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algebra.

BINARY DECISION

Any decision which results into a YES (TRUE) or NO (FALSE) is called

a binary decision.

YES

NO

TRUE

FALSE

For example:

13 2 = 11.

Delhi is biggest state in India.

What is your name?

This is a question which cannot be

answered as true or false.

logical statements or truth functions.

The results TRUE or FALSE are called truth values.

LOGICAL OPERATIONS

Logical function or Compound statement

Algebraic variables like a, b, c, x, y etc. are combined

with help of mathematical operators like +,-,x,/.

Similarly, logical statements or truth functions are

combined with help of logical operators to form a logical

function. For example

He prefers tea not coffee.

He plays piano and she plays sitar.

On Sundays, I watch TV or go for swimming.

The AND, OR, NOT are the logical operators.

Logical operators

TRUTH TABLE

A truth table is a table which represents all the possible values

of logical variables along with all possible results of given

combinations of values.

For example,

I want to have tea

T represents TRUE

F represents FALSE

as Y and result as R then we can write above table as-

X

1

1

0

0

Y

1

0

1

0

R

1

0

0

0

TRUTH TABLE

1 represents TRUE

0 represents FALSE

OPERATORS

NOT

OR

AND

NOT Operator

It operates on one input and gives the opposite of that as output.

If the input is 0, output will be 1

If the input is 1, output will be 0

Since, it operates on one input it is called a unary operator.

This is known as complementation.

It is represented by an inverted coma ( ) or a bar over the

variable.

For example

Complement of X will be represented as X or X.

0=1

1=0

Truth table for NOT operation isX

0

1

X

1

0

OR Operator

It represents the operation called logical addition.

The symbol used for OR operator is +.

So, X+Y can be read as X OR Y.

0+0=0

0+1=1

1+0=1

1+1=1

Truth table for OR operator is

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

X+Y

0

1

1

1

operands then apply the result on third.

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

X+Y+Z

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

AND Operator

0

1

1

1

It represents operation called logical multiplication.

The symbol used for AND operation is a dot ( . ).

So, X.Y can be read as X AND Y.

0.0 = 0

0.1 = 0

1.0 = 0

1.1 = 1

The truth table for AND operator is

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

X.Y

0

0

0

1

For three input operators, first apply AND operation on two operands

and then apply operation on the result and third operand. Truth table

for 3 inputs isX

0

0

0

0

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

X.Y.Z

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS

Logical variables are combined by means of logical operators to

form Boolean expression.

For exampleo X+Y

o X + YZ + Z

o Y + Z

Boolean expressions are evaluated by constructing the truth

table.

Consider the expression- X + (Y.Z)

To study this expression, first consider all the combinations of X,

Y and Z. total number of combinations for 3 variables is 23 = 8.

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Calculate Y.Z

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Y.Z

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Y.Z

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

(Y.Z)

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

X

Y.Z

(Y.Z)

X + (Y.Z)

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

be followed Parenthesis ()

NOT

PRIORI

TY

AND

OR

X

0

0

1

Y

0

1

0

XY

0

0

0

X+XY

0

0

1

X and X+XY are same. This

verifies that X=X+XY

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

X

1

1

0

0

Y

1

0

1

0

X+Y

0

1

1

1

(X+Y)

1

0

0

0

XY

1

0

0

0

of (X+Y) and XY are same.

This verifies that (X+Y)=XY

Exercise:

Prepare truth table for expression: XY + XY and verify that it is

equal to X

Prepare truth table for expression: XYZ + XY

If X = 0 then X = 1 and if X = 1 then X = 0

Logical addition (OR relations)

o 0+0=0

o 0+1=1

o 1+0=1

o 1+1=1

Logical multiplication (AND relations)

o 0.0=0

o 0.1=0

o 1.0=0

o 1.1=1

Complement rules (NOT relations)

o 0 = 1

o 1 = 0

Principle of duality

o Change each OR (+) to AND (.)

o Change each AND (.) to OR (+)

o Replace each 0 by 1 and 1 by 0

Properties of 0 and 1

o 0+X=X

o 1+X=1

o 0.X=0

o 1.X=X

Proof

These properties can be proved by creating a truth table

For eg.

For 0+X

0

0

0

X

0

1

0+X

0

1

X

0

0.X

0

For 1.X

0

0

Indempotence law

o X+X=X

o X.X=X

Proof

For X + X = X

X

0

1

X

0

1

X+X

0

1

X

0

1

X.X

0

1

For X . X = X

X

0

1

Involution law

(X) = X

Proof

X

0

1

X

1

0

(X)

0

1

X

1

0

X+X

1

1

Complementary law

o X + X = 1

o X . X = 0

Proof

For X + X = 1

X

0

1

For X . X = 0

X

0

1

X

1

0

X.X

0

0

Commutative law

o X+Y=Y+X

o X.Y=Y.X

Proof

For X + Y = Y + X

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

X+Y

0

1

1

1

Y+X

0

1

1

1

X.Y

0

0

0

Y.X

0

0

0

For X . Y = Y . X

X

0

0

1

Y

0

1

0

Associative law

o X+(Y+Z)=(X+Y)+Z

o X.(Y.Z)=(X.Y).Z

Proof

For X + ( Y + Z ) = ( X + Y ) + Z

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Y+Z

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

X+Y

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

X+(Y+Z) (X+Y)+Z

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

X.Y

0

0

X.(Y.Z)

0

0

o For X . ( Y . Z ) = ( X . Y ) . Z

X

0

0

Y

0

0

Z

0

1

Y.Z

0

0

(X.Y).Z

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Distributive law

o X(Y + Z) = XY + XZ

o X + YZ = (X + Y)(X + Z)

Proof

For X(Y + Z) = XY + XZ

X

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

Z

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

Y+Z

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

X.Y

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

X.Z

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

X.(Y+Z) X.Y+X.Z

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

For X + YZ = (X + Y)(X + Z)

Here is an algebraic proof of this rule

R.H.S. = (X + Y)(X + Z)

= XX + XZ + YX + YZ

= X + XZ + YX + YZ

(Indempotence law)

= X(1+Z) + YX + YZ

(taking X common)

= X.1 + YX + YZ

= X + YX + YZ

= (1+Y)X +YZ

(taking X common)

= 1.X + YZ

= X + YZ

= L.H.S.

Hence proved

Absorption law

o

o

X + XY = X

X (X + Y) = X

Proof

For X + XY = X

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

X.Y

0

0

0

1

X+XY

0

0

1

1

X+Y

0

1

1

1

X(X+Y)

0

0

1

1

For X (X + Y) = X

X

0

0

1

1

Y

0

1

0

1

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