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MONDAY, FRIDAY: 04:0007:00 P.M
SEPTEMBER 22, 2015

A color change indicates a change in molecules. Each type of chemical reaction has different properties and has different indicators that a reaction has occurred. You know a chemical reaction takes place if one or more of these occur:  Color changes . A colorless gas produced in a reaction of solids is much harder to detect. single-displacement. Sometimes the difference is great and can be easily detected. decomposition. Decomposition Reactions  A compound breaks into parts. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the lab was to create a demonstration that presented four types of chemical reactions (synthesis.  Precipitate forms . the heat content of the reactants and the heat content of the products is never the same.In all chemical reactions.CONTENTS “TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS” I. and double-displacement). . such as a compound being exposed to heat. This insoluble product will eventually settle to the bottom. bubbles can be seen. The experiment exposed other compounds to each other or put a compound against conditions that would cause a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions are processes in which substances change into other substances.Whenever a gaseous product forms in a liquid solution.Precipitates are insoluble products formed by a reaction taking place in a liquid solution.Different combinations of molecules reflect light differently.  Heat content changes . At other times. the difference is slight and more difficult to detect. but might immediately appear by turning the clear solution cloudy. Most chemical reactions can be placed into one of five basic types: 1.  Gas produced .

when heated. decompose into metallic chlorides and O2. compound → element + element  2H2O → 2H2 + O2 Some decomposition complications with heat:  Some acids. 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 2. Li2CO3 → Li2O + CO2  Metallic chlorates. decompose into a metallic oxide and H2O. Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O  Metallic carbonates. decompose into a metallic oxide and CO2. when heated. when heated. decompose into an acidic oxide and H2O. Synthesis Reactions  Elements are joined together. H2SO3 → SO2 + H2O  Metallic hydroxides.  element + element → compound  2H2 + O2 → 2H2O  Compounds are joined together . when heated.

Combustion Reactions  A hydrocarbon (a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen) combines with oxygen. Double Displacement Reactions  An element from each of two compounds switch places.  element + compound → element + compound  Zn + 2HCl → H2 + ZnCl2 4. compound + compound → compound  6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 3.  compound + compound → compound + compound  H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O 5.  hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water  CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O .  The products of combustion are always carbon dioxide and water. Single Displacement Reactions  A single element replaces an element in a compound.

an experiment was conducted with the following objectives: 1. the result is an oxidation-reduction reaction. Determined the type of reaction involved: A. II. E. to verify or investigate the above concept.copper chloride. Materials and Apparatus The chemicals used in the experiment were as follows: *HNO3 (Nitric Acid) and *NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide. F. samples of Magnesium. Iron ring. The cupric hydroxide was converted into cupric oxide. The rusting of iron . Beaker.) The apparatus used included Alcohol lamp. 2. The cupric chloride was converted into copper. When metallic substances combine with oxygen. Summarized the chemical reacted in terms of a balanced equation. Iron clamp. B. and Wire gauze. The copper metal was converted into cupric oxide. METHODOLOGY A. Materials included in the experiment include standard lab equipment. B. AgNO3. copper carbonate (III). C. The copper metal was converted into cupric nitrate. CuSO4. aluminum foil. Iron stand. D. Procedure . dioxide. The cupric nitrate was converted into cupric hydroxide. The cupric oxide was converted into cupric chloride. KI and KSCN. Fe(NO3)3. Stirring rod. Identified the products of the chemical reaction 3. Watch glass. Tongs.4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 In view of this.

Fe(NO3)3. For the secondlab heat copper (II) carbonate in a test tube and observe the reaction. Measured 4. CuSO4. Heated the copper strip strongly in the burner flame for 5 minutes. The fourth lab calls for an arrangement of each sample (AgNO3. NaOH was added drop by drop to the solution. Changing Copper to Cupric acid 1. Changing Copper to Cupric Oxide 1. KI and KSCN) so that each sample interacts with one another and observe all reactions. The 1 mL conc. and other physical characteristics had taken notes about it. B. 3. The properties of the heated copper were compared with the unheated copper. The beaker containing the solution from B-2 was immersed. The ice water was put in a 250-mL beaker. A. Obtained a small strip of copper from the counter. 2. D. The solution in Procedure B-2was tested with a litmus paper. stirred continuously until the solution became basic litmus. For the third lab adda small piece of aluminum to a test tube. 2. Heated the mixture to boiling point with constant stirring until the precipitate changed to brownish black. The properties of its characteristic. HNO3 was added into the beaker and directly covered with a watch glass.For the first experiment burn magnesium and observe the reaction.0 mL 6N NaOH. kind of surface. color. Changing Cupric Hydroxide to Cupric Oxide 1. Filtered and washed the resulting solid with 10 mL portions of hot water. . 2. Transferred the precipitate formed from Procedure C-3 above into a beaker and added 20 mL tap water. Placed 1-2 pieces of copper strip into a 50-mL or 100-mL beaker. 2. Recorded the result of the copper strip and the color of the gas evolved. Cover the aluminum foil with copper chlorideand observe the reaction after several minutes. Caution: The poisonous NO2 gas should not be inhaled! C. Changing Cupric Nitrate to Cupric Hydroxide 1.

Changing Cupric Oxide to Cupric Chloride 1. Fourth lab was multiple reactions that were all examples of double-displacement chemical reactions. III. Changing Cupric Chloride to Copper 1. It can be represented by the chemical equation. The thin aluminum wire was immersed into the solution on one end from Procedure E-2. . F. The procedure was continued until the precipitate has dissolved. The color of the deposit on the surface of aluminum and the original copper were compared. The compound changed color from blue to black. RESULTS The first experiment can be represented by the equation 2Mg + O2→ 2MgO The magnesium reacted with the flame and changed color to produce Magnesium Oxide The second lab showed the decomposition of copper (II) carbonate to carbon dioxide and copper oxide. 6M HCl was added drop by drop while catching the resulting liquid with a clean dry test tube. Bubbles and black pigment appeared near the aluminum sample. 2. It is represented by the chemical equation CuCO3→ CO2+ CuO The third lab was a reaction between an aluminum sample and copper chloride. Heat was produced by the reaction. 2. The table below demonstrates the reactions and observations made. The precipitate in the filter paper from Procedure D-2.E.

AgNO3 CuNO3 Fe(NO3)3 KI AgNO3 X Cloudy CloudyOrange Exploded/Solidi fied CuNO3 Cloudy X No Reaction Yellow-Orange Green Fe(NO3)3 Cloudy-Orange No Reaction X Orange Black KI Exploded/Solidi fied YellowOrange Orange X No Reaction KSCN Explodes/White Cloud Green Black No Reaction X Exercise 18 Types of Chemical Reactions A. Changing Cu to CuO COLOR Unheated copper FORMULA OF THE SUBSTANCE Reddish Brown Heated Copper CuO Bleach Cu+O Type of Chemical Reaction: Combustion/Synthesis Balanced Chemical Equation: 2Cu + O2 B. Changing Cu to Cu(NO3)2 Color of the gas produced: Brown Name of the gas: Nitrogen Dioxide 2CuO Cu CuO KSCN Exploded / White .

Changing Cu(NO3)2 to Cu(OH)2 Color of the precipitate formed: Blue Formula of the precipitate: Cu(OH)2 Type of chemical reaction: Double Decomposition Balanced chemical equation: Cu(NO3)2 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + 2NaNO3 D. Changing CuO to CuCl2 Color of solution: Blue Green Formula of the substances responsible for the color of the solution: CuCl2 Type of chemical reaction: Double Decomposition Balanced chemical equation: CuO + 2HCl F.Color of the solution produced: Blue Formula of the substance responsible for the color of the solution: Cu(NO3)2 Type of chemical reaction: Single replacement + Substitution Balanced chemical reaction: Cu + 4HNO3 Cu(OH)2 + 2NaNO3 C. Changing CuCl2 to Cu CuCl2 + H2O . Changing Cu(OH)2 to CuO Color of the precipitate formed: Brownish Black Formula of the precipitate: CuO Type of chemical reaction: Decomposition Balanced chemical equation: Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O E.

The compound decomposed to carbon dioxide and copper oxide. The magnesium oxide product appeared as a white powder. Also heat was exerted by the reaction. Synthesis can occur naturally but also when one compound or molecule is introduced to another. Magnesium Oxide is a naturally occurring mineral that can form inside of your body. The transition of states of matter was from solid and gas to solid. This is an example of synthesis. Indicators that a chemical reaction had occurred were a smell and the compound had changed to a black color. It follows the synthesis formula of A + B → AB or (in the case of the lab) 2Mg + O2→ 2MgO The reason it needed to be two magnesium molecules is because all chemical equations must be balanced. The second lab was a demonstration of decomposition. The reaction occurred when the compound copper (II) carbonate was heated. The signs of a chemical reaction taking place were color change and an odor that emitted. Decomposition can best be represented by the formula AB → A + B Decomposition often occurs when a compound is introduced to heat or lack of heat. The reaction occurred because the magnesium sample was introduced to the flame. The products exposure to heat is what leads to its decomposition. So the chemical reaction that was observed in the lab occurs in humans’ bodies naturally all the time. The third lab was an example of a single displacement reaction. The lab exemplifies this. The aluminium foil reacted copper chloride by yielding bubbles and black pigment.Observable result on the aluminum wire: The tip that was immense melt and the color turns brown. It is used to supply magnesium to your body which is necessary for health of nerves and muscles. DISCUSSION In the first lab the magnesium reacted with the flame by producing magnesium oxide. The single displacement formula is AB + X → AX + B . Formula on the substance formed on the aluminum wire: Cu Type of chemical reaction: Redox Balanced chemical equation: 3CuCl2 + 2Al 2AlCl3 + 3Cu IV.

Each lab illustrated how each kind of chemical reaction contrasts and influences involved in the reactions. The result is CuCl + Al → CuAl + Cl There is room for error in that equation for there could be more molecules that were not accounted for. Some compounds exploded when introduced to others. The reason the reaction took a relatively long time is because it took several moments for each molecule of aluminum to displace the chlorine molecules. Patience is important while heating. Rushing some element was fine but it is important to take it slow and seize every moment during the experiment for it to be enjoyable and observed properly. A reaction like this occurs when the process of the displacement of molecules rearranges and collides. Change is really constant. If patience exists. it was proved how change works in reality. the more reactions are observed during the experiment. Some samples had violent reactions while others no visible reaction took place. REFERENCES . The final lab was a demonstration of double-displacement reactions. Each reaction that occurred in the twenty-five wells was a double-displacement reaction. From how the things would change physically. it was proven and tested. chemical reactions occur anywhere. Heat was exerted because of the kinetic energies of the molecules rearranging which could lead to a hypothesis stating that all single (or double) displacement reactions exert heat due to the exchange of molecules. As how the mixture and precipitation happened. You can turn the switches on and off and leave them in any position. This experiment connects to real life because chemical reactions happen every day.With that formula Robert formed the chemical equation that would apply to the lab. How would you identify which switch corresponds to which light bulb. All of the samples produced heat which supports the previous stated hypothesis that all displacement reactions produce heat. in order for a reaction to transpire. There was no room for human error unless ridiculous proportions were used. if you are only allowed one trip upstairs? In the lab reactions that introduced the same compound to each other were not accounted for. V. Conclusion and Recommendation Therefore. There are three switches downstairs. Multiple reactions happened just as expected. I would still like to pursue the displacement causing heat hypothesis in further experimentation. Almost every reaction produced a precipitate of solid. VI. Each corresponds to one of the three light bulbs in the attic. A piece of advice would be on continuing on observing how things change and accept the fact that everything changes simply because change is constant. nothing stays the same forever.

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