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Sufi Movement: Practices of various orders of Sufis in India

Evolved into a well developed movement, the Sufi movement, by the

11th century, Sufism had emerged in the 8th century and the early known Sufis
were Rabia-al Adawiya, Al-Junaid and Bayazid Bastami. The followers
of Sufism believe, as the fundamental to Sufism is God, Man and the relation
between them that is Love, that from man emerged the theories
of ruh (soul), qurbat (divine proximity), and hulal (infusion of the divine spirit)
and that from relation between God and Man came into being ideas such
as Ishq (divine love) and Fana (self-annihilation).
The Sufis were considered as people who kept their heart pure and sought to
establish communication with God through their ascetic practices and doctrine of
divine love and union with God. The murid (disciple) has to pass
through maqamat (various
communication with divine.
In India, the Sufi Movement commenced in 11th century AD. The oldest Sufi in
the sub-continent was Al Hujwiri who established himself in North India and was
buried in Lahore. In the history of medieval India are recorded the activities of
different Sufi orders of Sufism. The most important Sufi Orders of the period
were:Chishtitiya, Suharwardiya, Qadiriya and Naqshbandiya. These Sufi Orders
were popularly known as Sufi Silsilas.
Also Read: The Sangam Age : Early History of South India
The principal features of the Sufi Movement, as it emerged in India, are:

It was believed by Sufis that for Union with God one needs a spiritual guru
or a

The Sufi pirs lived in Khanqah (the hospice).

The Sufis were organized in a number of Sufi Orders (Silsilas).

These orders (silsilas), mostly, were led by some important pir or Sufi
saint. Generally a silsila was named after the pir and was followed by his

The Khanqahs evolved as important centres of learning that were different

from madrasas.

In their Khanqahs many Sufi enjoyed the sama (the musical

congregation). Qawwali, a musical form, developed during this period.

An important form of ritual pilgrimage, the Ziyarat meaning pilgrimage to

the tombs of the Sufi saints, developed.

Almost all pirs were linked with the miracles as most of the Sufis believed
in the performance of miracles.

The different Sufi orders (silsilas) had different approaches about the
matters of polity and state.

The Chisthi Silsilah

Muinuddin Chisthi, the founder of the Chisthi Silsilah in the chain of the Sufi
Movement, came to India after the invasion of Muizzuddin Muhammad Ghori and
subsequently to Ajmer in 1206. He became popular asKhwaja Muinuddin after
his death in 1235, his grave was visited by Muhammad Tughlaq. In the fifteenth
century it was Mahmud Khalj of Mqalwa who erected the mosque and dome.
After the Mughal Emperor Akbar the dargahs patronage peaked.
It was Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki who established the presence of the Chisthi
Silsilah in Delhi who had come from Transoxiana in 1221 and settled there. By
Kakis presence the Suharwardis, another order of the Sufi Movement, were
threatened and tried to force him to leave by leveling charges against him.
However, Iltutmish, the then Sultan of Delhi, dismissed these attempts of
Suhrawardis and forced them to relent.
The pirs of the Chisthi Silsilah placed great emphasis on the simplicity of life (life
soul of the Sufi Movement), poverty, humility and Selfless devotion to God.
According to the pirs of the Chisthi Silsilah, to maintain a spiritual life it is
necessary to have control of the senses and this control could only be realized by
the renunciation of worldly possessions. Khwaja Muinuddin Chisthi spread the
message that the highest form of devotion or God was to rectify the misery of
those in distress, fulfilling the requirement of the helpless and to feed the hungry.
This Chisthi Silsilah of the Sufi Movement refused to accept any grant for their
maintenance from the Sultans.
The best known Chisthi saint of the Sultanate period was Nizamuddin Aulia, who
lived in the fourteenth century, the period marked by political change and
turmoil. There are numerous stories about the life of Nizamuddin Auliya; famous
among them were stories of confrontations between him and the Sultans of
Delhi. It is said that the Khwaja Nizamuddin Auliya used to maintain a strict
policy of not engaging himself with the group and factions of the Sultans Court
in Delhi, that earned him respect of many people.Nasiruddin Chiragh Delhi was
another famous Chisthi saint of Delhi who played an active role in the political
affairs of the period.
In the Deccan the Chisthi Silsilah was established by Shaikh Burhanuddin Gharib
in the 13th century. Muhammad Banda Nawaz is among the famous pirs in the
region; the Deccan city of Bijapur emerged as an important centre for the Sufi
Must Read: Mughal Architecture

The Suhrawardi Silsilah

As the constituent of the Sufi Movement, the Suhrawardi Silsilah was founded
by Shihabuddin Suhrawardi in Baghdad. In India it was established by Bahuddin
Zakariya. The Suhrawardi, unlike Chisthis, accepted maintenance grants from the
Sultans. They believed that a Sufi should own the three attributes of property,
knowledge and hal (mystical enlightenment). Suhrawardi saints took the position
that this was necessary to ensure that they served the poor better. They stressed
on observance of external forms of religious belief and advocated a fussion
of ilm (scholarship) with mysticism.
The practices of the Chisthi Order were rejected by the pirs of Suhrawardi order;
these practices involved bowing before time of initiation into silsilah. After the
death of Bahuddin Zakariya, the silsialh continued to play an important role in
Punjab and Sindh.
Also Read: Classical Dances of India: Mirror of Cultural India
Naqshbandi Silsilah
This Silsilah was established in India by khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband. From the
very beginning the mystics of this order emphasized on the observance
of Sharint and denounced all innovations or biddat.According to the philosophy of
this Silsilah, the relationship between man and God was that of between the
slave and the master and not the relation of a lover and beloved. They, in fact,
tried to harmonize the doctrines of mysticism and teachings of orthodox Islam.
Also Read: Sikhism An Introduction to Sikh Religion
The Qadri Silsilah
The Quadiriyya Silsilah was popular in Punjab. The pirs of this Order supported
the concept of Wahadat al wajud. Miyan Mir was one of the famous pirs of
this silsilah; he had enrolled the Mughal princess Jahanara and her brother Dara
as disciples. In the works of the prince the influence of the Sheikhs teachings is
Shah Badakhshani, another pir of this Silsilah while dismissing orthodox
elements, declared that, the infidel who had perceived reality and recognized
reality was an infidel.
There was a constant tension between the liberal and orthodox view
in Islam during medieval period. However, the Sufis, the flag bearers of Sufi
Movement, featured on both sides. On the one side there were those like the
Chisthis who held a liberal view and favoured the assimilation of local traditions
and at the other side there were others like representatives of the Qudiriyya
Silsilah who held the view that the purity of Islam was being diluted. This
orthodox view was represented by the Ulema that advocated from the
perspective of being upholders of the Shariat. The liberal opinion found its voice
among many Sufis who were entirely against the narrow definition of Islamic laws

by the ulema; and this was the main objective of the Sufi Movement that was a
natural response to the growing cult of orthodoxy during the medieval period
Most of the monuments of India that are recognised as the world heritage sites
belong to the Mughal period. These are known especially for their architectural
brilliance. The Mughal architecture was inspired from the Persian style of
building. With the amalgamation of Indian techniques to this style a new style
called INDO-ISLAMIC style of architecture emerged.
The main characteristics of the Mughal architecture are facades with four-centred
arches and semi-doomed roofs, vaults of intersecting arches, domes with
inverted lotus tops, ornaments in marble carvings, PIETRA DURA (a technique
used to create images with coloured stones) and so on.
All the monuments of the Mughal period possess the above characteristics. Even
in the countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan, Nepal and Bangladesh also you can
find the same features.
The pioneer of the Mughal rule, Babur and his son Humayun had spent all their
time in establishing the Mughal rule in India and thus didnt contributed to the
Mughal architecture. It was from the reign of Akbarthat the Mughal architecture
flourished like anything.
It was during the reign of Akbar that the Mughal architecture took a concrete
form. Akbar was an enlightened patron of architecture. He encouraged the style
of architecture with a mix of Indian and foreign styles. The main works of his time
HUMAYUNS TOMB: This was the first monument built in the real Mughal style
which was constructed in 1569 in Delhi. Standing on a high platform with typical
Timurid design and Mughal scheme of Tomb gardens, the design of the tomb is of
central Asian and Persian style.
AGRA FORT:It was the first major building project of Akbars time. The fort is an
irregular semi-circle in a plan, with the massive wall built by huge blocks of RED
SANDSTONE. The Hindu influence is strong in the style of building.
FATEHPUR SIKRI:The most remarkable architectural project of Akbar was the
creation of the city FATEHPURSIKRI near AGRA, to commemorate the birth of his
first son JAHANGIR. The buildings in the city are mostly built of Red Sand Stone.

structure), PALACE OF JODHABHAI(with rich interiors), DIWAN-I-KHAS (official
court with over hanging galleries and central pillar), JAMA MASJID (Islamic in
design but Hindu style also employed).
The other important architectural monuments of Akbars time are BULAND
Must Read: The Administrative System under Delhi Sultanate
The architecture of Jahangirs period is more like a continuation of Akbars
architecture. The important works are
AKBARS TOMB: It was constructed in Sikandra near Agra. The marble trellis work
with raised platforms, tiles decorated with golden painting and the garden of
char bagh design are the main notable works. The design is similar to Buddhist
The other architectural works of this period are TOMB OF ITIMADUD-DAUL, TOMB
In the Shah Jahans period, there was a transition in the architecture from robust
style to pretty and elegant style. We can say that the ShahJahans period was an
age of marble buildings. The style of PIETRADURA was the important
characteristic of this period.
RED-FORT: The RED-FORT, which was constructed in Delhi was similar to that of
the AGRA FORT. But, the pleasing style of Shahjahan reflects in every
architectural work ranging from Pietra dura paintings and domed kiosks to
massive walls and marble water canals.
JAMA MASJID: This Masjid which was built in 1656 in Delhi is one of the most
impressive mosques in the world with an amalgamation of RED SAND STONE and
TAJMAHAL: TAJMAHAL, the crown of all palaces, was built by Shah Jahan in Agra in
the memory of his late beloved wife MUMTAZ BEGUM. It took nearly 14 years to
complete this stupendous architectural piece. The White marble used is of the
best quality. The Pietra dura ornamentation, arabesques and scroll works of floral
forms are the major architectural works. The ornamental gardens, with long rows
of water courses and fountains, add to the beauty.
architecture declined
successor, AURANGZEB paid no attention to the fine arts.



The architecture of the monuments of the Mughal period is a visual splendour,
enhancing our cultural heritage.
Establishment of Turkish Rule in North India
The onus of paving the way for the establishment of, if broadly assessed,
the Muslim rule in India goes toMahmud of Ghazni who was the first Turk military
leader who invaded India, reaching deep pockets of northern India during the
first half of the eleventh century. There were many factors which helped Mahmud
of Ghur in successfully establishing Turkish rule in India.
Although Mahmud of Ghazni did not try to set up and consolidate his Empire in
India, he decimated the military strength along with plundering the wealth of the
regions wherever he could have reached.
So, it can be safely described that Mahmud of Ghazni prepared the stage by
paving the way, for his next generation to establish a Turkish rule in northern
India. This assumption can be considered apt in the light of this fact that after
almost a gap of nearly one hundred and fifty years, Muhammad of Ghur began
his military campaigns in India in AD 1175. There were many factors which
helped Mahmud of Ghur in successfully establishing Turkish rule in India.
Political Factors leading to the establishment of Turkish Rule
Political situation prevailing at the time of Muhammad Ghurs invasion was very
fragile as India was divided into several states. It cannot be denied that many of
them were powerful and extensive; however, their main weakness was that they
were engaged in constant fighting against one another for power and prestige.
Due to this infighting the Indian States could not unite even to put up a fight
against the common enemy which was posing a grave threat to the pride of their
nation, culturally and religiously too.
In this context it is interesting, rather surprising, to note that even a series of
foreign invasions could not produce a single leader with an ability to command
Indians to unite and fight against the invaders.
Another important reason that contributed immensely to the political weakness
of India was the deep rooted presence of feudalism. It was the feudal system of
the Rajputs that promoted mutual conflicts and inflicted weakness in the military
system of the States.
Social factors responsible for establishment of Turkish Rule
The social conditions of the time, that was ridden with caste system, practice of
untouchability, gross social inequality and disparities, and unfair position of

Indian women, also contributed heavily to the principal weakness of the Indian
At that time, as the caste system had become very rigid, the position of lower
castes and women had nose-dived to the lowest strata, due to which many social
evils had gripped the society as a whole.
Social evils such as female infanticide, child marriage devdasi system and the
practice of Sati among higher castes had become common, while widow
remarriages became an impossibility. Such a society, where the majority of
people had become indifferent to the fate and politics of the country, was not
capable of resisting any foreign invaders.
According to a prominent historian, the caste system weakened the Rajputs
military because the responsibility of fighting was left to a particular section of
the society, the Kshatriyas.
Deterioration of Religion as a factor for establishment of Turkish Rule
One of the major causes of defeat of Indians at the hands of Turk invaders was
the deterioration in religions. According to Hinduism, the religion truly means
duty that makes an individual useful for society and humanity; however, this
spirit behind true religion was completely lost by the Indians that further resulted
in the emergence of Tantric sects in which ritualism and image worship became
popular. The prevailing condition demoralized the society in such a way that
Hindus failed to confront the challenge posed by foreign invaders by invoking
the name of one religion, one culture and thus one country.
According to a famous historian K M Panikar, cultural degeneration was the
foremost cause of the defeat of the Rajputs. Dr. A L Srivastava, another historian
of repute, also described it as one important cause of the defeat of the Rajputs.
Although India was economically a rich country, the wealth was unevenly
distributed as it was mostly concentrated either in temples or in royal families
and trading class. This economic inequality played a very important part in
inflating the weakness of Indian society as it had become inherent.
In the context of the matter that Indian fighting class lacked any higher purpose
for fighting because they did not have a sense of having one country based on
one religion and one culture, it is sufficient to quote Dr. A L Srivastava who
summed up, Mere physical strength and military weapons do not constitute the
total equipment of an army. An inspiring ideology is as essential as military
training and equipment.
The Later Mughals of the (Mighty) Mughal Empire
When Aurangzeb,the de facto last representative of the mighty Mughal
Empire, at the age of 90 died inMarch 1707, a war of succession to the throne

began between his sons- Muazzam, who was also known as Shah Alam, the
eldest one, Muhammad Azam and Kam Bakhsh.
When Muazzam received the news of his fathers death, he was at that time in
Afghanistan; he hurried back to Agra and dispossesses, rather murdered his
brothers to capture the throne and the legacy left behind by Aurangzeb. In June
1707, Muhammad Azam was killed and in the year 1709 Kam Bakhsh was killed
in Hyderabad. He did not even spare his brothers son fearing they might
become a threat in the future. After crowning himself (in 1707) he took the title
of Bahadur Shah and after ruling for five years he died when he was in his late
Reign of Jahandar Shah: Mughal Empire deteriorated
The death of Bahadur ShahI in 1712, predictably, was followed by a war of
succession among his four sons in which Jahandar Shah emerged successful
and ascended the throne on 29 March, 1712.
When Jahandar Shah, who was known to be frivolous, reckless and pleasure
loving, became the emperor he raised the status of Lal Kanwar to that of an
empress; Lal Kanwar belonged to a family of musicians to whom he was devoted.
At first the family member of Lal Kanwar were appointed to important
administrative posts; however, due to the neglect of Jahandar Shah, gradually
they took the charge of entire administration in their hands.
It was due to these relatives misappropriation of Shahi Treasury and
mismanagement of State the conditions in the Empire deteriorated very quickly.
Farukh Siyars reign: Way for Colonial Rule
Farrukh Siyar, the nephew of Jahandar Shah, after seizing the power by defeating
his uncle and then strangling him, blinded all his rival Mughal princes to secure
that the throne would be his.
The reign of Farrukh Siyar, who proved to be a poor ruler because he depended
completely on his allies, the Saiyyids, who had helped him in acquiring power,
was marked by the granting of some undue trade privilages to the English East
India Company, that proved harmful to the economic interest of the Empire. In
fact, his actions prepared and paved the way to the establishment of British
rule in Bengal.
Farrukh Siyar was dethroned, blinded and imprisoned by his allies, the Sayyids,
who had finally turned against him. When he tried to escape they after killing
him buried Farrukh Siyar in Humayuns tomb.
Reign of Muhammad Shah: Breaking up of Mughal Empire

Muhammad Shah, at the age of 17, was raised to throne, where he remained for
almost 30 years, by the Saiyyid brothers. According to most of the contemporary
historians Muhammad
Shah was an
individual who acted like a imperial puppet at the hands of the Saiyyid brothers
who continued to rule through him for a few years, for Muhammad Shah did try
to get rid of them with the help of those Mughal nobles who were offended by
the supremacy of the Saiyyid brothers. Muhammad Shah finally, in 1722, got
success in dispossessing the Saiyyids.
However, after the disposal of the Saiyyid brothers from power,
the emperor Muhammad Shah did not pay attention to strengthen his empire,
instead he remained busy in seeking pleasures. Although he ruled for a very long
period, province after province became independent and the mighty Mughal
Empire started to break up due to his explicit lack of interest in the affairs of the
During all those years when Muhammad Shah remained an emperor till his death
in 1748, Afghanistan, then called Kabul, which had been the part of the Mughal
Empire, was under the governorship of Nasir Khan. But Nasir Khan was a weak
person; this provided an opportunity to Nadir Shah, a new but brave and
courageous military leader, to seize power.
In 1739 Nadir Shah invaded India and defeated the Mughal Empire army very
comprehensively. Sensing that it would be useless to resist, Muhammad Shah
tried to negotiate with Nadir Shah with the hope of saving his empire. However,
Nadir Shah did not oblige him and drained the treasury and carried off with the
Peacock Throne.
Ahmad Shah: The Emperor of Harem
Ahmad Shah remained emperor from 1748-54. He was a completely ineffectual
ruler. The story of him getting the name of the Emperor of Harem goes like this:
he was, in fact, brought he liked nothing better than spending all his time in
harm. This earned him the name emperor of the harm.
Ahmad Shah was blinded and deposed by the son of the Nizam of Hyderabad,
Ghazi-ud-Did who had himself with the Marathas in 1754; after this he lived in
confinement till his death.
Alamgir II: the Mughal Empire slipped into anarchy
Alamgir II or Aziz-ud-Did, the sixteenth Mughal emperor of India between 1754
and 1759, was an elderly son of Jahandar Shah. As he had spent most of his life
in prison, Alamgir II when he was placed on the throne after Ahmad Shah, was
not fully prepared to rule. He tried to copy Aurangzeb by taking the name of
Alamgir as Aurangzeb had acquired the name Aurangzeb Alamgir at the time of
his accession to the throne. However, the irony behind this act of Aziz-ud-Did was

that at the time of his accession he was already 55 years old and possessed
none of the talents of Aurangzeb.
During the rule of Alamgir II, British gained control of Bengal in 1757, the
Marathas encroached from the South and the Sikhs became independent with an
amazing rapidity in the Punjab. And finally in 1756, Ahmad Shah Durrani gained
control of the North, and the status of Alamgir was reduced to a puppet who was
ruling over an empire where anarchy predominated.
Last Mughal Rulers: Puppets of the British
According to most of the contemporary modern historians the Mughal rulers who
followed Aurangzeb became British or French puppets because the Mughal
Empire was unprepared, and some how intruders.
The British, by the middle of the nineteenth century, were controlling the
enormous tracts of the Mughal Empire and other states as well. Technically, the
British had the status of agents of the Mughal Empire but in reality they had the
complete power.
Shah Alam was taken under British protection in 1803; although he was
the official emperor who ruled from Delhi, he was totally under the command of
the British who kept him a prisoner and he had to do what they asked him to do.
This arrangement of proxy ruling, under the protection of the British, continued
with the succeeding Mughal rulers too until Bahadur Shah II, the last emperor,
rather ruler, of the mighty Mughal Empire.
The Revenue System under Mughal Administration
The system of collecting revenue under Mughal administration, which
establishment was grossly the work of Akbar, can be classified under two heads;

Imperial or central and


To some extent it followed the Sur example of administrative organization.

Provincial Revenue under Mughal
The provincial revenue was deduced from several minor taxes and duties levied
on trades and occupations, on production and consumption, on various
incidents of social life and most of all on transport. These revenues were
obtained and spent solely by the provincial financial authorities and imperial
financial authorities did not interfere in these matters.
Imperial or Central Revenue under Mughal

The chief sources of imperial or central revenue included land revenue the
most important source of State income as it had been in the past-, mint,
customs, inheritance, plunder and indemnities, presents (gift), monopolies and
the poll-tax.
Land Revenue System under Mughals
During the period of disorders and confusion after the reigns of Sher Shah and
Islam Shah the prominent experiments of revenue system of Surs were nullified.
However, Akbar, who had inherited the old system of government and the timetested customs and procedures, after acquiring the throne, found that there were
three types of land in the country namely the Khalsa or crown-lands,
the Jagir lands and the Sayurghatlands. Out of these lands the Jagir lands were
supervised by some nobles who obtained the local revenues out of which they
provided a portion of these collected revenues to the imperial exchequer and
kept the rest for themselves. Sayurghat lands were allotted on free tenure.
Akbar, after establishing his freedom completely from Bairam Khan and that of
ladies of the haram, understood the importance of reframing the financial system
of his growing empire, which were entirely in a confused condition.
Resutedly, a revised assessment was prepared in 1570- 1571 by Muzaffar Khan,
who was assisted by Raja Todar Malla in this task. This assessment was based on
local Qanungoes and
superior Qanungoes at headquarter. After the annexation of Gujarat, Todar Mall
carried there a regular survey of the land and the assessment was prepared
with reference to the area and quality of the land.
Akbar in 1575-76 abolished the old revenue areas and divided the whole of the
Empire, baring the provinces of Bengal, Gujarat and Bihar, into a large number of
units. Each unit yielded one Kror (crore) a year. For each unit an officer
designated as Krori was appointed who got the duty of not only of collecting the
revenues but also encouraging cultivation.
However, this experiment of Akbar proved disastrous as the Kroris soon engaged
themselves in rampant corruption and their cruelty resulted in great misery for
peasants. Resultedly Akbar was forced to abolish the offices of Kroris and the
revenue divisions of the past were reinstated. But, at least till the reign of Shah
Jahan, the title of Kroris remained in vogue.
When Todar Mall was made the Diwan-i-Ashraf in 1582, some important reforms
in the revenue system came into existence. He established a regulation or
standard system of revenue collection. The main characteristics of this system
(a) Survey and measurement of land,
(b) Classification of land, and

(c) Fixation of rates.

Measurement of Lands
For the measurement of lands, in order to assure a content measure, the old
units were changed by the Ilahi Gaz or yard (about thirty three inches), Tanab or
tent rope, and jarib of bamboos connected by iron rings.
Land was divided into four classes according to the continuity or discontinuity of
(1) Polaj under this category came the lands that could be cultivated annually,
(2) Paraudi under this category fell the lands that were kept uncultivated for
some time to get their productive capacity back,
(3) Chachar under this category came the lands that were kept uncultivated for
three or four years, and
(4) Banjar under this category fell the lands that were kept uncultivated for five
years or longer.
Rayotwari System
The revenue of the state was fixed at one- third of the actual produce, which the
ryots were permitted to pay either in cash or in kind. The cash rate fluctuated
according to crops. This system came to be known asRayotwari System, and was
applied to Northern India, Gujarat and, to some extent, to the Deccan.
The Empire was separated, for the purpose of administration and revenue
collection, into Subahs; theseSubhas were subdivided into Sarkars; each of
the Sarkars consisted of a number of Paragana. Each paragana was a cluster of
several villages. The revenue collector, the amalgujar, of a district got the
assistance of a large subordinate staff.
The village headman, Muqaddam, and the village Patwari were servants of the
village community but they were not the servants of the State. Apart from these
official there were the Qanungo who had to keep records of revenue that the
village had to pay; the Potdar (district treasurer); and the Bitikchi (accountant).
These officers had got a clear instruction of collecting revenue with due care and
caution and not to extend the hand of demand out of season.
Social Conditions in the Era of Mauryan Imperialism
The two principal characteristic institutions of the Hindu society (of social polity),
namely Verna (caste) andDharma (stages of religious discipline), secured a
definite stage in the era of Mauryan Imperialism (324 BC-AD 320).

According to some Greek writers of importance no one was permitted to marry

out of his own caste or to practice any calling or art except his own. For example
a soldier could not become an artisan or an artisan a soldier or philosopher.
However some writers of the day have claimed that sophists could be free from
any caste.
Philosophers, who led their lives in simple style, devoted their existence to
serious study and discourses. Some of the philosophers claimed by the Greek
authors, became hylobioi (wood-swellers) who lived on leaves and fruits and
wore attires made from the bark of trees. This feature resembles very much to
theVanprastha of
anchorites. Ashokas
inscriptions also
mention householders and ascetics.
Caste Rules
The influx of foreigners, the rise of heterodox creeds along with many other
causes had to an extent affected the rigidity of caste rules. One can come across
many instances of matrimonial unions between Indian monarchs and foreign
emperors or princess. According to a Satvahena record a king had to take great
pain to prevent the mingling of the four castes; the same king was commended
as a promoter of the households of Brahmanas and the lowly ordersthe Vaisyas and the Sudras.
According to the Kautilya Arthasastra agriculture, cattle breeding and trade were
the common occupation of Vaisyas and Sudras.
According to some of the Greek writers the old difference between the Vaisyas
and the Sudras was gradually erased and replaced, with the time, by a new
distinction between herdsmen; husbandmen and traders, who formed distinct
The growth of the two official catses, the overseas and the councilors, was a
remarkable characteristics of the period; the councilors, undoubtedly, resemble
to the amatya (or amacca) or kula described in the Pali texts.
In the days of Megasthenes the population of India was separated into seven
castes that consisted of the philosophers, the busbandmen, the herdsmen and
the hunters, the traders and the artisans, the soldiers, the overseas and the
councilors. The Greek writer ipso facto, described the actual conditions as he
witnessed as opposed to the theory of the law-books of the Mauryan Imperialism.
Revival of fourfold division of caste
It was the great Satvahana king, Gautamiputra Satakarni, who earnestly tried to
restore the fourfold division of caste (Chaturvahana). He referred to dvijas
(Brahmanas) and avaras (the lower orders), as object of his special attention. He
treated kshatriyas as a conceited class and did much to repress them. It is

imperative here to inform that although Satvahanas ruled in the different areas,
their rule is falls in the era of the Mauryan Imperialism.
Although it is not clear why Gautamiputra was so much hostile to the kshtriyas, it
seems that the ranks of the kshtriyas were being inflated by Yavanas,
Sakas and Pallavas who according to author of Manava-dharmasastra (institutes
of Manu) were degraded kshtriyas. It is well recorded in the history, of course by
the contemporary writers, that the wrath of the great Satvahana king was
particularly directed against the kshtriyas. However, caste rules could not be
rigidly enforced during the entire period covering the era of the Mauryan
Imperialism. It may appear ironic to some persons but it is a fact that Satvahanas
themselves inter-married with Sakas and Brahmanas became generals and king
like Drona of old.
Position of Women in Mauryan Imperialism
According to some details provided by Greek writers and contemporary
epigraphs, representing the era of the Mauryan Imperialism, on the position of
women some of women pursued philosophy and lived a life of abstinence.
However married women were not permitted to share a knowledge of the sacred
lore with their husbands.
Polygamy was a common practice among rulers and noblemen. The practice of
seclusion of women was prevelant as it is hinted at by the expression
like Olodhana occurring in inscriptions.
The wife took a prominent share in religious activities by the side of her husband;
it is in the record of the fine-factions of Karuvaki ; the second wife of Asoka
According to the low-giver of the period, Women though deserving of honour
should not have independence. However, history has recorded instances of
royal ladies who guided the affairs of a kingdom on behalf of their children.
Manners and Customs
About the manners and customs of the Indian, Greek Latin writers said that
Indians lived frugally and observed good order. Cultivators were mild and gentle.
Theft occurred very rarely and normally no Indians were accused of lying. The
people never took wine except at sacrificial ceremonies and their food was
primarily a rice pottage.
Centralized Administration of Mauryan Empire
It can be appropriately claimed that the Mauryan administration system, though
monarchical, was sufficient because it had the privilege of possessing successful
administrators such as Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara Maurya and
Ashoka. The King, as the supreme and sovereign authority of the Mauryan

Empire, had the supreme executive, legislative and judicial powers and functions
in the administration.
It was the responsibility of the Mauryan King, as the head of the executive, to
maintain social order by punishing guilty. He was also accountable for the safety
and security of his kingdom. Protecting the life and property of his subjects
(people of the kingdom) was also the part of his duty.
As the head of the administration the king formulated the general lines of policy
which his subordinate officers were bound to follow. He selected ministers and
other officers of the royal administration.
As the head of the judicial department, it was the duty of the Mauryan king to
ensure justice to the people and rectify their grievances. However, the vastness
of the Mauryan Empire restrained the king from personally settling all the cases
himself. But as his was the final court of appeal he issued final judgement.
To hear appeals from the people the king of the Mauryan Empire often spent
whole day in the court and during this period they even did never care for their
personal amenities. King Ashoka the Great made several reforms in the judicial
system of the Mauryan Empire. The king had the sovereign power of law making
and also the power and right to suspend customs and justice.
As the head of the Military administration of the Mauryan Empire, the king was
the supreme commander of the army. The king was not only the ultimate
authority of the bureaucracy, but he was also the head of the revenue system of
the Mauryan Empire.
No one can deny that kings of Mauryan Empire possessed huge power. However,
there were still some limitations upon the royal authority.
Limitations of Mauryan Empire were:

Before Ashoka the Mauryan Empire was primarily a Hindu State. According
to the Hindu concept, the Supreme Sovereign of the State was Dharma or
law and the king had to act as its guardian. The king never dared to
challenge the ancient laws and practices.

In the Mauryan Empire there was a Mantri Parishad in place, whose

function was to aid and advice the king. He, in ordinary times, could defy the
advice of the officers of this Mantri Parishad, but in times of emergency it
was binding on him to listen to the individual and collective advice of his

In the Mauryan Empire the Brahmins had huge influence over the king who
often dared not to disobey them. Instead he always looked for their support.

As the Mauryan Administration was decentralized in nature, the officials of the

provincial administration had the right to be consulted by the king especially in
all provincial matters.
Because of the vastness of the Empire the king had to depend on the council of
minister for discharging his responsibility and for the success of the Mauryan
The council of Ministers of the Mauryan Empire were known as the Mantri
Parishad. The number of its ministers was not fixed and varied according to
needs. Kautily supported a large Council according to the need of the empire.
The aspirant members, to show their ability, had to go through tests of religion,
love, fear, and money to qualify for becoming the full-fledged members of the
Mantri Parishad.
In the Mauryan Empire there was an efficient and well organized hierarchy of
bureaucrats belonging to central executive, judicial and revenue officers for
efficient central administration of Mauryan government.
The functions of the Mauryan Empire administrative system were carried forward
by several departments. Each of these departments, in turn, was led by a
superintendent (Adhyaksha). The Adhakshya was assisted by a band of clerks,
accountants and spies etc. for the smooth functioning of the department.
There were two other posts, in addition to the posts of Adhyakshas, of high
ranking in Mauryan Administrative System the Samaharta and
the Sannidhata. The Samaharta was the collector general of revenue for the
whole of the Mauryan Empire. And Sannidhata was the office-in-charge of the
treasury and store.
Character Estimation of Mahmud of Ghazni
A courageous soldier and a successful commander Mahmud of Ghazni ranks
among those successfulgenerals of the world who have been regarded as born
commanders. He was an expert in assigning works and responsibilities to others
according to their capacities, proving the fact that he was a good judge of human
Under Mahmuds command his army became a unified powerful force as his
army consisted of the people of different nationalities such as Arabs, the Turks,
the Afghans and even Hindus. As an ambitious commander, Mahmud always
tried to win glory and expend his empire. He converted his small inheritance,
from his father he inherited only the provinces of Ghazni and Khurasane into a
mighty empire that stretched from Iraq and Caspian Sea in the West to the river
Ganges in the east and that was definitely more extensive than the empire of
Khalifa of Baghdad at that time. Therefore, it can be asserted that Mahmud ranks
among the greatest commanders and empire-builders of Asia.

Mahmud of Ghazni: A patron of art and culture

Mahmud, an educated and cultured person, was a patron of scholarship and fine
arts. Scholars of repute gathered at his court. Scholars of great repute such as Al
Beruni, Utbi, Farabi, Baihaki, Tusi, Farrukhi and Firdausi were all at his court.
How much Mahmud of Ghazni loved to acquire wealth evident from an ancient
involving his court poet Firdausi. Once he agreed to pay Firdausi a gold dinar for
every verse composed by him. But when Firdausi brought to him
his Shahnama that consisted of one thousand verse, Mahmud offered him one
thousand dinars of silver that Firdausi refused to accept. Mahmud, of course,
sent one thousand gold diners to Firdausi afterwards, but, by then, Firdausi had
died. Mahmud established a university, a good library and a mosque at Ghazni.
He also patronized the artists; he invited all kinds of artists from all parts of
his empire and even from foreign countries and engaged them in beautifying
Ghazni. It is due to his unceasing efforts that Ghazni became not only a beautiful
city of the East but also the Centre of Islamic scholarship, fine arts and culture.
Mahmud of Ghazni as a ruler
Mahmud of Ghazni was such a just ruler that when he found his nephew guilty of
having sexual relations with the wife of another person, he killed him with his
own hands. Many similar stories are known about his sense of justice. He was
successful in maintaining peace and order, protecting trade and agriculture and
safeguarding the property and honour of his subjects within the boundaries of his
Being a fanatic Sunni Musalman, Mahmud of Ghazni was intolerant not only to
Hindus but even to Shias also. Al Beruni has criticized his intolerant religious
acts. The contemporary Muslims considered him as the champion of Islam and
he was titled as Ghazi meaning slayer of infidels and destroyer of images. The
contemporary Islamic world regarded Mahmud as the destroyer of infidels and
the one who established the glory of Islam at distant places like India.
Instead having all these personal characteristics, Mahmudof Ghazni was
considered a great Muslim ruler. In fact, he in the history of Islam, was the first
ruler who justly deserved the title of Sultan. He has been listed among the great
rulers of Central Asia. He established an extensive empire, brought peace and
prosperity within its boundaries, assisted in its cultural development and
established the glory of Islam at distant places.
But, in the history of India, Mahmud of Ghazni was a barbaric foreign bandit, a
fanatic Sunni Muslim, a plunderer and a destroyer of fine arts. He, in fact, was
the ruler of Ghazni, and not of India. The parts of hisempire such as Punjab,
Sindh and Multan, in fact, served the purpose of bases for his invasions deeper in
India. He did not pay attention to administer them well. In the course of

penetrating deep in India, Mahmud of Ghazni simply desired loot, plunder and
conversions. Thus to the Indians of his days he was a devil incarnate.
Weakness of Mahmud of Ghazni
His greatest weakness was that he was unable to rule as an administrator. Apart
from maintaining peace and order in his dominions he did nothing to make it a
stable Empire; his empire existed only during his own lifetime. As soon as he
died, the empire was shattered to pieces under his successors.
According to Lane-Poole, Mahmud of Ghazni was a great soldier and possessed
tremendous courage and untiring mental and physical capacity. But he was not a
constructive and far-signed statesman. He did hardly anything to consolidate his
Indian conquests as well.
It has been said by many scholar writers that Mahmud of Ghazni, who left no
permanent impact on India, came like a great storm and destroyed everything
and then passed off. However, it would be improper to assume, rather accept,
that Mahmud of Ghazni left no permanent mark on Indians and Indian history.
Mahmud of Ghazni broke up not only the military strength of the Indians but also
their morale to resist Turk invaders. He never confronted a serious challenge in
India and his constant success against Indians created a defeatist attitude
among the Indians that Turks were invincible. And above all, the most significant
achievement of Mahmud of Ghazni was the destruction of the Hindushahi
Kingdom of Afghanistan that facilitated the way for the conquest of India by
The rise and fall of Mysore Reign of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan
Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan are names that always remained as a threat to their
In a very short period (1761-1799) of their rule, these father and son have
achieved a regard that was something more than the reputation of mere kings.
End of Vijayanagar Empire
Story begins in early 18th century when two ministers of once a mighty but
now rusted and weak Vijayanagar Empire became conspirator against their own
king. Nangjaraj, the Sarvadhikari and Devraj, the Dulwai eventually seized the
power in Mysore, reducing the king Chikka Krishna Raj to a mere puppet.
Rise of Haider Ali
Haider Ali started his career in the Mysore Army as a petty officer, the Mysore
was engaged in a lengthy war of more than twenty years. During the period he
gradually rose in Mysore army cleverly using the opportunities that came in his

He was an uneducated but keen intellect, daring and determined. He understood

the advantage of western military training and applied it to troops under his own
command. He also established a modern arsenal with the help of French experts.
In 1791, Haider Ali overthrew Nanjaraj and established his authority over the
Mysore state. Soon he turned Mysore into a leading Indian power.
He was always engaged in war with Maratha, Nizam and British. He repeatedly
defeated British.
First Anglo Mysore War (1767-69)
In this war, Haider Ali faced the tripple alliance of the British, the Nizam and the
Marathas. Haider Ali using his diplomatic skills bought off the Marathas and won
over the Nizam and thus broke the alliance.
The war was brought to an end by signing of the Treaty of Madras in 1769.
In 1782, Haider Ali died in the course of the Second Anglo Mysore war and
succeeded by his son.
Tipu Sultan
In 1782, Tipu Sultan became the successor of Mysore Empire in the middle of a
war. Tipu carried the Second Anglo Mysore War till 1784 when two side concluded
peace by signing the Treaty of Mangalore.
In the Third Anglo Mysore War (1789-92), Tipu was defeated by the triple alliance
of British, Nizam and Marathas and had to sign the Treaty of Srirangapatna.
In 1799, Tipu Sultan died at the gates of Srirangapatna in the last battle he
fought with British.
Life of Tipu Sultan
He is also known as Tiger of Mysore was in public opinion in England considered
him a vicious tyrant, while modern Indian nationalists have hailed him as a
freedom fighter, but both views are the products of wishful thinking.
Tipu Sultan introduced new calendar, new system of coinage, new scale and
weight and measure. He had a keen interest in French Revolution. He planted a
Tree of Liberty at Srirangapatna and he became a member of Jacobin Club.
His land revenue was as high as that of contemporary rulers it ranged upto one
third of the gross product.
He made an effort to build a modern navy after 1796.

He sent emissaries to France, Turkey, Iran and Pegu Myanmar to develop foreign
trade. He also traded with China.
Some British historians have declared Tipu as a religious fanatic. But facts does
not support this claim. Though he was an orthodox in his own religious views but
he was tolerant and enlightened in his approach toward other religion. [reference
He gave money for construction of the image of goddess Sarda in the Sringeri
Temple after the latter was looted by Maratha horsemen in 1791. He regularly
gave gifts to this temple as well as several other temples. The famous temple of
Sriranganath was situated barely a hundred yards from his palace. He never tried
to change the name of Srirangapatna (like other rulers did in their area).
Even on his last morning (May 4th came, 1799) before the battle, Tipu was told
that the omens were not propitious. He tried to ward off misfortune by presenting
the Hindu priests and Brahmins with a purse of gold, an elephant, a black bullock
and two buffalo, a black nanny goat and a black coat and hat, but in vain.
While he treated the vast majority of his Hindu and Christian subjects with
consideration and tolerance, he was harsh on those Hindus and Christians who
might directly or indirectly aid the British against Mysore Empire.
Quiz 419 Practice Paper (History)
July 18, 2016 By Prafull Leave a Comment
1. Assertion (A): Magadh came into prominence under the leadership of
Bimbisara who strengthened his position by marriage alliances.
Reason (R): Bimbisara had three wives. His first wife was a Lichchhavi princess
who gave birth to Ajatashatru.
(a) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

2. Mohammad-bin-Tughlaqs experiment of introducing token currency failed on

account of
(a) Melting of token currency.

(b) Poor quality of token currency.

(c) Rejection of token coins by foreign merchants.
(d) Large-scale minting of spurious coins.

3. Which one of the following had principles and constitutional provisions which
were later incorporated in the Montague-Chelmsford reforms?
(a) Poona Pact
(b) Lucknow Pact
(c) Nehru Report
(d) Wavell Plan

4. The lower castes tried to assert themselves by borrowing and imitating

customs and manners of the upper castes. This was termed as Sanskritisation by
(a) Bernard Cohn
(b) M.K. Gandhi
(c) M.N. Srinivas
(d) B.R. Ambedkar

5. The pioneer of the Young Bengal Movement was

(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Surendra Nath Banerjee
(c) Keshav Chandra Sen
(d) Henry Vivian Derozio

6. Who among the following was the first Commander-in-chief of the Indian
National Army
(a) Shah Nawaz Khan
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Pitam Singh
(d) Mohan Singh

7. Consider the following statements about Ghadar Party:


The party was active in the Eastern coast region of United States.


The Party started a newspaper named Ghadar.


The party was formed by Indian migrants in US and Canada.

Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 3
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

8. The immediate cause which led to the launching of the Non-cooperation

Movement was the
(a) Dissatisfaction with the Government of India Act, 1919.
(b) Khilafat Movement.
(c) Rowlett Act.
(d) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

9. Which one of these was the first Indian effort to draft a constitutional scheme?
(a) Cabinet Mission.
(b) Government of India Act, 1919.
(c) Government of India Act, 1935.
(d) Nehru Report1928.

10. White Munity refers to the revolt by

(a) Widow womens against Widow Remarriage Act.
(b) British army officers in India.
(c) Indian soldiers in Company army against British army officers.
(d) Cotton producer farmers.

11. Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?


Holland: Compagnie des Indes Orientales


Portugal: Estado da India


France: Verenigde Oost-Indsche Compagnie

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 3
(d) all of them.

12. Which one of the following ruling lines of the Marathas defeated Baji Rao II,
the last Peshwa?
(a) Gailkwar
(b) Bhonsle
(c) Scindhia
(d) Holkar



(c) Bimbisaras first wife was the daughter of king of Koshala. His second
wife was a Lichchhavi princess who gave birth to Ajatshatru. His third wife
was the daughter of the chief of the Madra clan of Punjab.


(b) The Montague Chelmsford Reforms were announced in 1918, and in it

were incorporated elements from the Lucknow Pact signed between the
Congress and the Muslim League in 1916. It was on the basis of MontagueChelmsford Reforms that the Government of India Act of 1919 was passed.


(c) Sanskritisation is a concept to explain social mobility in the Hindu caste

hierarchy. The concept was propounded by M.N. Srinivas.



(d) The Indian National Army (Azad Hindu Fauj) was founded by Captain
Mohan Singh and Fujimara in 1942 (during the Second World War).


(b) Khilafat Movement was the immediate cause which led to the
launching of Non-cooperation Movement.


(d) Nehru Report recommended dominion status, joint electorates with

reserved seats for minorities; linguistic provinces, 19 fundamental rights,
responsible government at Centre and in provinces.


(c) The resolution was passed during Karachi session.


(b) Estado da India was a Portuguese company. Compagnie des Indes

Orientales was a French company and Verenigde Oost-Indsche Compagnie
was the company of Holland.


(d) In 1802, Holkar attacked Poona and defeated the combined forces of
Peshwas and Sindhia. Peshwa Bajirao-II as a result of this defeat fled to East
India company and concluded the treaty of Bassein.

Quiz 416 Practice Paper (History)

July 16, 2016 By Prafull Leave a Comment
1. The people of which Neolithis site started rice cultivation as early as in 7000
(a) Gufakral
(b) Koldihwa
(c) Sarai Nahar Rai
(d) Barzaham

2. Assertion (A): The earlier coins of the Gupta rulers were modeled on foreign
Kushan coins, but later they tried to shed the foreign influence on their coins.
Reason (R): With the passage of time, the Gupta coins adapted features like
Garud figure, close-fitting cap on the Kings head and use of earrings necklaces,
(a) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

3. Consider the following statements about Aryans:


River Indus, also named Naditama was highly praised by them.



They arrived first in the land of Punjab and called it Sapta-Sindhav.

They knew agriculture but it was limited. Cattle was most important
sources of wealth and life, especially cow.
They believed in one God but 33 names of God appeared in Rig Veda.

Of the above, the correct statement(s) is/are

(a) Both 1 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) All of these.

4. Who among the following were the Indian Liberals who attended the first
session of the Round Table Conference?

C.Y. Chintamani


M.R. Jayakar


V.S. Srinivasa Sapru


Tej Bahadur Sapru

Of the above, the correct answer is

(a) Both 1and 3
(b) Both 2 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) All of them.

5. Assertion (A): The Congress Ministries went out of office in 1939.

Reason (R): The Ministries failed to function properly.

(a) A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

6. What was the main component of the Indian Council Act of 1892?
(a) Financial independence for Indians.
(b) Education for masses.
(c) Greater share in the Government for Indians.
(d) Separate electorate

7. The East India Company had expelled the earliest leader of Christian
missionaries in 1793, when he declared his intentions of carrying on propaganda
work in India. His name was
(a) Nano de Cohan
(b) William Carey
(c) William John
(d) John Baptista

8. The Royal Indian Navy Revolt elected a Naval Central Committee headed by
(a) MS Khan
(b) Lt. General Cariappa
(c) Khizar Hayat Khan
(d) Wavell

9. The Gandhi cap was first worn by

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru at the First Plenary Session of Congress.
(b) Mahatma Gandhi in Lahore session.
(c) J.C. Bose receiving his award.
(d) Mahatma Gandhi in Johannesburg.

10. Which of the following statement is NOT true about INC sessions?
(a) Nehru presided over both 1936 and 1937 Congress sessions.
(b) The Karachi session declared that both political and economic freedom are
(c) The Lahore session passed a resolution on Fundamental Rights and the
National Economic Programme for first time.
(d) A resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj passed in Lahore Session in 1929.

11. The Swaraj Party was formed for

(a) Overthrow of government by organizing a countrywide strike
(b) Making alternative programme
(c) Boycotting the elections.
(d) None of these.

12. Which one of the following European trading group first established its
factory at Surat?
(a) The English

(b) The Portuguese

(c) The French
(d) The Dutch

13. The Portuguese conquered Goa and lost Hormuz respectively in

(a) AD 1515 and 1618.
(b) AD 1510 and 1622
(c) AD 1510 and 1605
(d) AD 1505 and 1598

14. The first active state to introduce military training on the European model
(a) Oudh
(b) Kashmir
(c) Golconda
(d) Mysore

15. Nizam-ul-Mulk established the independent state of

(a) Kandhar
(b) Burhanpur
(c) Hasanpur
(d) Hyderabad






(b) Ganga and Yamuna are also mentioned in Rig Veda, but Indus was
most important and Saraswati mostly praised called Naditama.


(d) The first Round Table Conference was held in London in 1930. The
Congress Party didnt take part in it.


(c) The Congress ministries functioned properly from 1937to 1939. The
second World War broke out in 1939 and India was declared belligerent
without consulting the elected leaders from Congress, which is why ministers
in all Congress ruled provinces resigned.


(b) After the passing of the Charter Act of 1813 restrictions on the
immigration of missionaries to India were removed.


(a) Khizar Hayat belonged to Unionist Party.


(d) A cap was worn by all blacks to be distinctive.


(c) The resolution was passed during Karachi session.


(b) Of diverting the movement from widespread Civil Disobedience

movement to restrictive one and encourage.


(a) The English first of all opened their factory in 1612 AD while the French
established their factory at Surat in 1688 AD. Portuguese did not establish
any factors at Surat.



(b) Portuguese conquered Goa in 1510 and they lost Hormuz in 1622.
(d) Haidar Ali of Mysore was the first person to introduce military training
on European model. He established an arms factory at Dindigal and training
his army with the French help.
(d) Nizam-ul-mulk established the independent state of Hyderabad.

Quiz 414 Practice Paper (History)

July 15, 2016 By Prafull Leave a Comment

1. During the Gupta Period the Brahmanas accumulated wealth on account of the
numerous land grants made to them and therefore claimed many privileges. This
is listed in the following law book
(a) Gautam Smriti
(b) Brihaspat Smriti
(c) Prashar Smriti
(d) Narada Smriti

2. Consider the following statements:


Ramayana and the Mahabharata were studies with the same zeal and
devotion in the land of the Tamils as in the intellectual circles of Banaras and


Iranian inscriptions first mentioned Hindu as a district in Indus. Therefore,

in the earliest stage, the term Hindu means a territorial unit.


In third century BC Sanskrit served as the lingua franca across the major
part of India.

Which of the above is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 2
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

3. During Chola period the finest Dravidian architectural progress is seen at the
temple of
(a) Gangaikonda Cholapuram
(b) Kailash Nath Kanchipuram
(c) Subramangle temple at Tanjavur

(d) Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjavur

4. The Pre-Mughal paintings were largely influenced by


Central Asian and Climax paintings


Jaina illustrated Manuscript


Paintings of Gujarat Schools

The correct statement(s) is/are made with

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 2
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

5. Aurangzebs height of political un-wisdom was

(a) Attempt to incorporate Marwar in the Mughal Empire
(b) Execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs.
(c) Imprisonmement of Shivajee in Agra.
(d) Waging useless and ruinous wars in the north-west frontier.

6. The term Pietra dura has great significance in Indian art and architecture.
This was greatly supported by the Mughal Emperors. It refers to which of the
(a) It is a traditional art of carpet weaving.
(b) It is an art of musical notes development.
(c) It is an art of decoration with stones.

(d) It is an art of making sweets.

7. Which of the following were brought by the Portuguese to India?


Assessment of land revenue on the basis of nature of the soil.


First printing press.


Pineapples and Cashewnuts.


Tobacco and Red chilies


Cotton and Banana.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

(a) 1, 2 and 4
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3, 4 and 5
(d) 1, 2, 4 and 5

8. The Simon Commission of 1928 was boycotted by the Congress because it

(a) was appointed one year before it was due.
(b) definitely negated the claim of the Indian people to determine their own
(c) did not include a representative of the Congress.
(d) included a member of the Muslim League.

9. Under the Permanent Settlement, the Zamindars share in the collected land
revenue was
(a) 1/11

(c) 1/6
(d) 1/3

10. The Economic Policy of the British in India was to

(a) convert India into an agrarian satellite of metropolitan capitalism.
(b) promote the material prosperity of the Indians.
(c) Industrialize India.
(d) bring India to the level of western countries.

11. Consider the following statements:


Gopal Krishna Gokhale became the first person to demand education as a

fundamental right more than 100 days ago.


There was no mid-day meal scheme during the British period. It is a post
independence concept.


Dadabhai Nauroji was the first person to calculate per capita income in

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and3
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

12. The deeper objective of the Morley-Minto Reforms was

(a) Destruction of the extremist movement.

(b) To play one community in India against another.
(c) To rally the moderates on the Government side.
(d) Establishment of a responsible Government in India.


(b) In third century BC Prakrit served as the lingua franca across the major
part of India. Later, Sankrit acquired the same position.






(a) After the death of Marwar King, Maharaja Jaswant Singh in

1678, Aurangzeb did not recognize his son Ajit Singh as his successor and
tried to annex Marwar to the Mughal Empire. It led to Rajput struggle against
the Mughals under the leadership of Durga Das.








(a) The Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis

in which the Zamindars share in the collected land revenue was 1/11 while
the 10/11 was appropriated by the Company.






(b) Morley-Minto reforms provided for communal representation by

introducing separate electorates for Muslims. This was incorporated in the
Government of India Act of 1909, thus paving way for British Policy of Divide
and Rule.

You are here: Home / Questions / Quiz 410 Practice Paper (Science)

Quiz 410 Practice Paper (Science)

July 13, 2016 By Prafull Leave a Comment
1. When the temperature is raised, the viscosity of a liquid decreases. This is
because of
(a) Decrease convalent and hydrogen bond forces.
(b) Decreased volume of the solution.
(c) Increase in the temperature that increases the average kinetic energy of
molecules which overcome the attractive force between them.
(d) Increased attraction between the molecules.

2. The metallurgical process in which a metal is obtained in a fused state is

(a) Calcination
(b) Froth flotation
(c) Smelting
(d) Roasting

3. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true?


Allergies are caused due to secretion of histamine in the body.


Narcotic analgesics are also known as opiates.


Oral contraceptives belong to the class of natural products called steroids.

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 2
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

4. The graphite rods in the nuclear reactor

(a) Convert fast moving neutrons into thermal neutrons
(b) Undergo combustion which triggers the nuclear fission
(c) React with U to release energy
(d) Produce neutrons

5. Which of the following are true statement(s)?


Silica causes lung disease called white lung cancer.


The lung disease caused by asbestos particulates is called asbestosis.


Coal miners suffer from black lung disease.

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 2
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these.

6. A gas is liquefied
(a) Above critical temperature and pressure
(b) Above critical temperature and below critical pressure.
(c) Below critical temperature and above critical pressure.
(d) Below critical temperature and pressure.

7. The unused fat present in the body is

(a) Easily destroyed by certain enzymes present in the body.
(b) Convert into carbohydrates
(c) Removed as waste from the body
(d) Reconverted into animal fat and stored in different parts of the body

8. Lodized salt is a
(a) Mixture of molecular iodine and common salt
(b) Mixture of a potassium iodine and common salt
(c) Compound formed by combination of molecular iodine and common salt
(d) Compound formed by combination of potassium iodine and common salt

9. Most commonly used chemical for stain removal is

(a) Mineral water
(b) Salted water
(c) Javelle water
(d) Citric acid

10. Heavy water is manufactured

(a) By repeated electrolysis of 3% aqueous solution of NaOH
(b) By Combination of hydrogen and heavier isotope or oxygen
(c) By electrolysis of water containing heavy hydrogen dissolved in it
(d) None of these.

11. In an electrochemical cell, the electrons flow from

(a) solution to cathode.
(b) anode to solution.
(c) anode to cathode.
(d) cathode to anode.

12. Consider these statements:


The asteroid belt is between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.


Stellar energy is the internal energy of a star.


Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are made up mostly of iron and rock. They
are known as terrestrial or earth-like planets because of their similar size and

Select the correct statement(s) from the codes given below:

(a) Only 1
(b) Both 1 and 3
(c) Both 2 and 3
(d) All of these

13. Consider these statements:


It has two moons called Phobos and Damos


It is one of the inner planets of the solar system


This planet changed colour in different season


No life has been detected on it

These statements are about

(a) Venus
(b) Jupiter
(c) Neptune
(d) Mars

14. When milk is churned, the cream from it gets separated due to
(a) Heat
(b) Frictional force
(c) Gravitational force
(d) Centrifugal force

15. By placing ear on the rail tracks it is possible to detect the approach of train
(a) Sound produced by train travel faster in solid than in air
(b) Trains produces vibration
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these


(c) With increase in temperature, viscosity of liquid decreases as the

average kinetic energy of the molecules increases.







(a) Thermal neutrons are slow neutrons that are approximately in thermal
equilibrium with a moderator. They have a distribution of speed similar to
that of the molecules of a gas at the temperature of the moderator.
(c) Silica causes silicosis.
(c) A gas is liquefied only if the temperature. The minimum pressure
required to liquefy the gas at the critical temperature is called the critical


(d) Reserved fat acts as thermoinsulator





(c) Javelle water also Javel water is an aqueous solution of potassium or

sodium hypochlorite, used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.
(d) The electrons liberated at anode during oxidation move toward
cathode where they are used up.







(d) An object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an

outward force. This force is known as the centrifugal force. The force of spin
cause the cream to get separated from the milk.

Quiz 186 UPSC Previous Years Science Questions

March 17, 2016 By Prafull 2 Comments
Which one of the following sets is correctly matched?
(i) Diphtheria, Pneumonia and Leprosy : Hereditary
(ii) AIDS, Syphilis and Gonorrhoea: Bacterial
(iii) Colour blindness, Haemophilia and Sickle cell anaemia: Sex linked
(iv) Polio, Japanese B encephalitis and Plague: Viral
(a) Only (ii)

(b) Only (iii)

(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) None of these
Colour blindness, Haemophilia are sex linked diseases. Colour blindness is an
inability to percept red and green colours. Haemophilia is an inability of body for
blood coagulation during injury. Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic disease in which
RBC became sickle shaped.
Ans- (d)

A person with AB blood group is sometimes called a universal recipient because

of the:
(a) Lack of antigen in his blood
(b) Lack of antibodies in his blood
(c) Lack of both antigens and antibodies in his blood
(d) Presence of antibodies in his blood
The person having AB blood group is universal recipient because it does not have
any antigvody in his blood. Thats why, a person having blood group AB can
receive any other type (e.g. A, B and O) of blood group also without facing any
problem of blood clotting.
Ans- (b)

Which one of the following is a membrane that protects the developing embryo
from desiccation?
(a) Amnion
(b) Allantois

(c) Chorion
(d) Yolk sac
Amnion is the extra embryonic membrane formed in Amniotes (Reptiles, birds
and mammals). Amnion contains amnoiotic fluid that protects growing embryo
from desiccation and shock.
Ans- (a)

Which one of the following antimicrobial drugs, is suitable for treatment of both
tuberculosis and leprosy?
(a) Isoniazid
(b) P aminosalicylic acid
(c) Streptomycin
(d) Rifampicin
Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, while tuberculosis is caused by
bacteria Streptococcus or Staphylococcus. Rifampicin is a common medicine in
treatment of the diseases.
Ans- (d)

The normal temperature of human body on the Kelvin scale is:

(a) 280
(b) 290
(c) 300
(d) 310

Normal body temperature is 37 degree centigrade, but in Kelvin scale 0 degree C

= 0 degree C+ 273 = 273 degree K. When we convert 37degree C into Kelvin, it
becomes 37+ 273 = 310 degree K.
Ans- (d)

Most of the desert plants bloom during night time because:

(a) Their blooming is controlled by low temperature
(b) They are sensitive to the phases of moon
(c) The desert insects eat away flowers during day time
(d) The desert insects are active during night time
In desert condition, most of the activity of the plants and animals happens during
night because of very high temperature in day time. The desert insects make
themselves active and pollinate the flowers in night. To attract the insects, most
of the desert plants bloom during night.
Ans- (d)

Which of the following elements are present in all proteins?









(a) 2 and 3
(b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
All the proteins are formed of amino acid that contains COOH and NH2 as
functional group. In this way, all the four elements i.e., Carbon (C), Nitrogen (N),
Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) are present in all proteins.
Ans- (d)

What one of the following hormones contains iodine?

(a) Thyroxin
(b) Testosterone
(c) Insulin
(d) Adrenaline
The main secretion of thyroid gland is called thyroxin. Thyroxin contains iodine.
When thyroid gland becomes inactive, the lack of iodine causes goiter.
Ans- (a)

of the four landmarks in medical history given below, which one was the first to
take place?
(a) Organ transplant
(b) Bypass surgery
(c) Test tube baby
(d) Plastic surgery
Plastic surgery is the first to take place in history, it can be safely concluded on
behalf of Sushruta Samhita.

Ans- (d)

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the diseases, which causes
the death of the largest number of people today, is:
(a) AIDS
(b) Tuberculosis
(c) Malaria
(d) Ebola
Tubercular is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium affects the
lung of patient. Fever, cough, weakness are main characteristic of this disease.
Ans- (b)
Quiz 184 Science Previous Years Question Paper
March 16, 2016 By Prafull 4 Comments
Which one the following can be used to confirm whether drinking water contains
a gamma emitting isotope or not?
(a) Microscope
(b) Lead plate
(c) Scintillation counter
(d) Spectrophotometer
Scintillation counter is a device used to detect the radioactive isotope. Generally
alpha, beta, gamma rays emitted from radioactive substance emits radiation on
scintillation counter.
Ans- (c)

Which one of the following is a mixed fertilizer?

(a) Urea
(b) CAN
(c) Ammonium sulphate
(d) NPK
NPK- contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different percentage. It is
an ideal mixture of fertilizers.
Ans- (d)

Which one of the following polymers is widely used for making bullet proof
(a) Polyvinyl chloride
(b) Polyamides
(c) Polyethylene
(d) Polycarbonates
Polycarbonates are the polymer widely used in making bullet proof jacket forms
with different layers of substance, which provide resistance in penetrating from
Ans- (d)

The chemical used as a fixer in photography is:

(a) Sodium sulphate
(b) Sodium thiosulphate

(c) Ammonium persulphate

(d) Borax
Sodium thiosulphate is used as a fixer in photography. It removes Ag from
negative by forming complex with it.
Ans- (b)

Which one of the following pairs of materials serves as electrodes in chargeable

batteries commonly used in devices such as torchlights, electric shavers etc?
(a) Nickel and cadmium
(b) Zinc and carbon
(c) Lead peroxide and lead
(d) Iron and cadmium
Ans- (a)

yellow cake, an items of smuggling across border is:

(a) A crude form of heroin
(b) A crude form cocaine
(c) Uranium oxide
(d) Unrefined gold
Uranium oxide smuggled across border as yellow cake. Enriched uranium can be
used in making illegal nuclear explosive that is dangerous to humanity.
Ans- (c)

The difference between a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb is that

(a) No chain reaction takes place in nuclear reactor and an, while in the atomic
bomb there is a chain reaction
(b) The chain reaction in nuclear reactor is controlled
(c) The chain reaction in nuclear reactor is not controlled
(d) No-chain reaction takes place in atomic bomb, while it takes place in nuclear
The main difference between a nuclear reactor and an atomic bomb is that the
chain reaction in nuclear reactor can be controlled, whereas in nuclear bomb
chain reaction goes uncontrolled.
Ans- (b)

Which one of the following fuels causes minimum environmental pollution?

(a) Diesel
(b) Coal
(c) Hydrogen
(d) Kerosene
Diesel, coal and kerosene have high carbon percentage, which on burning forms
oxide of carbon, such as CO2, CO but hydrogen after oxidation only forms water
and water is not a pollutant anyway.
Ans- (c)

Physic-chemical characteristics of water in water sources undergo changes due

(a) Aquatic macrophytes
(b) Aquatic fungi
(c) Effluents
(d) Evapotranspiration
Aquatic macrophytes, aquatic fungi are natural organism and evapotranspiration
is a natural process by which plant losses water. Effluents from various industrial
units and sewage are the culprits which change the physico-chemical
characteristics of water.
Ans- (c)

The alpha particle carries two positive charges. Its mass is very nearly equal to
that of:
(a) Two protons
(b) An atom of helium
(c) Sum of messes of two positrons and two neutrons
(d) Two positrons as each positron carries a single positive charge
Each alpha particle contains two protons and two neutrons, so its mass is equal
to the atom of helium. The molecular weight of the helium atoms is 4 same as of
alpha particle.
Ans- (b)
Food Chain and Food Web
December 21, 2014 By Prafull Leave a Comment

Every living plant and animal must have energy to survive. Plants rely on
the soil, water, and the sun for energy. Animals rely on plants as well as other
animals for energy.
In an ecosystem, plants and animals all rely on each other to live. Scientists
sometimes describe this dependence using a food chain or a food web.
Food Chain
A food chain describes how different organisms eat each other, starting out with
a plant and ending with an animal.
The lion eats the zebra, which eats the grass. The grasshopper eats grass, the
frog eats the grasshopper, the snake eats the frog, and the eagle eats the snake.
Read Also: Fascinating facts about Algae
Links of the Chain
The names depend mostly on what the organism eats and how it contributes to
the energy of theecosystem.

Producers Plants are producers. This is because they produce energy for
the ecosystem. They do this because they absorb energy from sunlight
through photosynthesis. They also need water and nutrients from the soil,
but plants are the only place where new energy is made.

Consumers Animals are consumers. This is because they dont produce

energy, they just use it up. Animals that eat plants are called primary
consumers or herbivores. Animals that eat other animals are called
secondary consumers or carnivores. If a carnivore eats another carnivore, it
is called a tertiary consumer. Some animals play both roles, eating both
plants and animals. They are called omnivores.

Decomposers Decomposers eat decaying matter (like dead plants and

animals). They help put nutrients back into the soil for plants to eat.
Examples of decomposers are worms, bacteria, and fungi.

Energy is Lost
All the energy made in the food chain comes from the producers, or plants,
converting sunlight into energy with photosynthesis. The rest of the food chain
just uses energy. So as you move through the food chain there is less and less
energy available. For this reason, there are less and less organisms the further
along the food chain.
There is more grass than zebras, and more zebras than lions. The zebras and
lions use up energy doing stuff like running, hunting, and breathing.

Links higher up in the food chain rely on the lower links. Even though lions dont
eat grass, they wouldnt last long if there wasnt any grass because then the
zebras wouldnt have anything to eat.
Must Read: Chloroplasts
Food Web
In any ecosystem there are many food chains and, generally, most plants and
animals are part of several chains. When you draw all the chains together you
end up with a food web.
Trophic Levels
Sometimes scientists describe each level in a food web with a trophic level. Here
are the five trophic levels:

Level 1: Plants (producers)

Level 2: Animals that eat plants or herbivores (primary consumers)

Level 3: Animals that eat herbivores (secondary consumers, carnivores)

Level 4: Animals that eat carnivores (tertiary consumers, carnivores)

Level 5: Animals at the top of the food chain are called apex predators.
Nothing eats these animals.

Biodiversity and Its Conservation

June 18, 2016 By Prafull 1 Comment
In the year 1992 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defined
the term Biodiversity as The totality of genes, species, and ecosystems in a
of Bio meaning Life and Diversity meaningNumber of Species of plants, animals
or microbes. The term Biodiversity was coined in 1985 by Walter G Rosen.
According to US office of Technology Assessment, biodiversity is The variety and
variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they
occur. It has been also defined as The richness in variety and variability of all
living organisms in a given region.
Biodiversity, that is also known as biological diversity, can be sub grouped at
three levels:

Genetic Diversity

Species Diversity

Community/Ecosystem Diversity

Genetic Diversity consists of the genetic variation within species at finer levels of
Species Diversity comprises in itself all the species of plants, animal and microorganisms on earth at its basic level.
Community/Ecosystem Diversity: It consists of, on a wider scale, variations in the
biological communities in which species (living beings) live, the ecosystem in
which communities exist and interacts among themselves at these levels.
Also Read: The Earth and the Universe
Keystone Species
Some species, within biological communities, are significant in determining the
ability of large number of species to continue in the community. These significant
species are termed as Keystone species, this term was mentioned by Paine in
1966 and Howe in 1984. In conservation efforts a priority has been accorded to
these keystone species because their loss may result in the loss of numerous
other species from a conservation area.
Must Read: International Environmental Organizations
Hot Spots of Biodiversity
In 1990s biodiversity hot spots were originally identified by Norman Myers. It is
also called or termedConservation hot spots. These are areas which face serious
threat from human activities and contain a unique biodiversity with
representatives of evolutionary process of speciation and extinction. Hot Spots
are basically defined as geographical zones that possesses high number of
endemic species that are not found anywhere else on this planet.
The total areas of remaining habitat of the endemic species covers only 2.3
percent of the Earths land surface. Each hot spot faces serious threats and has
already lost at least 70 percent of its original vegetation. About 42 percent of
all terrestrial vertebrate species and 50 percent of the worlds plant species are
endemic to the biodiversity hotspots.
Although some of these hotspots are already protected, more than
a billion humans live in these areas which are heavily farmed. Though the
number of hotspots in the world has now increased to 34, just 1.4% of the land
supports 60 percent of the species of plants and animals on the earth.

Thus as the places of rich biological diversity endowed with a super abundance
of unique species of plants and animals these hotspots are thought to contain
nearly 20 percnt of the worlds plants species on a mere 0.5 percent of its land.
India, presently has four hotspots:

Eastern Himalayas

Western Ghats

North East India and

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The rate of deforestation in these areas is very high and the ecosystems have
reached a brittle stage.
Dont Miss: The Himalayas: An insight into their evolution and importance
Threats to Biodiversity
Monoculture- In order to meet the immediate demand of foodgrains and keeping
in mind the merlcet, the practice of growing few species at the expense of the
others has inflected a serious loss of biodiversity. It takes just three
species- wheat, rice and Maize to cater half of the worlds food; potato, barley,
cassava and sweet potato bring it to three-fourth.
Presently, an average of sixteen species are being consumed by people. In
addition, the disease such asBird Flue can spread rapidly through Monoculture
that in turn increases the threat to biodiversity.
Over exploitation and Over consumerism Enhancement in population and the
inclination of over consumerism has resulted in over exploitation of our natural
resources. Trade in wildlife for immediate economic gain, overfishing, overhunting and poaching all play their parts in the growing threats to biodiversity.
Pollution- Pollution contributes in wiping out species, especially the endangered
species and those part of the fragile ecosystem such as the marine ecosystem of
the gulf region that has been affected due to oil spills.
Must Read: 31 Important Mountain Passes in India
Some other threats to biodiversity

Poverty Due to acute poverty, tribals start interfering with forest areas
and most of the times are lured into poaching.

Habitat Destruction Rapid deforestation has resulted in habitat

destruction leading to the extinction of Dodo and endangering many more.

Over Population The rapid enhancement in population has increased the

burden on nature that has affected the biodiversity in a serious manner.

It can be asserted, therefore, that only judicious use of our natural resources is
the only remedy that can help us in preserving our biodiversity. According to the
general secretary of United Nations (UN), Ban Ki Moon, Biodiversity is being lost
at an unprecedented rate, the global response to these challenges need to move
much more rapidly and with much more determination at all levels.
Conservation of Biodiversity
On the natural resources the increasing demand of population has acquired such
a proportion that it has become a serious threat to wild life and the life support
systems of the planets. So it is very important to take serious measures for the
conservation of biodiversity with an intention to reinstate the balance
between environment and human.
Also Read: Rivers, Waterfalls and Glaciers
Steps for the conservation of biodiversity

Protection of natural habitats, their control and limited exploitation of


Recognition and identification of the ecosystems biographic zones along

with species.

Educating public and

protection at all levels.

Maintenance of maximum number of species in protected areas such as

sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves and improving their






Study of the status of the protected areas.

Permitting sustainable exploitation of natural resources by tribals and
creating special buffer zone for such people.

Water Resources of India

May 12, 2016 By Prafull 2 Comments
Water, our most precious resource, is limited and, naturally, unequally
distributed. The stress on water resources of India is mounting up as the demand

for water is increasing at an alarming speed because of the rapid growth of

population, urbanization and industrialization.
In India the average annual water availability has been appraised as 1869 Billion
Cubic Metres (BCM) andground water 433 BCM.
It is the Ministry of water Resources that formulates policies and programmes for
the development, regulation and judicious utilization of water.
Must Read: Water Resources in India
Chief Water Resources of India include:
Irrigation as a key component of water resources in India is vital for realizing full
potential of agriculture sector of the country. In Areas where rainfall varies very
much, the availability of irrigation makes the cultivation of crop more reliable and
It is so the significance of the efficient utilization of water resources of India can
hardly be ignored.Drought has become an annual phenomenon in India as the
delayed arrival of monsoon generally reduces the agricultural returns. Apart from
this, the winter crops are more or less dependent on irrigation, hence the need
for the irrigation.
Irrigation in India has a history of thousand years, and currently in the field of
irrigation India stands first in terms of total irrigated area.
Read Also: Water on the Earth
Canals are one of the oldest and most important water resources of India.
However, Canal irrigation is largely limited to the States that form the Great
plains of India: Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttrakhand,
Haryana and Punjab) and the states that form the fertile plains of India: Andhra
Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha and Tamil Nadu.
Some of the important canals of the irrigation system of India are:
The Bari Doab canal; Indira Gandhi canal; Bhakhra canal, Eastern and Western
Yamuna canals; the Ganga canal; Agra and Sharda canal; etc. Certain areas of
the Thar Desert in the Indira Gandhi Command area, has been transformed by
the canal irrigation.
Merits of Canal irrigation

Canals, a cheap and perennial source of irrigation- a very important factor

contributing to the water resources of India-,carry a lot of sediment through its
water which enrich the fertility of the irrigated fields.
Canals make agriculture sustainable as they help in controlling floods during the
rainy season.
Read Also: Geographical Indication (GI) Status
Demerits of Canal irrigation
Overuse and over irrigation, that is certainly misuse, lead to water logging and
excessive irrigation causes rise in underground water level.
During rainy season many canals overflow.
Canal irrigation can be practiced very smoothly in the plain areas; in the semiarid areas canal irrigation cause the problem of usar (Kallar) formation.
Due to overflow of canals water logged areas turn into the breeding grounds for
Tube-wells and Wells
Tube-wells and Wells form a very important part of water resources in India
as they irrigate the largest cropped area of the country. The importance of tubewell irrigation can be gauged from the fact that about54% of total irrigated areas
is under tube-wells and wells irrigation.
Tube-wells irrigation is largely developed in the Northern Plans of India, where
about 95% of the tubewells are estabilished and functioning. These areas include
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Odissa, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
Read Also:Solid Waste Management (SWM) : Growing for Solutions
Merit of Tubewell Irrigation
Tubewells can be installed at convenient places at low cost by the Government
and farmers as well. Tubewell as an independent source of income can be
installed in a short period of time.
Tubewells can be used when needs arise. Water of tubewells contains
several minerals and salt such as nitrate, sulphate, etc. which increase the
fertility of soil.
Limitations of Tubewell Irrigation

Mostly during the summer season, underground water table diminishes due to
the excessive and non-sensible use of tube-wells.
Through tube-well irrigation only limited areas can be irrigated. When monsoon
fails the underground water- table decreases and enough water becomes
unavailable for irrigation of crops.
Since electricity and diesel are used in operating tube-wells and pumping sets,
tube-well irrigation is considered an expensive method of irrigation.
Tanks have been a major part of water resources of India. Tanks irrigation is
largely practiced in the areas where the topography is suitable for acting dams
across small rivulets and for the collection of water in artificial lakes such as
areas covering the eastern part of the Deccan.
Districts having large number of tanks are: North Arcot, South Arcots,
Chengalapattu in Tamil Nadu; Nellore and Warangal districts in Andhra Pradesh.
The other states where it is extensive to a lesser extent are Odisha, West Bengal,
Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
Also Read: Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve (ABR) Listed by UNESCO
Potential of Irrigation as the part of water resources in India
It has been claimed that with continuous and systematic development the
potential of irrigation has enhanced from 22.6 million hectares in 1951 to 87.8
million hectares in 2010.
Irrigation projects, since April 1978, have been classified classified on the basis
of their command area:
Major: involving more than 10,000 hectares
Medium: involving in between 2000-10,000 hectares
Minor: Less than 2000 hectares
Minor irrigation projects, as they cater instant and reliable sources of irrigation to
the farmers, are widely distributed. Ground water development, forming major
part of the minor irrigation projects, is implemented mainly through the
individual and cooperative efforts.
In a recent study of its own the World Bank has disclosed that approximately
20% of the 40 milion hectares of irrigated agricultural land in India suffers from a
water logging and salinity problem which have decreased the yield of crops in
major quantity.

The kernel strategy for enhancing production of food with sustainable and
systematic development of irrigation gains includes extension of irrigation
facilities along with consolidation of the existing systems.
It is through major, medium and minor irrigation projects that the irrigation
potential has increased from 22.6 million hectares (mha) in 1951 to 103 mha at
the end of the tenth plan.
Rivers, Waterfalls and Glaciers
June 9, 2016 By Prafull 1 Comment
Rivers are originated high in the mountains where rain water or melting snow
accumulates and makes tiny streams which in turn join together as they flow
downhill and as more streams join the flow, the river becomes bigger and wider.
Rivers, the moment they get to the plains, slow down and they start turning and
twisting forming meanders.As rivers approach the end of their journey they
again, most of the times, split into small channels before they finally merge in
the Ocean.
One of the most obvious facts about rivers that can be witnessed by any person
having eyes is that rivers are always moving. It is not the case that rain always
runs directly of the land into the rivers; sometimes, it immerses into the ground
and comes out again lower down in the course of the river through holes called
Rain is also frozen in snow, and when snow melts it makes the river run more
faster. So from this very information it can be easily come to the conclusion that
without rain every river is going to halt running. The natural equation is: the
more it rains, the fuller the river will be, and the faster it will run. However, as
too much of anything is bad, too much rain can result in the overflow,
causing flood, of rivers. Floods usually and naturally happen after heavy rains
when the winter snow melts in spring.
A river starts turning and twisting, as it comes near the sea, forming the shape of
a horseshoe calledmeanders. Some of the rivers meander more dramatically
because when a river penetrates the plains and faces an obstacle, it starts
moving more slowly than it does before and may simply curve around it. As
rivers flow around this bend, the current gets strongest at inclines to pick
up river bottom and soil from the bank and get it downstream.
On the inside of the bend the current is slower and stores gravel, sand and other
solids. Since the erosion on the outside of the bend continues to happen, the
storage of materials on the inside of the bend also continues, forming a
meander, of twist in the river.
Also Read: Monsoon, Floods and Droughts

Rivers change
As a river always flows downwards from its source from highland areas to
lowland areas, through an upper, middle and finally lower course, it changes
quite a bit in its journey towards the Ocean.
The upper course of river, that is close to its source, sprawls through mountain
gorges forming waterfalls and rapids. It is so fast and powerful that it carries
away rocks, making valleys wider and deeper.
Its middle course start when a river enters the plain and its speed slows down. It
starts flowing in smooth channels made from its own deposited material and
starts meandering. As the river starts winding across valley in loops and twists,
tributaries join it.
When the river comes near the ocean its lower course starts in which it becomes
even broader and slower. At its ends, the river may drop more
sediment and break into small branches to form a delta. The mouth of the river,
where it finally joins the sea, is known to be its estuary. As a river travels along
its course, both river and the landscape around it changes.
Must Read: Water Resources in India
Role of Rivers in shaping the land
Running water of rivers, which play an important role in shaping the land, wears
away the land over years forming deep valleys along the river. The valleys
became wider because of the twists and turns of the river. These valleys, with
the passage of time, become broad plains.
Plains are also built by sediment and silt which rivers carry down from mountain
and deposit them. In this way rivers shape the land both by the wearing down
and building up process. It is important to note here that the Indus River has
pierced its way through the Himalayas shaping the mountain, and showing that
water is a terrifically powerful force.
Also Read: Water Resources of India
Rivers of Ice: Glaciers
Glaciers, rivers of ice, moves so slowly that they can take a year to cover the
distance that a human being can walk in few minutes. Icebergs are pieces of a
broken piece of a glacier floating in water.
Glaciers are created high in mountain valleys and in polar regions where the
snow falls but never melts. The heavy snow crushes the layers below into ice,
that starts to glide slowly downhill as a glacier.

Since a glacier moves slowly, it grinds against the walls and the ground of the
valley making it wide and deep. Glaciers cover approximately six million square
miles that is about three percent of the earths surface.
Dont Miss: Top 10 Major Lakes of the World
Waterfalls, one the most breathtaking sights on the earth, are created as a river
plunges over a ledge of rock, it thunders downwards in a plume of forthy
white before going on its journey.
Waterfalls generally happen where the river flows over a band of hard rock. The
charging water wears away the soft material on the surface and leave the harder
layer below untouched. They are seen where a river bed drops abruptly and
nearly vertical.
Waterfalls are termed differently according to their nature. A waterfall generally
may also be called a falls. It may be called a cataract when large volumes of
water are involved. Cascads are waterfalls of small height and less steepness or
a series of small falls. Rabids, a type of waterfalls are still gentler stretches of
river that display turbulent flow and white water.
Must Read: 31 Important Mountain Passes in India
Formation of Waterfalls
Waterfalls are also formed in different ways. Some are formed by the action of
glaciers; when the glaciers melt, rivers flowing along the channels, which are
created by the smaller glaciers, have to dip downwards to penetrate the main
river, that create waterfalls. Example of this kind of waterfalls is in
Yosemite National Park in America. Waterfalls are also created by alternating
layers of softer and harder rock. It suggests that the weaker rock downstream
wears way faster than the harder rock upstream. The river becomes lower
downstream and the river has to plunge over a steep cliff, forming a water fall.
Angel Falls is the highest waterfall in the world that plunges almost 960 metres
down. It is located inVenezuela. Other famous waterfalls are Niagra Falls located
on the border between the United States and Canada, and the Victoria Falls in

Rainfall regions of India

December 6, 2015 By Prafull 7 Comments

India is an agricultural country which mainly depend on the rainfall. Different

regions of India receive the different amount of rainfall. Based on the amount of
rainfall they receive annually, renowned climatologist Kendrew categorized
various parts of the country into 3 rainfall regions. They are as follows:





The regions of the country which receive more than 200 cm of rainfall annually
will come under the heavy rainfall regions. To receive such huge amount of
rainfall some favourable conditions are needed like coastal location with
mountain barriers, islands and many more. Let us take a look at them.
Must Read: Water Resources of India


The Malabar Coast includes entire Kerala and south western part of Karnataka.
When the monsoonal winds enter the Malabar Coast from the Arabian Sea they
are obstructed by the Western Ghats from proceeding further and due to this,
there is heavy rainfall in the Malabar Coast.
The islands of India, Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal
and Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea receive a huge amount of rainfall as
they are present in the midst of water and no need of monsoonal winds to
generate rainfall.
The north eastern states of India (seven sister states) also come under heavy
rainfall regions as there are mighty the Himalayas in the north to obstruct the
monsoonal winds coming from the Bay of Bengal in the south.
We can find thick forests in the heavy rainfall regions of India. But, agriculture of
main crops like rice and wheat cannot be done here due to the heavy wet
Also, Read: Major Ports in India

The areas of the country which receive less than 100 cm of rainfall annually
come under this category. These regions are again divided into two sub




The rain shadow interiors of the Western Ghats that mean Plateau regions of
Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh comes under this category. The
Western Ghats which causes heavy rainfall in Malabar Coast obstruct the
monsoon winds moving further thereby making these regions semi-arid.
In addition to these some parts of Western India such as Eastern Rajasthan, Parts
of Gujarat, Haryana and Delhi comes under this region. Only some
agricultural crops can be grown here.
The Arid region includes the Great Indian Desert in Rajasthan, the Rann of Kutch
in Gujarat and Leh&Ladakh regions in Jammu and Kashmir which sometimes
dont receive rainfall at all throughout the year.


The rest of Indian region comprising of Coromandel Coast (Tamil Nadu), Utkal
coast (Orissa and northern coastal Andhra Pradesh), parts of Bihar and Uttar
Pradesh, Konkan Coast (Maharashtra and Goa), West Bengal receive
the moderate amount of rainfall. All types of food crops and commercial crops
are grown in these areas.
In addition to the Himalayan region is also present which exhibits typical
reception of annual rainfall that is it receive all types of rainfall mentioned above
and thus the vegetation grown.
Thus, this classification of India based on the reception of annual rainfall helps us
to plan our agriculture preferences, Dam construction regions and so on and
hence of strategic importance.
You are here: Home / Current-Affairs / Global Competitiveness Ranking 2016
Global Competitiveness Ranking 2016
July 20, 2016 By Prafull Leave a Comment
Global Competitiveness Ranking and report was published by Institute of
Management Development (IMD) World Competitiveness Center, located in
Switzerland. First report was published in 1989.
The institute is publishing annual Global Competitiveness Ranking Report every
year, and through this report it is making assessment of competitiveness of
Nation and World Economic Ranking.
The ranking is based on four principal factors namely

Economic Performance


Government Efficiency


Business Efficiency



Based on these four factors, IMD-WCC has fixed as much as 340 different criteria
for holistic assessment of economies.
Two third part of the Global Competitiveness Ranking is based on statistical
indicators, while rest one third part is based in international survey by IMD-WCC.

This comprehensive survey is carried out by more than fifty thousand executives
around the world.
In its first report released in 1989, the 32 countries were ranked. While in latest
2016 report 61 countries were ranked.
Global Competitiveness Ranking Important Countries and their Ranks
In 2016, Global Competitiveness Ranking, India ranks 41. It has improved its
position by three ranks as it was ranked at 44 in last years report. The reason of
this improvement may be attributed to three factors

Fiscal deficit management. We have been able to bring down the fiscal


Efforts to tackle corruption and red tapism which led to ease of doing
business in India.


Exchange rate stability.

China has slipped by three ranks, it is ranked 25. Last year it was ranked at 22.
However, China is best ranked among BRICS nations in Global Competitiveness
Ranking followed by India (41), Russia (44), South Africa (52) and Brazil (57).
Read More: India & China Relations
In Global Competitiveness Ranking 2016, Hong Kong (China) is at top position,
followed by Switzerland and United States. Last year top rank was held by US.
Venezuela ranks at the bottom of this list.
As report mentions the USA has surrendered its status as the worlds most
competitive economy after being overtaken by China Hong Kong and
Among these 61 countries, 28 has improved their ranking including India, Hong
Kong etc. 23 countries have slipped from their previous ranks ex. China,
Switzerland etc. 10 countries have not changed their position.
Normally the Global Competitiveness Ranking is published in the month of May,
and global investors refers it for their investment decisions. This report along
with Ease of Doing Business Report helps them in finding better opportunities.
Global Competitiveness Ranking 2016

(2) China Hong Kong


(4) Switzerland


(1) USA


(3) Singapore


(9) Sweden


(8) Denmark


(16) Ireland


(15) Netherlands


(7) Norway


(5) Canada


(6) Luxembourg


(10) Germany


(13) Qatar


(11) Taiwan


(12) UAE


(17) New Zealand


(18) Australia


(19) United Kingdom


(14) Malaysia


(20) Finland


(21) Israel


(23) Belgium


(24) Iceland


(26) Austria


(22) China Mainland


(27) Japan


(29) Czech Republic


(30) Thailand


(25) Korea Rep.


(28) Lithuania


(31) Estonia


(32) France


(33) Poland


(37) Spain


(38) Italy


(35) Chile


(43) Latvia


(40) Turkey


(36) Portugal


(46) Slovak Republic


(44) India


(41) Philippines


(49) Slovenia


(45) Russia


(39) Mexico


(48) Hungary


(34) Kazakhstan


(42) Indonesia


(47) Romania


(55) Bulgaria


(51) Colombia


(53) South Africa


(52) Jordan


(54) Peru


(59) Argentina


(50) Greece


(56) Brazil


(58) Croatia


(60) Ukraine


(57) Mongolia


(61) Venezuela

In its object, IMD-WCC mentions the World Competitiveness Center helps

businesses and governments highlight competitive advantages and uncover
opportunities in offering a range of customized solutions.

The Union Cabinet has approved The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights)
Bill 2016. Through this Bill the Government has evolved a mechanism for their
social, economic and educational empowerment. The Bill will benefit a large
number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse
against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society.
It will lead to greater inclusiveness and will make the transgender persons
productive members of the society.
The Bill will make all the stakeholders responsive and accountable for upholding
the principles underlying the Bill. It will bring greater accountability on the part of
the Central Government and Slate Governments/Union Territories Administrations
for issues concerning Transgender persons.

Muthuramalingam case The Supreme Court today held that if multiple life
sentences are awarded to a convict in the same trial, the same will run
concurrently and not consecutively.

This decision was rendered by a Constitution bench comprising Chief Justice TS

Thakur and FML Kalifulla, AK Sikri, SA Bobde and R Banumathi JJ.
The Court also ruled that if a convict is awarded a lesser sentence of
imprisonment along with life imprisonment, then the same will run consecutively
with the term sentence running first, followed by the life sentence.
The question that arose for determination in the case was the following:
Whether consecutive life sentences can be awarded to a convict on being
found guilty of a series of murders for which he has been tried in a single trial?.
The appellants in the case were tried for several offences including an offence
punishable under Section 302 of the Indian Penal Code for several murders
allegedly committed by them in a single incident. They were found guilty and
sentenced to suffer varying sentences, including a sentence of imprisonment for
life for each one of the murders committed by them. The sentence of
imprisonment for life for each one of the murders was directed to run
consecutively as provided under Section 31 of Code of Criminal Procedure.
This was challenged by the appellants. Relying on O.M. Cherian @ Thankachan v.
State of Kerala & Ors. and Duryodhan Rout v. State of Orissa, the appellants
contended that life imprisonment awarded to them for different murders in a
single trial should run concurrently and not consecutively.
The court first proceeded to dissect the logic upon which the above two decisions
were based.
It would appear from the above two pronouncements that the logic behind life
sentences not running consecutively lies in the fact that imprisonment for life
implies imprisonment till the end of the normal life of the convict. If that
proposition is sound, the logic underlying the ratio of the decisions of this Court
in O.M. Cherian and Duryodhan Rout cases (supra) would also be equally sound.
What then needs to be examined is whether imprisonment for life does indeed
imply imprisonment till the end of the normal life of the convict as observed in
O.M. Cherian and Duryodhan Routs cases (supra).
The court relying on a catena of judgments answered this issue in the affirmative
before proceeding to decide on the main issue at hand regarding whether the
life sentences should run concurrently or consecutively.
It dealt with Section 31 of Code of Criminal Procedure in detail. Section 31
provides that when two sentences are awarded in one trial, they will run
consecutively and not concurrently unless the court directs that the sentences
run concurrently. The court, however ruled that in case of life imprisonment the
same cannot be applicable.

the provisions of Section 31 under Cr.P.C. must be so interpreted as to be

consistent with the basic tenet that a life sentence requires the prisoner to
spend the rest of his life in prison. Any direction that requires the offender to
undergo imprisonment for life twice over would be anomalous and irrational for it
will disregard the fact that humans like all other living beings have but one life to
live. So understood Section 31 (1) would permit consecutive running of
sentences only if such sentences do not happen to be life sentences. That is, in
our opinion, the only way one can avoid an obvious impossibility of a prisoner
serving two consecutive life sentences.
In arriving at this conclusion, the court also placed reliance on another provision
Section 427(2) of CrPC.
That, in our opinion, happens to be the logic behind Section 427 (2) of the
Cr.P.C. mandating that if a prisoner already undergoing life sentence is
sentenced to another imprisonment for life for a subsequent offence committed
by him, the two sentences so awarded shall run concurrently and not
consecutively. Section 427 (2) in that way carves out an exception to the general
rule recognised in Section 427 (1) that sentences awarded upon conviction for a
subsequent offence shall run consecutively.
The court, thus, ruled that if more than one life sentences are awarded, then the
same would get super imposed over each other.
We are also inclined to hold that if more than one life sentences are awarded to
the prisoner, the same would get super imposed over each other. This will imply
that in case the prisoner is granted the benefit of any remission or
commutation qua one such sentence, the benefit of such remission would
not ipso facto extend to the other.
Poverty Alleviation Programs in India
March 12, 2016 By Prafull 2 Comments
Programmes Targeting Poverty Alleviation in India
The history of preparing and implementing programmes targeting poverty
alleviation in India has beenbased on two levels:

Programmes for Rural areas

Programmes for Urban areas.

However, most of the programmes addressing poverty alleviation are intended to

target rural poverty as thePoverty prevails on rural areas. It has been felt and
realized by our policy makers that targeting poverty in rural areas is the most
challenging task due to many geographic and infrastructure limitations. The

programmes concerning alleviation of poverty can be summed up into five


Wage employment programmes,

Sell-employment programmes,

Food security programmes,

Social security programmes and,

Urban poverty alleviation programmes.

Immediately after acquiring independence the Government of India introduced

Five Year Plans, which concentrated on poverty alleviation through sect oral
programmes. In order to address poverty the Five Year Plan concentrated on
agricultural production whereas through second and third plans the State put its
strength behind massive investments for employment generation in public
sector. Although these policies could not create a sweeping effect due to lack of
strength, they did some policy generation.
Must Read: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna (JGSY)
It is a restructured version of the erstwhile Jawahar Rojgar Yojna (JRY). The
programs initiated on 1 April 1999, chief aim was the development of rural areas
by creating infrastructures. These included constructing road to connect village
to different areas, making villages more accessible, establishing schools and
building hospitals.
The rather secondary objective of the JGSY was to provide sustained wage
employment that was catered to only below the poverty line (BPL) families. The
fund, under JRSY, was to be disbursed for individual beneficiary scheme for SCs
and STs and 3% of the available fund for the establishment of obstruction free
infrastructure for the disabled people.
JSGYs main component was village panchayats as they were one of the chief
governing body of this programme. It was done so because village panchayats
were able to understand the needs of the people of their areas and thus had the
capacity to address them successfully. During 1999-2000 Rs. 1841.80 crore was
spent under this programme. Against the target of 8.57 lakh work the
programme completed 5.07 lakh works.
National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS)
This scheme was first launched bearing the name as Indira Gandhi National Old
Age Pension Scheme (IGNOPAS) that was a non-contributory old age pension

scheme. The scheme was meant for Indians, who were 60years or a part of
the National Social Assistant Programme (NSAP) and was launched in August
NOAPS was meant for the persons who could not earn for themselves and had no
means of subsistence. The pension of Rs. 200, provided under this scheme was
to be given by the Central Government. The responsibilities of the
implementation of this scheme in States and Union Territories was imparted to
panchayats and municipalities. The amount of pension for the persons aged
above 80 years had been revised and fixed at Rs. 500 per month as was declared
in 2011-2012 Budget.
Also Read: National Green Tribunal(NGT) and Yamuna Action Plan(YAP)
National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)
NFBS, launched in August1995, is sponsored by the state government as it was
transferred to the state sector in 2002-03. It tells under the community and rural
development. This scheme is for BP families. Under this scheme a sum of Rs.
2000 is provided to a person who, after the death of the primary breadwinner of
the family, becomes the head of the family.
The breadwinner has been defined, under the scheme, as a person, who is above
18 years and earns the most for the family and on whose earnings the family
National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS)
This scheme was a part of National Social Assistance Program and was activated
in the period of 2002-2007. Under this scheme a pregnant mother is provided a
sum of Rs. 500 for the first two births. The women have to be 19 years of age.
Read Also: Stanford Develops Plastic from Agricultural Waste
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
IRDP in India, it has been ascertained, is among the words most ambitious
programmes associated with the alleviation of rural poverty. It provides incomegenerated assets to the poorest of the poor. First introduced in 1978-79 in some
selected areas IRDP covered all areas by November 1980.
The main objective of IRDP has been to elevate identified of Below Poverty Line
(BPL) by creating sustainable opportunities for self-employment in the rural
This programme is in function in all blocks of the country as a centrally
sponsored programme funded on 50:50 basis by the centre and the states.

The target group under IRDP comprises of small and marginal farmers,
agricultural laborers and rural artisans earning an annual income below Rs.
11,000; this sum has been defined as poverty line in the Eight Plan.
For the implementation of this programme at the grassroots level, the block staff
is responsible. At the state level the IRDP is monitored by the State Level
Coordinating Committee (SLCC) and the for the release of the central share of
the fund the Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment is responsible.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)
The NREGA Bill was notified in 2005 and came into force in 2006 and was further
modified as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(MGNREGA) in 2008.
This scheme guarantees 100 day of paid work to people living in rural areas. This
programme, without any doubt, has proved to be a major boost in the income of
rural population of India.

You are here: Home / Current-Affairs / Money Bill and Finance Bill
Money Bill and Finance Bill
March 28, 2016 By Prafull 6 Comments
Definition of Money Bill
While dealing with the definition of Money Bills, Article 110 of the Constitution
of India states that a Bill is supposed to be a Money Bill if it contains only
provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters:

the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;

the regulation of the borrowing of money by the Government of India;

the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India,

the payments of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such
the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India
the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the
Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such

the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the

public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of
accounts of the Union or of a State; or
any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub clauses(a) to

However, a Bill is not to be supposed to be a Money Bill only because of that it
provides for the impositions of fines or other financial penalties, or for the
demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered.
Moreover, if any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision
of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha shall be final. This means once the Speaker of
the Lok Sabha certifies a Bill as a Money Bill then it cannot be challenged in
either in a Court of Law or in either House of Parliament or even by the President.
Must Read: Real Estate Regulatory Bill 2016
Types of Money Bills
Finance Bills:
Generally, Finance Bill may be said to be any Bill that relates to revenue
and expenditure. However, It is in a technical sense that the expression is used
in the Constitution of India. Finance Bill is introduced every year in the Lok Sabha
immediately after the presentation of the General Budget to provide effect to the
financial proposals of the Government for the following fiscal.
Legislative Process of Finance Bill
There are two types of Finance Bills Category A and Category B. Category A
comes within the ambit of the clause(1) of the Article 110 of the Constitution of
India and,therefore, can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha on the
recommendation of the President. However, other restrictions related to Money
Bills do not apply to this category.
Category B comprises provisions that embrace expenditure from the
Consolidated Fund of India. These can be introduced in either House of
Parliament. It must be noted here that recommendation of the President is
mandatory for consideration of these Bills(both categories) in both the Houses.
Appropriation Bills:
An Appropriation Bill is introduced in the Lok
under Article 113 have been made by the
appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund
meet'(Article 114) the provisions mentioned
clause (1) of the Article 114.

Sabha immediately after the grants

House of the People to provide for
of India of all moneys required to
in the sub clauses(a) and (b) of the

No amendment can be proposed in this Bill in either House of Parliament that will
have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so
No money can be withdrawn (subject to the provisions of Articles 115 and
116) from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by
Law passed in accordance with the provisions of the Article 114.
It can be assessed, in short, that Money Bills are substantially different from
Finance Bills that are also known as Annual Financial Assessment. Money Bill is
only confined to Article 110 of the Constitution of India whereas a Finance Bill
can deal with other provisions as well.
Read Also: Aadhaar Bill: Passage and its Characteristics
Relationship Between Finance Bill and Money Bill
The Finance Bills and the Appropriation Bills can be introduced without prior
circulation of copies to members. The Finance Bills usually comprises a
declaration under the Provisional Collection of Taxes Act, 1931 by which the
declared provisions of the Bill related to imposition or increase in duties of
customs or excise come into force immediately on the expiry of the day on which
the Bill is introduced.
As the Finance Bill comprises taxation proposals, it is considered and passed by
the Lok Sabha only after the Demands for Grants have been voted and the total
expenditure is known.
Powers of Rajya Sabha Concerning Money Bills
In the context of Money Bills Rajya Sabha has Very limited powers. A Money bill
can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha and after being passed by the Lok
Sabha it is sent to the Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha has to return Money Bills to the
Lok Sabha within fourteen days with or without recommendations asit does not
have the power to amend Money Bills,it can make only recommendations. Rajya
Sabhas recommendations are not binding on the Lok Sabha. Once,
the recommendations are accepted or rejected after the Bill is returned to the
Lok Sabha, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.