers and social enablers to achieve its business objectives (Yang, Chen, 2009). So, from this
point of view, knowledge management is recognized as a socio-technical phenomenon where the basic social
constructs such as person, team and organization require support from information and communication
technology applications (Lytras, Pouloudi, 2006). It is acknowledged, that the balance and integration of
technological and social perspectives let organizations manage knowledge more effectively. Technology can

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increase the efficiency of information flows and social factors can improve the comprehension of knowledge
assets (Yang, Chen, 2009).

Figure 1. Main approaches to knowledge management


The discussion above shows that there are different approaches to knowledge management (Figure 1).
In accordance with this, the concept of knowledge management system is not commonly accepted yet.
The knowledge management system is usually determined from a technological perspective.
Grundstein (2008) stresses, that numerous authors are limiting the notion of knowledge management system
to the notion of an information technology-based system, which reduces the knowledge management system
to a data-processing system. From this perspective, a term knowledge management system is used
narrowly, underlining only the information and communication systems (platforms) or single technological
products (tools or technologies) that could be adopted and designed in order to support the processes of
knowledge management. For example, Alavi and Leidner (2001) refer knowledge management systems to a
class of information systems applied to managing organizational knowledge. Typical knowledge
management systems for them include databases, intranet, groupware, search engines and etc. Gupta and
Sharma (2004; cited by Grundstein, 2008) notice that knowledge management systems could be divided into
several major categories, as follows: groupware, including e-mail, and wikis; decision support systems;
expert systems; document management systems; semantic networks; relational and object oriented databases;
simulation tools; and artificial intelligence.
According to this point of view knowledge management systems share many similarities with
information systems and many of the tools and techniques of knowledge management are related to
information systems. Identifying the difference between knowledge management tools and information
management tools Gallupe (2000) noted that tools for knowledge management should be capable of handling
the richness, the content, and the context of the information and not just the information itself. If the purpose
of information system is effective storage and fetching by request of the necessary information, the main
target of knowledge management system is to increase quality of the specialists knowledge by mean of
either organization of dialogue with experts which possess the necessary knowledge or rendering the
information where the necessary knowledge are coded (Tuzovsky, Yampolsky, 2003).
However, even recognizing the differences between information system and knowledge management
system, the latter is seen only as a set of technological tools. From another perspective, a knowledge
management system is analyzed as a complex socio-technical system, which is not equal to technological
tools, but encompasses both technological and social elements, and underlines their interaction.
According to Becerra-Fernandez (2004), knowledge management system intends the synergy between
latest technologies and social/structural mechanisms. Nielsen and Michailova (2005) see knowledge
management system as the combination of enterprise strategies, business processes and information
technology for capturing, organizing, storing and disseminating knowledge and experiences of individual
workers and groups in an extended-enterprise environment. According to the authors, the major components
of the knowledge management system are the following: 1) A people-centred knowledge management
conceptualisation focusing on social processes, ad-hoc work practices and organisational structures (i.e.
individual, team, business units). Situated innovation management processes, cultivation of communities of
practice and project adaptation procedures comprise fundamental components of this socially-focused
processual approach. 2) A technology-centred knowledge management conceptualisation focusing on the
integration of enterprise social software applications (wikis, blogs, collaborative bookmarking tools and
search engines) with semantic technologies (ontology-based annotation, semantic text analysis, logic-based
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reasoning). Hoffmann et al. (1999) notice, that a companys knowledge management system encompasses
organizational, social, and technological subsystems that combine continuous organizational design,
development of human resources, and innovation of technology. Success can only be ensured by
simultaneous development of all parts of the knowledge management system and their mutual adaptation.
While socio -technical view of knowledge management system is not clearly described in the literature,
various models of socio-technical knowledge management system will be further presented in the article.

Review of the Socio-technical Knowledge Management Systems


In order to examine the main components of socio-technical knowledge management system this
section identifies the existing models presented in the literature. Whereas the socio-technical perspective to
knowledge management system is not so popular in the literature, only some models of socio-technical
knowledge management system will be further presented in this paper (Pan, Scarbrough (1998), Gallupe
(2000), Meso, Smith (2000), Dingsoyr (2002), McNabb (2007), Grundstein (2008)).
Pan and Scarbrough (1998) paper could be considered as the first main work in this area. The authors
described a process of knowledge-sharing in Buckman Laboratories through a socio-technical perspective.
They acknowledged the multi-layered nature of knowledge management system, and summarised three
major elements of such system: infrastructure, infostructure, and infoculture. Infrastructure involves the
hardware/software which enables the physical/communicational contact between network members.
Infostructure encompasses the formal rules which govern the exchange between the actors on the network,
providing a set of cognitive resources (metaphors, common language) whereby people make sense of events
on the network. Infoculture includes the stock of background knowledge which actors take for granted and
which is embedded in the social relations surrounding work group processes.
According to Gallupe (2000), knowledge management systems can be thought of as systems
composed of people, tools and technologies, and knowledge that interact to provide knowledge to people in
the organization who need it.
Meso, Smith (2000) presented an analysis of organizational knowledge management system from two
perspectives the technical and socio-technical. The authors indicated that, for a firm to reap long-term
strategic benefit from knowledge management, it should adapt the broader socio-technical view when
developing, implementing and managing its knowledge management system. They suggest that knowledge
management system should be seen as a complex combination of technology infrastructure, organizational
infrastructure, corporate culture, knowledge, and people.
The core of the organizational knowledge management system is the people. This component includes
all the organization's stakeholders employees, owners, customers, suppliers and regulators/legislators.
However, employees are the most significant participants. They are the key source of the intellectual capital
acquired and managed by the knowledge management system. Technology infrastructure comprises the
hardware, software, middle-ware and protocols that allow for the encoding and electronic exchange of
knowledge. Organizational infrastructure refers to the set of roles and organizational teams whose members
have skills to serve as resources for individual projects. The way these roles relate to each other within the
context of the organization's structure defines the organizational infrastructure. The organizational
infrastructure defines the organization's management style and philosophy. It determines how the employees
of the firm are organized into formal and informal teams of departments; how these teams interact formally
and informally; and the role and goals of each team and how these relate to the overall corporate strategy.
Culture refers to the shared beliefs, norms, ethics and practices within an organization. A knowledge friendly
culture is one in which the employees highly value learning and exhibit a positive orientation to knowledge.
Knowledge may be tangible or intangible in nature.
Dingsoyr (2002) acknowledges that a knowledge management system in a company consists of three
parts: 1) an overall strategy for knowledge management; 2) a set of processes (activities) that a company
does in order to facilitate knowledge management, and 3) a set of tools for knowledge management: a
computer software system where operational information, or knowledge, can be found by different groups
of practitioners (like developers, project managers, quality management, etc.)
McNabb (2007) view knowledge management system as a living, dynamic system which involves five
subsystems: information processes subsystem, social processes subsystem, human interactions subsystem,
collaborative culture subsystem, and organizational learning subsystem. An information technology-based
information processes subsystem of hardware and software tools facilitates the transformation of data to
information, and of information to knowledge. In a social processes subsystem, knowledge sharing and
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distribution are enabled and promoted. The four social processes include socialization, internalization,
combining, and externalizing (or sharing). A human interactions subsystem makes it possible to support and
value knowledge creating, collecting, and sharing. The informal, self-regulating communities of practice
form the heart of this subsystem. A collaborative culture subsystem includes all the knowledge management
applications designed to improve the products and services provided by an agency. It also includes
knowledge applications designed to improve the agencys internal processes, procedures, and policies, as
well as its service delivery mechanisms. An organizational learning subsystem makes it possible for a
government agency or department to transform itself from the traditional hierarchical, bureaucratic structure
thought for decades to be the public service ideal, to become an organization that learns from its mistakes
and successes.
Grundstein (2008) also suggests the socio-technical approach to knowledge management system. The
author presents a model for global knowledge management within the enterprise. This model is composed of
two main categories of elements: 1) the underlying elements consist of socio-technical environment, and
value-adding processes; 2) the operating elements focus on the underlying elements (managerial guiding
principles, ad hoc infrastructures, generic knowledge management processes, organizational learning
processes, and methods and supporting tools). Socio- technical environment constitutes the relations and
interactions between information and communication technologies, structure and people. Value adding
processes derive from the value chain described by Porter and represent the organizational context for which
knowledge is essential factor of performance. The managerial guiding principles bring a vision aligned with
the enterprises strategic orientation. The relevant infrastructures adapt sets of devices and means for action.
Ad hoc infrastructure includes content and document management systems, collaborative information
systems, and organisational conditions encouraging interaction, communication and knowledge sharing.
Generic knowledge management processes encompass the processes of locating, preserving, enhancing, and
actualising crucial knowledge. The organizational learning processes underlay the whole generic knowledge
management processes. The aim of the organizational learning process is to increase individual knowledge,
to reinforce competencies, and to convert them into a collective knowledge through interactions, dialogue,
discussions, exchange of experience, and observation. Methods and supporting tools include general
technological tools.
With reference to the discussion above, the conceptual elements of socio-technical knowledge
management system could be identified and summarised in Table 1.

Knowledgeculture

Organizationallearning

Technologicalinfrastructure

Organizationalinfrastructure

Strategicleadership

Processofknowledgemanagement

Knowledge

Author

People

Table 1. Major elements of socio-technical knowledge management system

(year)

Pan,
Scarbrough
(1998)
Meso,
Smith
(2000)
Gallupe
(2000)
Dingsoyr
(2002)
McNabb
(2007)
Grundstein
(2008)

Human
resources

Knowledge

People

Knowledge
Processes
Social
processes
subsystem
Generic
KM
processes

Info-structure

Infrastructure

Info-culture

Organizational
infrastructure

Technology
infrastructure

Culture

Tools and
technologies
Tools

Strategy

Managerial
guiding
principles

Human
interactions
subsystem
Ad hoc
infrastructures

Information
processes
subsystem
Methods and
supporting
tools

Organizational
learning
subsystem
Organisational
learning
process

Collaborative
culture
subsystem

Summarizing, we could notice that the existing models of socio-technical knowledge management
systems provide the importance of interplay of knowledge management process and organizational context.
This means that although the process of knowledge management is usually seen as the major component of

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knowledge management system, it should be integrated and harmonized with the appropriate organizational
environment.
Various aspects of organizational context are stressed in different models. However, none of them
presents the whole spectrum of elements that need to be designed and encouraged in order to create an
effective knowledge management system in the organization. For example, the component of strategic
leadership is missing in the model of McNabb (2007) and the knowledge culture is not underlined in the
model presented by Grundstein (2008).
Applying the socio-technical perspective to knowledge management system and linking all the key
elements underlined in the foregoing models, the conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge
management system is further presented.

The Model of Socio-technical Knowledge Management System


In general, a socio- technical knowledge management system could be defined as a set of technological and
social elements that ensure the development of knowledge management process and the creation of appropriate
organizational conditions. According to the analysis above, we could stress, that a knowledge management system
includes three main sub-systems: 1) the subsystem of knowledge management process, 2) the subsystem of
technological context, and 3) the subsystem of social context (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system


The most obvious components of the socio-technical knowledge management system are people and
their knowledge. Knowledge includes explicit knowledge that is expressed in words and numbers and
codified in manuals, databases and information systems as well as tacit knowledge that are shared
collectively in the firm in the form of routines, culture and know-how. Knowledge is located in the head of
the person and is not seen and inseparable from him or her. Individual knowledge is transformed into the
organizational knowledge though the process of knowledge management. The process of knowledge
management includes a set of practices or activities that are initializing in organization in order to identify,
acquire, create, storage, disseminate, and apply knowledge.
While designing the knowledge management system in the organization, these key processes should be
established:

Knowledge identification means the determination of all critical knowledge that is possessed by
employees and their groups in the organization.

Knowledge acquisition involves the renewal of employees` knowledge by attaining new


information, knowledge and experience.
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Knowledge creation is the creation of new knowledge that is materialized in new products,
services, processes, and concepts.

Valuable knowledge storing deals with the structuring and storing knowledge in the ways that
make it more formalized and accessible.

Knowledge dissemination means the diffusion of knowledge, experience and valuable information
between individuals and their groups in the organization.

Knowledge application is the productive use of organizational knowledge in business processes


through solving the problems, making the decisions, designing new products and services for the
benefit of the organization.
The process of knowledge management, however, does not exist in vacuum. It should be integrated
into other organizational processes that create value. The process of knowledge management should be also
harmonized with general corporate strategy and maintained by appropriate culture. This requires the
formation of suitable organizational context, i.e. particular socio-technical environment, which is created in
order to ensure the working of the process of knowledge management.
In accordance with the analysis of the main components of socio-technical knowledge management
system five major elements of socio-technical environment could be identified: strategic leadership,
organizational infrastructure, technological infrastructure, organizational learning, and knowledge culture:

Strategic leadership means the active interest in knowledge management and its promotion by the
leaders and chief officers of the organization.

Organizational infrastructure includes formal and informal structures that ensure the creation of
formal and informal social networks through which knowledge and information flow in the
organization.

Technological infrastructure is designed by technological products (tools) and their systems


which are based on information and communication technologies and used to facilitate the
process of knowledge management.

Organizational learning encompasses the processes of individual and collective learning that
ensure the creation of new knowledge and enhancing the organizations knowledge base.

Knowledge culture deals with the systems of values, beliefs and norms accepted and supported by
all employees in the organization, and based on the acknowledgement of the importance of
knowledge and its management.
The presented model could provide a holistic view and better understanding of how the knowledge
management could be practiced in the organization. Furthermore, it could be used as a general tool for
designing the unique knowledge management systems in various organizations.

Conclusions
1. There are three broad approaches to knowledge management. The technological approach focuses on the
management of information objects through the development and using of appropriate technologies. The
social approach recognizes that the effective management involves more attention to the human,
organizational, and cultural aspects. The socio-technical view of knowledge management focuses on
harmonizing the technological tools and human related activities. Based on these different perceptions of
knowledge management, a knowledge management system is not commonly defined in the literature.
The majority of the authors refer a knowledge management system to a class of information systems.
However, today this point of view is acknowledged as to be narrow and limited. The other authors intend
the synergy between the technologies and social/structural mechanisms. This socio-technical view is
considered today to be the most adequate for designing a knowledge management system in the
organization.
2. There are different models of socio-technical knowledge management systems provided in the literature.
Most of them emphasize the importance of interplay of knowledge management process and
organizational context. However, none of them presented the whole spectrum of elements that need to be
designed and encouraged in order to create an effective knowledge management system in the
organization.
3. The conceptual model of socio-technical knowledge management system includes three main subsystems: 1) the subsystem of knowledge management process, 2) the subsystem of technological context,
and 3) the subsystem of social context. The process of knowledge management includes a set of practices
or activities that are initializing in organization in order to identify, acquire, create, storage,
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disseminate, and apply knowledge. Strategic leadership, organizational infrastructure, technological


infrastructure, organizational learning, and knowledge culture form the organizational socio-technical
environment that ensures the process of knowledge management.

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