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Dating Rock Layers and Human Impact

Name ___________________________________________Date____________________Period____________Day
1. What is Age? There are 2 kinds:
Absolute Age The number of
since the rock formed. (150 million years old, 10 thousand years
old.) Much
to figure out. Often
Relative Age The age
that rock.) Much

to the ages of
to figure out. Can be deduced from

2. What are the ways to tell RELATIVE AGE. 1.


. (older than this rock, younger than



3. What is the Law of Superposition? In horizontal

. Each higher layer is

, the oldest layer is at

than the layers below it.

4. What is Extrusion? When magma cools

Extrusions are always

of the Earth its called an

than the rock it is sitting on. For extrusion think exit or

5. What is an Intrusion? When magma cools

. Intrusions are always
think inside.

the surface of the Earth its called

than the rocks around it. For intrusion

6. What is a Fault? A
in the Earths crust. A fault is always
the rock it cuts through. Faults
, making determining the age of the layers
confusing. Faults move over time causing the rock layers to move. As more time goes by, more rock layers are
added on
. Making aging the rock layers difficult. Geologists must then label each of the rock layers.
This can be tough because they werent around to see the whole process occur.
7. What is an Unconformity? The surface where new rock layers
beneath them. An unconformity shows where some rock layers have been lost because of


8. What is Uniformitarianism? Geologic process that happened

can be explained by
. Processes such as
that go on today
happened in a
in the past. Because geologic processes tend to happen at a
this means that Earth much be
9. Summary Dating Rock Layers
Relative vs.
Determining Relative Age:
a. Law of Superposition
b. Intrusions
c. Extrusions
d. Faults
e. Unconformities
f. Uniformitarianism processes

and happen

showing extreme age of Earth.

10. Humans impact their environment in a number of different ways including the following: 1.
, 3.
, 4.

, and

11. What is Urbanization? The growth of

cities increase in size, the population of

(cities) caused by people moving into cities. When

near the city may decrease.

12. What is Deforestation? The removal of

cause deforestation when forests are replaced with

from an area. Urbanization can


13. What is Desertification? The process by which land becomes more

life. Urbanization can also lead to desertification.

and unable to support

14. What happens when Water Flow is Changed? Digging irrigation canals to get
the flow of rivers. Irrigation
(deserts), changes the ecology of those areas. Building dams
and affects the
of the land and water.
15. What is Pollution?
natural sources.
16. Summary Human Impact:
Changing Water Flow

of air, water or land by pollutants from

Dating Rock Layers, Earths History, and Human

Impact Mini Quiz
1. Different areas are classified according to land use.
Which of these areas would likely have the largest
human population and the highest levels of air pollution?


a rural area
an urban area
a natural area
a suburban area

2. Aaron has one older brother and one younger sister.

He wants to explain relative dating to them using their
ages as an example. Which of these statements describes
their ages using relative dating? E.6.3
A. Their ages are 14, 12, and 9.
B. They are all about the same age.
C. The boys have different ages than the girl.
D. Aaron is younger than his brother, but older than his
3. What is the law of superposition? E.6.3
A. Igneous rock is older than nearby sedimentary rock,
which is older than nearby metamorphic rock.
B. A sedimentary rock layer in its original position is
older than the layers above it and younger than the layers

below it.
C. Metamorphic rock is older than nearby sedimentary
rock because sedimentary rock is deposited before
metamorphic rock forms.
D. The exact age of a sedimentary rock layer can be
found using the layers above and below it, even if the
layers are not in their original
4. The diagram shows layers of
sedimentary rock that have not
moved from their original
Which layer (or layers) is older
than layer 3? E.6.3
A. 1 only

C.1 and 2

B. 4 only

D. 2 and 4

5. Air pollution is caused by many different activities.

Air pollution can affect human health and the health of
other living things. Which of these choices gives the
best description of air pollution? E.6.6
A. the circulating of pollutants in enclosed spaces
B. the long-term health issues related to the quality of
the air
C. the contamination of the atmosphere by pollutants
from human and natural sources
D. the pollution that results from global warming