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You are on page 1of 51

CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION (SSCE) IN IDAH LOCAL GOVERNMENT

AREA OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA.

2011

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to Study

Statement of Purpose

Purpose of study

11

Research Questions

12

Significance of Study

12

Limitation of Study

13

Definition of Terms

13

CHAPTER TWO

15

LITERATURE REVIEW

15

Introduction

15

16

24

26

28

30

CHAPTER THREE

33

RESAERCH METHODOLOGY

33

Research Design

33

33

Instrumentation

34

35

CHAPTER FOUR

36

36

Introduction

36

Analysis of Data

36

CHAPTER FIVE

43

43

Introduction

43

Summary of Findings

43

Conclusion

45

Recommendations

45

46

References

47

Appendix

49

ABSTARCT

Mathematics is intimately connected to daily life and everybodys life-long planning.

Shut out mathematics from daily life and civilisation comes to a standstill. It is in the

light of this, that the research seeks to build and elicit among students and teachers

the proper appreciation and interest in the value of mathematics to the individual

and society. This is done with a particular focus on the senior secondary schools in

Idah local government area of Kogi state, Nigeria.

The relevant data and information was collected by a teacher questionnaire. It is

based on the 4-points Likert scale responses. Simple mean was used to analyse the

data. Numerical values 4, 3, 2, and 1 were assigned to the options respectively. The

mean value for acceptance is X2.5 otherwise reject. For each cluster the acceptance

point is 12.5.

The finding of this survey confirmed the fact that; the teacher factor, students

attitude and commitment, methods of teaching mathematics, use of instructional

materials and the school environment are to a great extent valid factors that

influences the students poor performance in mathematics in the senior secondary

school certificate Examination.

1.1

establishes to assist its members to understand the heritage of the past and to

participate productively in the future. It is the leading out of the in-born powers and

potentialities of the individuals in the society and the acquisition of skills, aptitudes,

and competencies necessary for self-realisation and for coping with lifes problem.

For Afe (2000), Education is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the

individual into the society to achieve self-realisation, develop national consciousness,

promote unity, and strive for social, economic, political, scientific, cultural and

technological progress. Education in science and mathematics therefore becomes

bedrock and indispensable tools for scientific, technological and economic

advancement in any nation. It gives the nation the capacity to apply technology for

the exploitation of the resources of nature. Such exploitation will depend greatly on

mathematics for laying the foundation for political, governmental, military, civil,

scientific, technological advancement, economic development, socio-cultural and

environmental peace.

There are number of questions which need to be answered at this stage. What then is

Mathematics? Why should everybody learn Mathematics? What is the importance of

this subject in life and in school curriculum? What shall be the advantage of devoting

so much effort, time, and money to the teaching of Mathematics? The importance of

mathematics transcends all the definitions and the prosperity of any country

depends on the volume and quality of mathematics offered in its school system. Obe

(1996) conceptualises mathematics as the master and servant of most disciplines and

opines that without it, the understanding of national problems would be superficial.

Greaber and Weisman (1995) agree that mathematics helps the individual to

understand the environment and to give accurate account of the physical phenomena

around every person. To this end, Setidisho (2001) submits that no other subject

forms a strong binding force among various branches of science as mathematics, and

without it, knowledge of the sciences often remains superficial.

Emphasising the importance of the subject to the society, Robert (1987) stated that in

the United States, mathematics has come to play important roles: in the engineering

of highways, the search for energy, the designing of television sets, the profitable

operation of most business, astronauts flying space-crafts, the study of epidemics,

the navigation of ships at sea all depends on the study of mathematics. Ogunbanjo

(1998) opines that all over the world, sciences has been accepted as a vehicle of

technology, social and economic development. Mathematics is not only basic to these

but is the language of science. In another related study, Igbokwe (2003) highlights

the intricate link of mathematics to science and technology, and contends that

without mathematics there will be no science and without science there will be no

technology, and without technology there will be no modern society. These and many

more reasons are why the Nigerian government believes that the subject should be

taken seriously in our school system; and Nigeria in her march towards technological

development, has not made mathematics a compulsory subject in the curriculum of

the primary and secondary school levels of her educational system (Federal Republic

of Nigeria, 2004) but also as a prerequisite to the study of science courses in her

colleges, polytechnics and universities (JAMB Brochure, 19992-2007).

Shapiro (2000) defines Mathematics as the study of qualitative relations; put simply,

it is the science of structure, order, numbers, space and relationships about counting,

measuring and describing of shapes and objects. It qualifies in its own right as a

science but it is often regarded as a language of and a link between all the sciences.

Soyemi (1999) Mathematics is a body of knowledge that opens up the mind to logical

reasoning, analytical thinking and the ability for creative thinking, deep focusing and

clarity of thought and precision. It is the hub on which all scientific and technological

studies find their bearings. In pure sciences it is the basis and language of study, in

applied sciences and technology it is an indispensable tool of analysis, with the social

sciences it is a scaffold and for the Arts the light that gives consistently and

completeness to its study. Osafehinti (1990) observes that the learning of

mathematics in schools represent first, a basic preparation for adult life and secondly

a gateway to a vast array of career choices. And from the societal perspective,

competence in mathematics is essential for the preparation of an informed citizenry

and for continuous production of highly skilled personnel required for industry,

technology and science. The progress of any nation depends upon her scientific and

technological advancement which can only be built on a sound mathematical

education capable of making the citizens effectively functional in the natural and

applied sciences. The study of Mathematics therefore will go a long way to equip

students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology (NPE 2004).

Fakuade (1977) sums up this assertion; for the purposes of economic survival, the

ordinary citizen needs to be able to compare and estimate values of articles,

determine prices of foodstuffs, reckon distances and time, weigh evidence and be

able to sift substances from chaffs. Thus in the complexity of the modern society

7

purposes

of

handling

money,

prosecuting

daily

businesses,

interpreting

In concluding this section therefore, Mathematics Education must contribute

towards the acquirement of these values: knowledge and skills, intellectual habits

and power, desirable attitudes and ideals that are indispensable tools for a successful

and balanced human existence.

During the last fifty years there had been unprecedented efforts in curriculum

reforms in Mathematics education in Nigeria, from the indigenous innovation of the

Africa Mathematic Programme (AMP) (The Entebbe Mathematics (1961-1969),

through the formation of Nigeria Educational Research Council (NERC) in 1969. In

spite of the efforts made by these bodies, students failures rate in mathematics has

been on the increase.

Similarly workshops and conferences have also been held to salvage the situation and

gave a solid foundation to mathematic education, curricula developments and

implementation. To name but a few of such events are: The comparative Education

Study and Adaptation Centre (1976) that took care of the secondary level

mathematics syllabus, the Benin Conference (1977) and The National Critique

Workshop at Onitsha (1978).

Subsequently The National Mathematics Centre formulated and adopted the

following objectives for teaching mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools:

i.

everyday living.

ii.

8

iii.

problem at hand.

iv.

v.

mathematics knowledge.

vi.

vii.

Observations and reports from examining bodies like WAEC, NECO and JAMB

revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to perform

poorly in mathematics examinations. Despite the laudable efforts at developing an

acceptable general mathematics curriculum students performance in the subject

appears to be declining over the years. To alleviate the situation in the 1989, the

National Mathematics Centre was established. Chief amongst its functions include:

1. To encourage and support activities leading to the improvement of the

teaching and learning of mathematical sciences at all levels.

2. To tackle national set goals in the development of mathematical sciences.

3. To inject mathematical education to the rarefied area of theoretical

mathematics with a view to increasing the number of mathematicians.

Yet in the face of all these efforts the rate and degree of students poor performance

in senior secondary school examination in mathematics must now be a problem of

national concern. This sad situation is aptly described by Adeniyi (1988) who rightly

observes, that ones involvement in the marking of mathematics for the West African

9

Mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools. Some candidates submit their answer

scripts without writing anything in them. Some candidates merely recopy the

questions, while a high percentage of those who try to write anything at all score

below 40%. This is aptly confirmed with the release of WAEC result for May/June

2011 as quoted in the Leadership newspaper, the West African Examination Council

(WAEC) released results of the May/June 2011 west African senior secondary

certificate examination, (WASSCE) with an abysmal 30% of the candidates making

credit in English and Mathematics. Details of the results showed that the results of

81, 573 candidates representing 5.29% were withheld.

The question that readily comes to mind is; what are the factors responsible for the

students poor performance in mathematics in secondary school examination? This

project will therefore take a survey of the factors responsible for these failures, the

effect on students and the future of our society, the attendant problems and proffer

means of the changing the trend of students poor performance in mathematics.

The decline in the numbers of candidates opting to pursue the studies in the sciences

has become a matter of considerable societal concern and debate among researchers

(Jenkins, 1996). Consequently, the promotion of favourable attitudes towards

science and learning of Mathematics is extremely critical and important. However,

the concept of poor performance in mathematics is rather ill-defined, often poorly

expressed and not well understood.

Fundamental to this quest are the questions that the researcher seeks to address:

1. Are the teachers of mathematics adequately qualified and properly trained in

the subject?

10

2. Is the excessive workload and lack of teacher training facilities at the root of

poor performances of student?

3. Is the WAEC syllabus inadequate, irrelevant and ambiguous?

4. Are parents as committed to the progress and success of their ward?

5. How is the Mathematics taught in schools?

6. Has the taste for learning being diluted by the answer-centeredness of most

school teaching?

7. Is WAEC, NECO, GCE and JAMB only servicing failures yearly with profit? Is

that ethical?

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study examines the factors responsible for the students poor performance in

mathematics in selected secondary schools in Idah Local government area of Kogi

State.

Specifically, it will examine;

1. Teachers and students attitude to teaching and learning of mathematics.

2. The nature of school environment.

3. Teachers teaching methods, and

4. Teachers use of instructional materials.

Schools are established to accomplish specific goals and objectives and

incidentally one of the most common criteria of evaluating the effectiveness of

any school system is the extent to which the students perform in their

examinations.

11

To achieve the objective of the study, five research questions were raised.

1. Does teachers attitude to the teaching of mathematics constitute a problem in

the students performance in the SSCE Mathematics?

2. What is the nature of school environment in which teaching is done?

3. Does the students attitude and commitment towards mathematics constitute

a significant problem in performance in SSCE mathematics?

4. Does teaching method constitute significant problem in students performance

in mathematics examination. How is mathematics taught in schools?

5. Does the lack of instructional materials, educational facilities and inadequate

supervision constitute a significant problem in students performance in SSCE

mathematics examination?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

It is the sincere hope of the researcher that by carrying out this study of the factors

responsible for students poor performance in mathematics and proffering solutions,

the findings and recommendations would be of a great help to all stakeholders who

have anything to do with the success or failure of the child in school; school

administrators, classroom teachers, psychologists, teacher trainers, theorists,

examination bodies, curriculum designers and professional associations.

It will equally guide and guard government at all levels and ministries of education,

school guidance counsellors and parents. It is hoped that this study will help in

improving the whole system in such a way as to induce better performance in

mathematics examination at the secondary school level.

12

The present study used five secondary schools in Idah local government area of Kogi

state. These schools present students for the senior secondary school certificate

examinations conducted by both NECO and WAEC.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

The research work covered only five sampled selected schools in only one local

government area. It also covered only public senior secondary schools.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

To set stage for our survey of the factors responsible for the poor performance of

students in mathematics, we present working definitions of some of the terms.

Factor: In this study, a factor is taken to mean any element, force, condition or

circumstances that has a causal influence or can contribute to the students

performance in mathematics.

Performance: Accomplishing or achievement of specific goals, objectives or set

mark in any academic endeavour. It is one of the most common criteria of evaluating

effectiveness of schools.

Curriculum: A sequence of potential experiences, set up in the schools to discipline

children and youth in ways of thinking and acting whether it is carried out in groups

or individually, inside or outside the school.

Innovation: is a way of changing and adapting for the purpose of attaining certain

goals and aspirations.

13

Qualified Teacher: For this study a teacher who holds the following certificate is

assumed to be qualified: NCE, B.Ed., B.Sc. (Ed), B.Sc. and PGDE.

14

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

In this chapter the review focuses on the factors that are responsible for the students

poor performance in Mathematics in senior secondary school certificate

examination. Some of the reasons attributed to the poor achievement in mathematics

by scholars include; shortage of qualified mathematics teachers (Ohuche, 1989), poor

facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching (Odogwu,

1994), use of traditional chalk and talk methods (Edward & Knight, 1994), large

pupils to teacher ratio (Alele Williams, 1988) and mathematics phobia and fright

(Georgewill, 1990), limited background preparation in mathematics, lack of

mathematics teaching equipment and materials, fright and anxiety, low level of

interest and some government policy (Abimbade, 1995), lack of problem solving

abilities (Abimbade, 1997), self-concept and achievement motivation (Akinsola,

1994).

The present study therefore, offers a survey of factors responsible for the poor

performance of students in mathematics, what influences there are and to determine

some of the most important factors that influence the poor performance in

mathematics in some selected Nigerian secondary schools with the aim of

recommending a preferred solution.

This will be reviewed under the following:

1. The teacher/principal factors

2. Students attitude and commitment

15

4. The use of instructional materials in mathematics teaching.

5. The school environment factor.

The Teacher Factor

The school is regarded by many as an extension of the principals personality. The

failure of the school is the principals and the success of the school is the principals

success as well. A survey of factors responsible for the performance in mathematics

at the secondary school level puts the school administrators on the defensive. The

buck-passing exercise with regards to students performance most often stops at the

principals desk.

Teachers Qualification/Experience

A survey of this nature must focus some attention on the quality and experience of

the teacher. Our educational programmes started crashing from the days of crash

programmes (Dada, 1986). Teachers also were rushed through crash programmes to

obtain NCE certificates. But without a broad-based education, these teachers have

very little to offer. NCE teachers who are supposed to teach only junior secondary

school now teach even the seniors, in some cases have been appointed assistant

principals and become WASSCE examiners in many subjects including mathematics.

A poor teacher can only produce poor results. A competent mathematics teacher will

be a teacher with good academic and pedagogical backgrounds, who is not easily

worn out by the system (Sizer, 1984). Based on the terse definition Farrel (1984)

derived the indicators of teacher competency in mathematics teaching and learning.

Two types of competencies were identified. The first type is characterised as mastery

and the second is labelled development types. Moreover, it was suggested that the

16

teachers should certainly possess. However, Farrell (1979) cautioned the over-use or

abuse of the mastery type of teacher competency. She argued this class of

competency should be merged with the developmental type. As an illustration,

following the indicators of mathematics teacher competency provided base-line

information for readers:

a) Teacher gives history, etymology of terms and symbols

b) Teachers explains why (e.g. graphing) techniques are being taught

c) Teacher correctly indicates the why of certain conventions in mathematics.

d) Teacher uses counting and measuring examples before a new formula is

developed and points out the usefulness of the formula.

From research evidence, econometric analyses have equivocally demonstrated that,

in fact, some teachers are dramatically more effective than others and that these

differences have lasting effects on student learning (Rivkin, Hanusahek & Kain,

2005; Sanders & Rivers, 1996).

But what makes a great teacher? Some people are of the opinion that teachers are

born. Ukeje (1991) is of the view that teachers may be born but a good teacher is born

and made. Maduabum (2009) explained that this is because teaching is both an art

and a science. Some aspects of the art of teaching may be innate but the science of

teaching has to be cultivated. The born teacher exists but he is a rare bird

(Maduabum, 2009). However ability to transmit learning can be acquired if one is

lucky enough to be born with it. Even though many traditional indicators of teacher

quality, such as educational level and certification, do not, in fact, predict student

outcomes (Rivkin et al., 2005), certain aspects of teacher education are relevant. For

17

mathematics and an advanced certificate course in education are more effective than

peer teachers without such advanced training in education. Whitty (1996) identifies

two sets of qualities that characterise a successful professional teacher: professional

characteristic and professional development, communication and relationship as

well as synthesis and application.

Professional competencies include knowledge and understanding of children and

their learning, subject knowledge, curriculum, the educational system and the

teachers role. A number of studies carried out have indicated the need for teachers

academic qualification in their various teaching subjects. Such studies includes those

of Swan and Jones(1971), Rubba(1981), Ivowi(1983), Akintola(1985), Soyibo(1985),

Abimbola (1986) and Otuka (1987).

Swan & Jones (1985) finding was that teachers should receive appropriate training

in the subject matter area so that their classroom instruction could be above board.

Rubbas (1981) study indicated that teachers have needs according to the science

discipline taught. Ivowi, Abimbola and Otuka found out misconceptions in the

students which they traced to misconceptions held by their teachers. All the above

studies prove that training of prospective teachers in the subject matter areas should

not be taken lightly by science educators.

The national Policy on Education (revised edition, 2004) spelt out the purpose of

teacher education to be:

a) To produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers

for all levels of our education system

18

adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing

situation, not only in the life of their own country but in the wider world.

c) To enhance teachers commitment to the teaching profession.

The National Mathematical Centre (NMC) in 1989 sets among its objectives, to train

and develop high level personnel in the mathematics sciences including

mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, theoretical physics and

statistics for the Nigeria and African institutions through research, lecture series,

workshops, conferences, seminars and linkages.

The national teacher institute (NTI) equally charged with the responsibility of

providing courses of instruction leading to the development, upgrading and

certification of teachers using the distance education techniques. Others like

Mathematical association of Nigeria (MAN) and science teachers association of

Nigeria have as its cardinal objectives, to promote effective mathematical teaching

and research and to keep in touch with developments in science and its application to

industry and commerce and above all to popularise science.

Despite all these efforts, the mumbling discontent at the incompetence of teachers

has been getting louder and louder without any co-ordinated plan of attack. Ali

(1989) has the view that teachers incompetence results from the new curriculum

which made them operate almost at the same level as their students is another

contributing factor to the students poor performance in mathematics. Studies have

attempted to assess the mathematical competence of mathematics teachers (HarborPeter & Ogoamaka, 1991). The results have consistently shown that mathematics

teachers do not have knowledge of mathematics expected as a prerequisite for

19

effective teaching. Sidhu (2006) sees mastery of the subject as an absolute necessity

for effective teaching. The teacher must possess a basic qualification in the subject,

professional training, engagement in professional activities and personal enthusiasm

for mathematics. As the literature described here suggests, teachers are a vital prerequisite for student attainment of their mathematical educational goals and

objectives. This review serve as a springboard for the survey of the factors

responsible for the poor performance in mathematics.

1. Teaching Experience

Sidhu (2006) proposed for effective and efficient teaching for teachers, selective

academic training, supervised teaching practice, in0service training and professional

activities. The mathematics teacher should get an opportunity of observing a few

demonstration lessons by more experienced teachers, and then should be required to

teach classes on those lines. Studies have shown that teacher experience is a major

determinant in students academic performance. Hansen (1988) posited that

teachers who have spent more time studying and teaching are more effective overall

and they develop higher order thinking skills for meeting the needs of diverse

students and hence increasing their performance. Bilesanmi (1999) in her study

found that teacher experience has the second most effective causal effect on students

achievement. Okoruwa (1999) found that teachers teaching experience has

significant effect on students achievement in the sciences. Also Felter (1999)

investigated the relationship between the measure of teachers experience and

student achievement in science and mathematics. He found that teaching experience

as measured by years of service correlated positively with students test results. Other

studies on the effect of teacher experience on the student learning have found a

positive relationship between teachers effectiveness and their years of experience,

20

but the relationship observed is not always a significant or an entirely linear one

(Kligaard & Hall, 1974; Murnane & Philips, 1981). The evidence currently available

suggests that while inexperienced teachers are less effective than more senior

teachers, the benefits of experience level off after a few years (Rivkin, Hanushek &

Kain, 2000). Greenwald, Hedges & Laine (1996) found in their meta-analytical study

that teaching experience has a positive and significant effect on student achievement.

Hawkins, Stancavage & Dossey (1998) found evidence that although teaching

experience appears to be related to student achievement, the relationship may not be

linear; students whose teachers had fewer years of experience had lower levels of

mathematics achievement, but there were no difference in mathematics achievement

among students whose teachers had more than 5 years of experience. Other

researchers have disagreed with the findings; Hanushek (1997) wrote that 71% of the

studies he reviewed did not find any results to support a relationship between

teaching experience and student achievement. Regardless of the differences in these

findings and how effective novice teachers may eventually become, during the first

year of teaching they are clearly less effective than more experienced teachers and

whatever be the case, experience matters (Clotfelter, 2007).

Teachers/Students Ratio

Ogunbiyi (1983) there is a plethora of literatures to show that our primitive

secondary schools are hampered by scores of problem: shortage of well-trained

teachers, inadequacy of teaching facilities, lack of funds to purchase necessary

equipment, poor quality textbooks, large classes, poorly motivated teachers, lack of

laboratories and libraries, poorly coordinated supervisory activities, interference of

21

the school system by the civil service, incessant transfers of teachers and principals,

over-crowded classrooms or laboratories, automatic promotion of pupils, the

negative role of public examination on the teaching-learning process, inequality in

educational opportunities.

For education to be effective, especially at the secondary school level, teaching staff

strength has to be adequate. A student-teacher ratio of 40:1 may be considered

adequate but the situation is far from this in many secondary schools in Nigeria. An

actual ratio of 100:1 is known to exist in many secondary schools across the country.

Under this situation, the teacher cannot perform effectively and efficiently

(Akinwumiju & Orimoloye, 1985). Our secondary schools are experiencing

astronomical increase in population to the extent that some classes use 3-5 registers

for a class having up to 250 students. In such situations, teacher student ratio is

1:250. The recommended 1:50 ratio has gone into oblivion (Asikhai, 2010).

Ajayi (1985) asserts that owning to the bloated class-size, the work becomes unwieldy

and tedious; personal attention to individual pupils becomes impracticable, marking

of assignments becomes tedious and burdensome, while compilation of results

became a frustrating exercise. The resultant effect is the pathetic situation of poor

performances in Mathematics examination. Odili (2006) wonders how a single

teacher can take care of 50 students at a time. In most cases, the rooms are too small

and poorly ventilated. It becomes difficult for the teachers to establish any close

individual contact with the students.

Smith and Glass (1978) published a meta-analysis combining the results of 77

empirical studies pertaining to the relationship between class size and achievement,

and soon followed it with a second meta-analysis, analysing the relationship between

22

class size and other outcomes. Overall, they found that small class size were

associated with higher achievement at all grade levels, especially if students were in

the small classes for than 100hours, and if student assignment was carefully

controlled. The found that the major benefits of reducing class size occurred where

the number of students in the class was fewer than 20. In their second study, they

concluded that small classes were superior in terms of students reactions, teacher

morale and the quality of the instructional environment.

Slavin (1989) employed a best evidence synthesis strategy to analyse empirical

studies that met 3 criterion : a study was included only if class size had been reduced

for at least a year, class of less than 20 students were compared to substantially

larger classes and students in the larger and smaller classes were comparable. Slavin

found that reduced class had a small positive effect on students that did not persist

after their reduced class experience.

In 1986, Robinson and Wittebols published a review of more than 100 relevant

research studies using a related cluster analysis approach. Similar kinds of studies

were clustered or grouped together, such as studies of the same grade level, subject

area or student characteristics. They concluded that the clearest evidence of positive

effects is in the primary grades, particularly kindergarten through third grade, and

that reducing class size is especially promising for disadvantaged and minority

students. At the same time, they cautioned that positive effects were less likely if

teachers did not change their instructional methods and classroom procedures in the

smaller class. In a more recent survey, Hanushek (2002) confirms that the majority

of empirical studies do not find any significant relationship between resources

devoted to education and student performance. Card and Krueger (1998) finds,

instead, a positive relationship between school resources and student achievement,

23

showing that both low pupil-teacher ratios and high quality school systems lead to

higher future earnings for students. These contrasting results may be related to

serious econometric problems- such as omitted variable bias, reverse causality or

measurement errors- that plagues this type of analysis and make it difficult to

recover the causal effect of class size on the student performance. More recent

studies affirm the effects of class size and teacher/student ratio on performance of

students especially in mathematics. Finn (1998) concluded that this research leaves

no doubt that small classes have an advantage over larger classes in school

performance and Krueger (1998), in a similar study confirms the original findings

that students in small classes scored higher on standardized test than students in

regular class.

Students Attitude and Commitment

Ezewu (1985) confirmed that a child who has a positive attitude towards what he

learns will be highly motivated to engage in activities that promote learning thereby

developing a positive self-concept in relation to the total teaching environment. One

of the most important factors for improving performance is students involvement.

By involvement it means how much time, energy and efforts students devote to the

learning process. Several studies have found a small but positive correlation between

some school factor and attitudes(Evans, 1978 & Paul, 1986), although these studies

do not examine the influence of specific variables, Gordon(1975), Cooper(1988) and

Mammalian(1992) provide evidence that aspects of the classroom learning

environment is positively related to mathematics attitudes. Attitudes therefore relate

to the way we act or react and the way we perform our thinking (perceptions) is what

results in our attitudes. Our actions therefore depend on our attitudes. There is now a

good deal of research evidence to suggest that the more time and efforts students

24

invest in the learning process and the more intensely they engage in their own

education, the greater will be their growth and achievement, their satisfaction with

their educational experiences and their persistence in school, and the more likely

they are to continue their learning (Aremu & Sokan, 2003).

For Balogun (1986), the students bring to the instructional setting his abilities,

motivational propensities, personal background; home background, community

values and these can mar, make or supersede teachers intervention of whatever

quality. Johnson and Rising (1972) see attitude as a mental state of readiness

organized through experiences, exerting a direction or dynamic influence upon the

individuals response to all objects and situations with which it is related.

Attitude therefore is fundamental to the dynamics of behaviours and determines how

far a student learns. Osafehinti (1986) posits that if a student has a positive attitude

towards mathematics, he will not only enjoy studying it but will also derive

satisfaction from the knowledge of mathematical ideas he gains. Obodo (2002)

explains further, if a student has a positive attitude to mathematics, he will definitely

be interested in its teaching and learning. For Salman (2004), most mathematics

teachers do not make the teaching of mathematics practical and exciting and this

leads to negative attitude to mathematics by students.

Sidhu (2006), the elements of novelty, usefulness and sheer intellectual curiosity are

the primary stimuli for the awakening, maintaining the students interest in

Mathematics. With genuine attitudinal change, sustained interest and continual

challenge, mathematics would no longer seem to the students a boring, useless to

real life issues and increasingly incomprehensible but a subject that will be longed

for. The aim of understanding such an investigation, the researcher hoped, would be

25

useful for teachers of mathematics in Nigeria secondary schools. It has in fact been

confirmed that effective teaching strategies can create positive attitude on the

students towards school subjects (Akinsola, 1994; Akale, 1997 & Olowojaiye, 1999).

This calls for the examination of the qualities that anyone called a teacher should

demonstrate to facilitate the successful discharge of the tasks expected of him. As

Sober et al (1988) puts it:

And above all, they must know how to stuff them artistically.

Knowledge of subject matter alone is not sufficient; the Mathematics teacher should

be effective and efficient in teaching methodology.

Cockcroft Report (1982) recommends among other means for effective and efficient

mathematic teaching at all levels:

Investigative work

For Sage (1977), this general teaching method is a set of teacher behaviours that are

recurrent; occur in united and systematic manner. This creates the template for a

sympathetic, well-informed, competent, mathematical language fluency and

inspiring teaching and learning. It is wrong to name a single method as the best

26

method. A good mathematics teacher will so digest or absorb all the available

methods that he/she evolves a method comprising the good point of all the methods.

He will not permit any of the methods to become his/her master but will remain a

true master of them all. One of the consequences of overdependence on foreign

approaches to teaching mathematics is the seeming lack of basic mathematical

principles which results to rote learning and low achievement in mathematics as

could be seen in Nigeria today. Attempts to address this problem have necessitated

the fact that teachers should evolve strategies that will ensure active participation of

learners, practice oriented, project oriented and applicable (Obodo, 1997;

DAmbosio, 2001; Kurumeh, 2004; Uloko, 2006). This seems to call for the option of

giving ethnomathematics a trial; being a teaching approach which focuses on

students background, their immediate environments integrated with the eurocentric mathematics in a practical way as demanded by the concept of locus.

Ethnomathematics is the study of mathematics which puts into consideration the

culture in which the mathematics arises (Kurumeh, 2004). Ethnomathematics is the

cultural utility of mathematics as a science (Harber-Peters, 2001). For DAmbrosio

(2001) it is an of teaching and learning mathematics which builds on the students

previous knowledge, background, the role his environment plays in terms of content

and method, and his past and present experience of his immediate environment.

Attempts to find solution to this incessant failure have made researchers in

mathematics education to consider a number of factors. One of such factors which is

closely re-examined in this study is the inappropriate method of teaching. According

to Harbor-Peters (2001), low achievement in mathematics is caused by teachers

non-utilization of appropriate teaching approaches. The researchers in this study

quite agrees with observation made in some quarters that, the method of teaching

mathematics in Nigeria is completely out of phase with background and the local

27

environment of the learners. Further, that this method is foreign in nature, has no

bearing with the Nigerian culture, and purely derived from euro-centric culture

(Uloko & Imoko, 2007). The secret behind the Japanese and Chinese successes in

mathematics, science and technology today is traceable to their use of

ethnomathematics (tereziaha, 1999; Kurumeh, 2004, Uloko & Imoko, 2007). This

study therefore, proposes the use of ethnomathematics methodology in teaching and

hopes this will help Nigerian students achieve high performance.

The Use of Instructional Materials in Mathematics Teaching

Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. For example, Obanya

(1989) viewed them as materials which are supposed to make learning and teaching

possible. According to Abdullahi (1982), instructional materials are materials or tools

locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson and

impact if intelligently used. Ikerionwu (2010) referred to them as objects or devices,

which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional

materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provide sound,

visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Agina-obu, 2005).

Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audiovisuals. Thus, audio instructional materials refer to those devices that make use of

the sense of hearing only, like the radio, audio tape recording, and television. Visual

instructional materials on the other hand, are those devices that appeal to the sense

of sight only such as the chalkboard, chart, slide, and filmstrip. An audio-visual

instructional material however is a combination of devices which appeal to the sense

of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion picture and the computer.

Among the instructional materials the classroom teacher uses, the visuals outnumber

the combination of the audio and the audio-visuals.

28

highlighted below:

Keep the learners busy and active thus increasing their participation in the

lesson

Illustrate the concepts clearer and better than teachers words only.

accessible.

well as discourage rote learning if used judiciously.

Help to stimulate and motivates learners. (Esu, Enukoha & Umoren, 2004).

achievement. For instance, (Moronfola, 1982; Popoola, 1990 and Momoh, 2010)

conducted researches on the effects of instructional resources on students

performance in West African Certificate examinations (WASCE). Their findings

shows the schools with adequate instructional materials performed better than those

with inadequate instructional materials. Franzer, Okebukola & Jegede(1992) stressed

that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would be

unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and

materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

Sometimes imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found to be

expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.

Researcher such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunyele (2002) reported that there were

inadequate resources for teaching science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria.

29

They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There

is need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola (2008) however

noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance

on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned

training programme on improvisation. Consequently, researchers like Abimbade

(1997) and Lasisi (2004) agreed that no matter the method or strategies chosen to be

effective, there is need to make use of appropriate instructional materials in

facilitating learning.

The physical environment of the school affects academic performance of the

students. For example, Bloom (1978) affirmed that environmental influences help in

the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Agreeing with the above, Ezewu(1983) noted

that it is because of the effects of the environment on the child that educators are

interested in the childs environment, as this, rather than heredity is the

phenomenon they can easily control in order to enhance teaching, learning and

achievement. Onwuchekwa (1985) explained that the physical settings of the

classroom, teaching aids to mention a few, enhance teaching, learning and

achievement. It is a fact that surrounding environment of the students influences

their performance. For instance, the quality of the school building has direct impact

on students performance. Students perform better academically in better buildings.

Researchers (carols, 1993; Lackney, 1999; Maxwell, 1999; Black, 2001) have found

that students in old buildings scored 5-7% points lower than students in new

buildings and so established in independent findings that there is a relationship

between the school building condition and students achievement. Nthat high

performance school use various constructions and design methods to improve

30

acoustical environment. This reduces internal noise and external noise factor like

traffic. Another interesting factor to note is that daylight is a central component of

high performance design. Providing natural daylight provides biological stimulation

for that regulate body system and moods, provide opportunities for natural

ventilation, and reduce the need for artificial light, thereby reducing energy costs.

Adedipe(2007) concludes that the inadequacy of such physical resources like lecture

halls, halls of residence, laboratories, libraries and other academic resources

translate to poor results because it breeds over crowdedness. Good acoustics are

important in any learning situation, but noise in classrooms often makes children

struggle to hear and concentrate, defeating the learning process at the outset. In a

typical school, classrooms may bombard students with three sources of noise:

1. Noise from the outdoors

2. Mechanical noise generated between rooms or between corridors and rooms

3. Noise generated within the classroom, including the ventilation system.

Taken all together, the noise can stifle a childs chance to learn (Lyons, 2001). The

interaction between the environment factor and the personal characteristics of the

student do exhibit significant effects on the academic performance of the students.

This has supported Lewins notion of person-environment interaction (Lewin, 1943).

Clearly, there is consensus that newer and better school buildings contribute to

higher students score on standardized tests (Edwards, 1992; Cash, 1993 and Hines.

1996) but just how much varies depending on the study and the subject area. For

example, Philips (1997) found impressive gains in mathematics scores, but Edwards

(1992) found lower gains in social sciences. When buildings new schools, it is

essential to incorporate the best design practices available. This is particularly

relevant as numerous studies show that the central features of high performance

schools- including ventilation, day lighting, and acoustics- have a direct impact on

31

heat, cold, light and air quality obviously bear on students and teachers ability to

perform. Empirical studies will continue, focusing on fine-tuning the acceptable

ranges of these variables for optimal academic outcomes. But we already know what

is needed: clean air, good light and a quiet, comfortable, and safe learning

environment. This can be and generally has been achieved within the limits of

existing knowledge, technology, and materials. It simply requires adequate funding

and competent design, construction, and maintenance (Schneider, 2002).

32

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter gives an indication of what was done to achieve the goals of the present

study. Purpose was to survey the factors responsible for students poor performance

in mathematics in the senior secondary certificate examination in Idah local

government area, in Kogi state, Nigeria. In this regard, the chapter describes the

methods and techniques used in collection of data, the research design, population

and sampling, research instrument used and how data was analysed.

Research Design

The research design used for the study was the survey design. It was designed to

collect data on the factors responsible for students poor performance in

mathematics in senior secondary school certificate examination in selected

secondary schools in Kogi state.

Population and Sample

The target population for this study consists of all mathematics teachers in selected

senior secondary schools in Idah LGA, Kogi State. The sample was made up of 30

teachers who were randomly from five schools which were randomly selected from

all the secondary schools in Idah.

These five schools are:

1. St. Kizito seminary, Iyegu-Idah

33

3. Holy Rosary College, Idah

4. Idah Secondary commercial College, Idah

5. Idah Polytechnic Secondary school, Idah

Instrumentation

The relevant data and information were collected by a teacher questionnaire. It is

based on the 4-point Likert scale responses.

1. Strongly Agree (SA)

2. Agree (A)

3. Disagree (D)

4. Strongly Disagree (SD)

The respondents were asked to tick () only one option.

The structured questionnaire is in two sections.

Section A: demanded demographic information on the personal details of the

teacher, qualification, teaching experience, sex, school type and class taught.

Section B: Contain (25) twenty five items, measuring; the teacher factor, students

attitude and commitments, the methods of teaching mathematics, the use of

instructional materials in teaching mathematics and the school environment factor.

The questionnaire was administered between June and August, 2011.

34

Simple means used to analyse the data. Numerical values 4, 3, 2 and 1 were assigned

to the options respectively. The mean value for acceptance is X2.5 otherwise

rejected. For each cluster the acceptance point is 12.5.

35

CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

Introduction

The data were analysed using frequency count and the mean score responses.

Table 1 The Teacher Factor

The teachers opinion on teachers factor as being responsible for students poor

performance in mathematics in senior secondary school certificate examination in

Idah local government of Kogi State.

SA ITEMS

SA A

D SD MEAN

RESPONSE

10 2

3.53

10 7

3.20

18 6

3.00

13 5

3.23

15 6

3.07

2

work

mathematics lessons

in terms of numbers and quality

no alternative job and as a waiting job

The table 1 reveals that the factors listed in the items, are responsible for the

students poor performance in mathematics in SSCE in Idah local government area,

36

column (66) than strongly agreed (57). The mean response ranges from 3.53 to 3.00.

It is of importance to note that the teachers strongly agreed that poor foundation,

lack of interest and difficulty in preparation are the root of the poor performance of

students in SSCE mathematics.

37

mathematics:

S/N ITEMS

SA A

D SD MEAN

RESPONSE

3.20

10 7

3.20

10 2

3.53

3.37

2.87

while learning

2

results in poor performance

practical work than the theoretical

Students

have

psychological

fear

of 20 5

mathematics

5

The results in table 2 above show that lack of interest, lack of hard work, lack of

practical and poor provision of study materials were core factors responsible for the

poor performance in SSCE mathematics. The mean response ranged between 3.53 t0

2.87 well above the acceptance point. Surprisingly, the buck being squarely passed to

parents as well.

38

Table 3: Teachers on the school environment factor responsible for students poor

performance in mathematics in the senior secondary school certificate examination

in Idah LGA.

S/N ITEMS

SA A D

SD MEAN

RESPONSE

8 2

3.43

3.77

8 5

2.90

2

for effective teaching and learning to take

place.

interest in learning mathematics

10 10

2.23

2.63

5

mathematics

The mean response in table 3 shows that the teachers accepted the school

environment factor as enhancing both teaching and learning. The mean values

ranges from 3.77 to 2.23 which is in line with the criteria for accepting a factor. The

largest number of teachers strongly agreed to the fact that the learning environment

should be made conducive for effective teaching and learning to take place. This will

have a positive effect on the students performance in mathematics at the SSCE.

39

poor performance in mathematics in the senior secondary school certificate

examination in Idah LGA of Kogi State.

S/N ITEMS

SA A

SD MEAN

RESPONSE

20 4

2.87

18

3.23

13

3.27

16

3.16

19 2

2.27

mathematics.

2

whenever I am teaching a topic in

mathematics.

particular teaching method

in

any

mathematical lesson

4

always

use

it

when

teaching

mathematics

5

do not consider the method I am using

because I feel it is not important

Table 4 shows a mean range of 3.27 to 2.27. Out of 30 teachers 20 agrees that the

use of varieties of teaching method was an advantage while 19 out of 30 teachers

disagrees when the importance of teaching method was brought to question and

earned the lowest mean score below the acceptance level of 2.50. By implication

40

performance in SSCE mathematics.

Table 5. The teachers opinion on the use of instructional materials in teaching

mathematics as factor responsible for students poor performance in mathematics in

senior secondary certificate examination in Idah LGA.

S/N ITEMS

SA A

SD MEAN

RESPONSE

19 7

2.70

19 2

2.27

2

prefer

teaching

any

concept

in 1

materials.

3

10 2

3.53

13 5

3.23

19 2

2.27

4

football and other athletics facilities rather

than mathematics teaching aids.

impact

on

students

achievement

in

mathematics.

The result of table 5 has a mean value ranging from 3.53 to 2.27. the highest number

of teachers (18) with mean response of 3.53 strongly agrees that instructional

materials should be used in making the teaching of mathematics more real, this will

41

Mathematics. Teachers who believed that teaching aids will not make an impact or

do not see the necessity of using instructional materials in teaching mathematics fell

below the acceptance point with a mean response of 2.27. The conclusion here then is

that, the use of instructional materials will boost the performance of students in

SSCE mathematics in Idah local government area of Kogi State.

Table 6.The Mathematics Teachers and their Qualifications

SCHOOLS NUMBER

MATHEMATICS

OF NUMBER

OF NCE

B.ED/BSC

STUDENTS

HOLDERS

HOLDERS

TEACHERS

I

155

II

370

III

500

IV

434

259

The table above shows that the work load for an average teacher is in the ration of

60:1 and this will implies an already overcrowded class for effective teaching and

learning to take place. Another observation from the data is that the bulk of the

teachers are mostly NCE holders whose experiences in teaching are limited. This is a

clear pointer to the fact that teacher qualification is a factor responsible for students

poor performance in SSCE Mathematics in Idah Local government of Kogi State.

42

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOOMENDATION

This is the portion of the study which ties up the research objectives, significance of

the study and the research questions together. This provides the summary of the

study, the conclusions with respect to the findings and makes recommendations

based on the findings in the study. The conclusions are about the connections

between the finding of the present study and the reviewed literature. In the

recommendations, an overview of ideas and suggestions for further research is

provided. Also, included in this chapter are suggestions that could be used to build

on the present study in the Nigerian secondary schools.

Summary of Findings

While the results of this study are limited to the population from which conclusions

were made, several important conclusions can be made as well. The results from this

study suggest the need for teachers to develop positive relations with the students, to

stress classroom activities which involve active learning-teaching process and

students participation, and to engage students meaningfully in the subject, so that a

fruitful and satisfying result is assured. This is consistent with findings in this study.

Other studies (Akale, 1997 & Asikhia, 2010) reported that the attitudes towards

mathematics were influenced by other variables; parents occupation and education,

gender and socio-economic status. Further, the study showed the importance and

significant role played by instructional materials on students performance in SSCE

mathematics. They have positive influence on achievement in mathematics. This

explains why a subject like mathematics will require real objects that can convert

topic that seem abstract to something concrete for students understanding. This

43

establishes the conclusion made by Talmadge and Eash (1976) about four decades

ago that instructional materials influence student achievement, use of process skills

and other learning outcomes. This finding consolidates previous research that

revealed positive influence of instructional media on students performance

(Adedokun, 2002). Finally, research findings in table 2 shows where teachers

perceive that environment influence poor academic performance; this may be

because students themselves are the victims of this poor performance. Some

researchers like Isangdighi (1988) also agree that students environment promote

poor academic performance. Aremu and Oluwole (2001) submitted that some of the

factors of poor academic achievement are motivational orientations, self-esteem,

emotional problems, study habits, teacher consultation and poor interpersonal

relationship.

On teaching methods as a factor responsible for poor performance of students in

SSCE mathematics, Asikhia (2010), agrees with the findings of this research that

most untrained teachers point accusing fingers at students rather than on themselves

when the students are unable to carry out the expected exercise at the end of the

lesson or in examination. Therefore, teachers planning should include:

1. Choice of appropriate teaching and material

2. Choice of appropriate teaching method

3. Intensive research on the topic to be taught

4. Determination of the objectives of the lesson.

44

CONCLUSION

This present study was aimed at surveying the factors responsible for students poor

performance in mathematics in senior secondary school certificate examination in

Idah Local government area of Kogi state.

The findings of this survey confirmed the fact that; teacher factor, students attitude

and commitment, methods of teaching mathematics, use of instructional materials

and the school environment are to a great extent valid factors that influence students

poor performance in mathematics in the SSCE. These findings therefore would be of

great help to governments, teachers, students, professional policy makers and

parents in providing a solid springboard to launch anew a template to finding a

lasting solution to the perennial poor performance issues in mathematics at the

SSCE.

Recommendations

In view of the findings of this survey, the following are the major recommendations;

1. Since the present study was limited to senior secondary schools, similar

studies could be carried out to cove the junior secondary schools as well as

other sectors of education.

2. There is need to develop a love for mathematics through the setting up of

Mathematics Club in every secondary school. Its aims should be as follows;

a. To initiate and develop love for mathematics

b. To help students develop positive attitude towards mathematics

c. To learn the History of Mathematics by sharing its slow and painful

development from ancient time to the present

45

outside and arrange mathematical shows and exhibitions.

e. The students get the opportunities of mathematics hobbies, recreational

mathematics, mathematical projects, mathematical games, mathematics

discussions, debates and mathematical innovations.

3. Mathematic teachers pre-service and in-service training must be encouraged

and funded. Some innovative teaching methods and instructional strategies

combined with new technologies in mathematics to enhance effective and

efficient teaching and learning.

4. Student-teacher ratio in our secondary schools should be reduced.

5. Regular activities of professional bodies like STAN and MAN should be

encouraged in schools.

6. Government and educational policy makers at the national and state levels

must equip all schools moderately equal to enhance teaching, learning,

efficiency and positive achievement. Adequate funding to enable the provision

of infrastructural facilities, recruitment of qualified teachers, conducive

school/learning environment, improved conditions of service for teachers and

machinery for periodic supervision and system checks.

Suggestions for Further Research

In the light of the above findings, future researchers could explore how family

background, size, socio-economic status and peer group influence affect students

performance in mathematics in senior secondary school certificate examination.

46

REFERENCES

Abimbola, I. O (1986). The Place of Students alternative conceptions and

instruction African Journal of Research in Education 1(1), 108 -113

Adejumobi, S. A and Ivowi, U. M (1992) Comprehensive education for Nigeria West

African Journal of Education 10(2), 257-266

Adebule, S. O (2004). Gender difference on a locally standardized anxiety rating

scale in mathematics for Nigerian secondary schools Nigerian Journal of

counselling and applied psychology 1, 22-29

Aremu, O. A & Sokan, B. O (2003). A multi-causal evaluation of academic

performance of Nigerian learners: issues and implication for national

development. Department of Guidance and counselling, University of Ibadan,

Ibadan.

Akale, M. A. G (1997). The relationship between attitude and achievement among

biology students in senior secondary school. Journal of Science and Movement

Education. 2, 77-85

Akinsola, M. K (1994). Comparative effects of mastery learning and enhanced

mastery learning strategies on students achievement and self-concept

mathematics. PHD thesis, University of Ibadan.

Agina-Obu, T. N (2005). The relevance of instructional materials in teaching and

learning in Robert-Okah. I & Uzoeshi, K.C. (ed) Theories are practice of

teaching, Port Harcourt: Harey Publication.

Asikhia O. A (2010). Students and teachers perception of the causes of poor

academic performance in Ogun state secondary schools (Nigeria):

Implications for counselling for National development. European Journal of

Social sciences 13(2)

Balogun T. A & Olarewanju, A. O (1992). Effects of instructional objectives and

hierarchically organised task on students achievement in integrated science.

Lagos Journal of Science Education (1), 7-13

Bilesanmi T. A (1999). A causal model of teacher characteristics and students

achievement in some educational concepts. Unpublished PHD thesis,

University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Black S. (2001). Building blocks: How schools are designed and constructed affects

how students learn. American School Board Journal 188 (10), 44-47.

Biodun O. (2000). Crisis of Education in Nigeria Book farm publishers, Ibadan

Badmus, G. A (1978). An evaluation of the Mathematics Education components of

Nigeria primary school curriculum between 1930 and 1960. Abacus: The

Journal of Mathematics Association of Nigeria. M 83-88

Dada, A. (Ed)(1986). Mass failure in public examinations (causes and problems).

Proceedings of the National Conference on Mass Failure in Public

examination 21st 25th April, 1986. Ibadan.

DAmbrosio U (2001). What is Ethnomathematics and how can it help children in

schools? In V. T. Beston (ed), Teaching children mathematics National

council of teachers of mathematics, NCTM. Davidson

Ezeito, J. O. C (1981). Mathematics in sciences and technology (keynotes Address).

Annual Conference Proceedings of Mathematical Association of Nigeria, 2747.

Esu, A. E. O., Enukoha, O. I. T, Umorem, G.U (2004). Curriculum development in

Nigeria for colleges and universities. Whyte and Whyte publishers.

47

Universities, a theoretical formulation with implication for research Journal

of research in Curriculum 4(2), 11-18.

Fajemidagba, O. (1987). A study of mathematics teacher programme in Nigeria

Universities. Illorin Journal of Education. 6(10), 3-7

Francis, A. (2007). Student and Teacher related variables as determinants of

secondary school student academic achievements in Chemistry. Jurnal

Pendidikan, 32, 3-18.

Fettler, E (1999). The relationship between measures of teacher experience with

mathematics educational level and students achievement in mathematics in

the critical importance of well-prepared Teachers U. S Department of

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Isola, O. M. (2010). Effects of Standardized and Improved instructional materials in

students academic achievements in secondary school M.Ed Thesis, University

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Isangedigh, A. J (1988). Under-achievement: An index of learner-environment

mismatch Nigerian Journal of Educational Psychology 3(1) 220-226

Kurumeh, M. S. C (2004). Effects of Ethnomathematics teaching approach on

students achievement and interest in geometry and mensuration.

Unpublished PHD Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Murnane, R. J., & Philips, B. (1981). Learning by doing, Vintage and Selection: Three

pieces of the puzzle relating teaching experience and teaching performance.

Economic of Education Review, 1(4), 453-465

Maduabum, M. A (2009). Science teacher effectiveness and national goal attainment

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Osokoya, M. M (1999). Some determinants of Secondary school students academic

achievement in Chemistry in Oyo State. Unpublished PHD thesis, University

of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Odili, G. O (2006). Mathematics in Nigeria secondary Schools: A teaching

perspectives. Port-Harcourt: Anachuna Educational Books.

Okoye, N. S (2007). Theory and practice of curriculum development Abraka: Delsu

investment Limited, Delta State.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A & Kain, J. F (2005): Teachers, Schools and academic

achievement. Econometrics, 73, 417-458

Sidhu, K. S (1995). The Teaching of Mathematics New Delhi: Sterling Publishers

private Limited.

48

APPENDIX

TEACHERS QUSTIONNAIRE

The purpose of this questionnaire is to survey the factors responsible for students

poor performance in mathematics in SSCE. The survey is purely for research purpose

and any information supplied will be treated as strictly confidential.

Your co-operation is hereby gratefully acknowledged. Please complete the following.

SECTION A

Highest Qualification: NCE ( ) HND ( ) B.Sc/B.Ed ( ) M.Sc/M.Ed ( )

Teaching Experience: Below 5yrs ( ) 6-10yrs ( ) 11yrs and above ( )

Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )

School Type: All Boys ( ) All Girls ( ) Co-Ed ( )

Class Taught: JSS ( ) SSS ( )

SECTION B

Please tick [] the appropriate option SA Strongly Agree, A- Agree, DDisagree, SD- Strongly Dis agree.

S/N ITEMS

SA A D SD

personal opinion.

creative in it, it is just memorising formulas and answers

and I do this as a waiting job

49

is not conducive for them

students achievement in mathematics

uneasy and confused

10

them

11

new problems

12

knowledge in mathematics

13

to develop their skills and study the subject more.

14

lesson in mathematics

15

a topic in mathematics

16

method in any mathematical lesson

17

teaching mathematics.

18

the method I am using because I feel it is not important.

50

19

in my school

20

instructional materials

21

mathematics lesson

22

athletics facilities rather than mathematics teaching aids.

23

24

students performance in mathematics

25

achievement in mathematics

51

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