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Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767

The Twelfth East Asia-Pacific Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction

Structural Design of Shanghai Tower for Wind Loads
X. Zhaoa*, J. M. Ding1 and H. H. Suna
a

Architectural design & research institute of Tongji university (Group) Co., Ltd., 200092, Shanghai, China

Abstract
Nearby Jin Mao tower and the World Financial Center, the 632-meter, 121-story mixed-use Shanghai tower will be
the tallest super tall tower in the new Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone of Shanghai. Due to the super tall height,
curved façade and spiraling form of the Shanghai tower project, wind is the dominant lateral load and governed many
aspects of the structural design. To precisely determine the design wind loads, a detailed wind climate study was
conducted. The influences of typhoon events and typhoon profiles were considered in the wind climate study. Due to
its long structural period, the across-wind load of the Shanghai tower project is prominent. Aerodynamic optimization
studies were conducted to reduce the correlation of vortex shedding along the building height, and thus reduce the
across-wind building response. The optimization results show that the across wind load can be effectively reduced
with certain building configuration. Detailed wind tunnel studies, including HFFB and HFPI studies, high Reynolds
number tests and aeroelastic model tests, were conducted to accurately capture the wind load on the building. The
wind load parameters, such as the Shape factor, Strouhal number and the terrain type, were obtained and derived from
the wind tunnel studies. The wind load and wind induced structural responses obtained from the wind tunnel studies
were then compared with those calculated based on Chinese load code. The design criteria for the ultimate limit
check and serviceability limit check of Shanghai tower for wind loads were discussed. Finally, the building vibration
under wind load and the related human comfort problem is addressed. Different human comfort criteria are compared
and the building acceleration results from both the wind tunnel tests and code-based calculation are discussed.

© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of [name organizer]
Keywords: Shanghai tower, wind loading, super tall building, wind induced response, structural design for wind loads

*Corresponding author:
E-mail Address: 22zx@tjadri.com

1877–7058 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.07.221

Due to its close distance from the sea. the Shanghai tower is a 580. Zhao et al. the influence of typhoon on the design wind speed of Shanghai area was thoroughly studied. with additional 5 stories above for MEP functions. including high-frequency force-balance tests. high-frequency pressure-integration tests and aeroelastic model tests. The possible building vibration control system for this project was also discussed. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 1. The main wind loading parameters. Strouhal number and terrain type. Figure 1 Lujiazui CBD after the completion of the Shanghai tower Figure 2 Geometry of the Shanghai tower Due to its super height and the twisting and rotating façade (figure 2).1760 X. In order to further investigate the influence of Reynolds number on the wind loading. including the shape factor. The structural design for the wind loading.000 m2 multi-use development located in the new Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone of Shanghai. The building consists of 121 floors of office and hotel space. This paper summarizes the above wind engineering studies and compared the wind loading obtained from wind tunnels and those predicted using Chinese codes. A set of high-frequency force balance tests was conducted for the aerodynamic optimization studies. Introduction Nearby the Jinmao tower and the Shanghai World Financial Center tower. a large scale model (1:85) was built and tests in the 9mx9m aeronautic wind tunnel to investigate the high Reynolds effects. The structural height is 580m and the architectural height is 632m. Finally the wind induced vibration and related human comfort issues were discussed. design criteria and the design wind parameters were then addressed. The building has been designed as a soft vertical spiral to contain the vertical city slowly rises towards the sky. Those wind loading parameters used in the Jinmao tower and Shanghai world financial center were also listed and discussed. . were discussed. A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted in RWDI’s wind tunnels located in Guelph city. The model scale of the above tests is 1:500. the wind loading is one of the controlling factors of the structural design of Shanghai tower. Different human comfort criteria were addressed and the building acceleration obtained from both wind tunnel tests and code-based calculations were compared.

2009). In the super tall building design. Shanghai tower 31. 3.1 Wind speed at 500m 43. Wind Climate Study The ratio between the surface hourly mean wind speed and gradient height hourly mean wind speed is 0. The gradient wind speed predicted by the new wind field model is about 13% higher than that predicted by the old wind field model. 120 and 180. tapering and setbacks. In the Georgiou’s wind field model. Table 2 compares the base shear reactions obtained for the schemes with different twisting angles and orientations (RWDI.7 Aerodynamic Optimization Due to high design wind speed and relatively low overall stiffness. Zhao et al. varying cross section shape. 1993). the surface wind speed ratio is about 0.X. Based on the wind field model proposed by Kepert (2001).54 in Chinese load code GB50009-2001.7 Note: the terrain roughness type B in Chinese code is considered.68 for standard terrain roughness B. the surface wind speed ratio is about 0. 1761 . the across wind load due to vortex shedding is even higher than the along wind load. and with orientation angle of 0. According to Vickery’s wind field model. A rectangular shape building with the same plan shrink ratio was applied as the reference.7 43.0 54. Shanghai world financial center (SWFC). The high-frequency force-balance (HFFB) wind tunnel tests were conducted for the parametric analysis on twisting angle and building orientation. it was believed that the wind field model developed by Georgiou (1985) was employed. Table 1: 10 minute mean wind speed of 100 year return period (m/s) Project name Jinmao tower SWFC Wind speed at 10m 31. Shanghai tower and the code. Figure 3 show the vortex shedding of the typical section of Shanghai tower. The effective building shape modification methods include softened corners.60 for standard terrain roughness.7 50. For super tall buildings. a new wind field model was developed by Vickery (2009) using typhoon profile data recorded by a series dropsonde tests.1 31. building orientation and the shrink ratio of building plan along the building height. adding spoilers and porosity or openings in the building elevation (Miyashita et al.0 Chinese code 31. The building model with twisting angle of 100. 110. tall buildings are susceptible to vortex induced vibration. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 2. Wind Figure 3 Vortex shedding of the typical section of the Shanghai tower The main features of the Shanghai tower building façade include the twisting angle. The consistence of the vortex shedding along the building height will be disturbed if the building shape changes. Table 1 lists the 100 year return period 10 minute mean gradient wind speed used in the Jinmao tower. 30 and 40 were investigated. such as Jinmao tower and the Shanghai world financial tower.

0% 1. 0 OA 4.15E+10 67% 120 TA.1762 X. 0 o OA 4. 2.4 0. the shape factor of Shanghai tower is about 0. To investigate the impact of high Reynolds effects on the building wind load.22E+10 100% 100o TA. say .8 W 0(KN/m2) b) Average wind pressure profile As shown in figure 4. roughnes 600 Average wind pressure profile (1200m upwind of the Shangha 800 RWDI 700 ESDU Chinese code.0% Chinese code 4.0%.18E+10 83% o o 110 TA.6 1.0% 2.0~2.2 1. Zhao et al. Three wind conditions were investigated.4 1.0% 4. TA: twisting angle. Shanghai tower 2.0% 1. the joint probability distribution of wind’s speed and direction was considered.18E+10 67% 180 o TA. The maximum test wind speed is about 50m/s. Wind Loading In the wind engineering research of Shanghai tower.92E+10 79% 4. 40 OA Note: 100 years return period. The damping ratio values applied in the Shanghai tower. OA: orientation angle 4.5% 2. According to the analysis results based on wind tunnel tests.8 1 1.5% 1.5%. Jinmao tower.6 0. the wind speed and wind pressure profile simulated in the wind tunnel tests are very close to those specified in the Chinese code below the height 200m.2 0.75E+10 76% 110 o TA. roughnes 600 500 500 Elevation(m) Elevation(m) Table 3: The damping ratio values for the structural design of super tall buildings Building Jinmao tower SWFC Strength design 5. damping ratio 2.48E+10 72% o o 4.95 and the Strouhal number for Shanghai tower is about 0.5% 2. 30 o OA 4. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 Table 2 Base reaction comparison of schemes with different twisting angle and orientation Building scheme Base overturning moment Percentage Rectangular section 6. a set of 1:85 scale wind tunnel tests were conducted in the 9mx9m aeronautic wind tunnel of the National Research Council of Canada. 0 o OA 120 o TA.0% Habitability design 1. The wind speed and wind pressure profiles of code become larger than those of wind tunnel tests. 0 o OA 5.5% and 3.5% Stiffness design 1. different damping ratios are employed in the structural design of the Shanghai tower. Shanghai world financial center and Chinese code are listed in table 3.0% 400 300 300 200 200 100 100 0 400 0 0 10 20 30 U(m/s) a) Average wind speed profile Figure 4 Comparison of 100 year wind profiles 40 50 0 0. Considering the uncertainty nature of the damping ratio.16.0% Average wind speed profile (1200m upwind of the Shanghai 800 RWDI 700 ESDU Chinese code.

The Reynolds number has little impact on the dynamic lift coefficients. The human comfort evaluation of the Jinmao tower based on the wind load of both 1 year return period and 10 years return period.7m/s. and the related damping ratio is 2%.5% damping ratio are considered. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 the smooth flow tests without surrounding buildings. about 48.6m/s. The corresponding gradient wind speed is about 46. the wind load of 100 return period was applied. the situations of both early Pudong area and developed Pudong area are considered. 2007). low turbulence level with partially simulated wind turbulence but without surrounding buildings and high turbulence level with major surrounding buildings. was applied for the strength design of Jinmao tower (Zhang and Shi.4m/s. The wind engineering study results was applied in the stiffness design and human comfort evaluation of Jinmao tower. For the stiffness design. for the curtain wall design negative wind pressure and wheel supporting structure of the upper third of the building. the 100 years return period wind load is applied for the strength design. Wind loadings obtained from aeroelastic model tests and high-frequency force-balance tests are compared and it was found that the wind-induced loads from the aeroelastic model study is lower than the responses predicted by the HFFB/HFPI study. 5.e. and the corresponding gradient wind speed is about 43. The corresponding wind speed is about 50. Aeroelastic model wind tunnel studies were conducted. and the wind-induced accelerations for the aeroelastic study were higher than the HFFB/HFPI studies (RWDI. 50 years return period with 2. Structural Design for Wind Loads The structural design of Jinmao tower is based on the past Chinese load code GBJ9-87.X.5% damping ratio and 100 years return period with 3. For the stiffness design. The wind load was further amplified by 1.1 1. i. The high Reynolds number tests reflected that. The damping ratio for the strength design is 2. which is related to the increase of wind speed by 1. The corresponding wind speed is 1763 . 50 years return period wind load is applied for the stiffness design. Wind load distribution 140 120 100 Floor 80 60 40 20 0 Along wind load Across wind load 0 500 1000 Floor wind load (kN) 1500 2000 Figure 5: The code-based along wind and across wind load of the Shanghai tower In the structural design of Shanghai tower project. the wind climate study predicted 200 years return period wind load was applied for the strength design. the exterior peak negative pressures around the building corners obtained from the 1:500 scale model tests could be increased by 10%. The damping ratio for the stiffness design is 2.049 times. The code GBJ9-87 defined 100 years return period wind load.0%.0m/s. 2000). which is related to the gradient wind speed of 57.5%.3m/s.1 times.5% damping ratio. The structural deformation results under the wind load of 30 years return period with 1. Zhao et al. In the structural design of the Shanghai world financial center tower (Wang et al. 2009).

partition walls and for realizing the design requirement that the main structure should remain elastic during wind load or frequent earthquake action. the damping ratio is set as 4%.0. the basic wind pressure is set as 0. .901 100% 18.255.04E+08 1. frequent earthquake (50 year return period) and moderate earthquake (475 year return period) are analyzed. the parameters used in the Shanghai tower project are as follows: the shape factor could be set as 1.03E+08 1. it can be predicted that the strength design of most main structural members are controlled by the earthquake included load combination. The Chinese code specified that the resultant of the along wind and across wind response should be checked. In the Chinese code GB50135-2006. It can be seen that the structural responses under wind load is larger than those under frequent earthquake.15.277 100% tunnel tests Frequent earthquake 88.22E+08 100% 100% 119% Overall overturning moment (N.789 50.630.277 100% tunnel tests Moderate earthquake 223.80E+10 3. Table 5 Base reaction comparison between wind load and frequent earthquake Base shear (KN) Wind load from wind 95. Zhao et al. but is smaller than those under moderate earthquake. not merely for satisfying the facade curtain wall requirements. The maximum story drift are show in figure 6.882 93.6KN/m2 and the terrain roughness is type D.5%. Table 4 lists the base reaction obtained from the wind tunnel tests. The wind load applied for the stiffness design is almost the same level as 20 years return period wind load with gradient wind speed of 43m/s and damping ratio of 1.901 100% 50.187 136% The story drift should be properly controlled for satisfying the deformation requirements induced by the facade curtain wall.85E+10 5.6% Overturning moment (KN. the base reactions of 100 year wind load.841.0m/s.255. storm passage method and Chinese code.02E+10 Percentage 100% 101% 132% To compare the influences of wind load and earthquake action on the structural member design.m) 3. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 about 47. Table 4 Base reactions for different methods Methods Overall base shear (N) Percentage Wind tunnel test Storm passage Chinese code 1. and the related damping ratio is 4%.973 235% Overturning moment (KN. The story drift limit under wind load is 1/500. It can be seen that the wind loads obtained from wind tunnel tests and storm passage method are very close to each other. The story drift of the Shanghai tower project is controlled by wind load. The code-based calculation of the along wind and across wind load of the Shanghai tower project are shown in Figure 5. Since the performance objectives of most of the main structural members are remaining elastic under moderate earthquake. The story drift angle limit is actually a global index. the Strouhal number is set as 0.m) 37. Table 5 and 6 list the calculation results.m) 37.3% Table 6 Base reaction comparison between wind load and moderate earthquake Base shear (KN) Wind load from wind 95.1764 X.

0 18. For the Chinese code based calculation. However. The peak acceleration with and without typhoon obtained from wind tunnel tests.2 10 8.0. . the damping ratio of 2% is applied. 10 years return period wind load is employed in Chinese code to assess the human comfort.1765 X. the along wind or across wind acceleration at the highest occupied level should below the limits specified in table 7. 1995).0 6. the acceleration can be halved by using about 2~3‰ of the building mass (Tamura et al.2 5. Table 7 Acceleration limits specified in Chinese code Occupancy Apartment Hotel. It is assumed that the typhoon effect is considered for the 10 years return period wind load in Chinese code and the structural damping ratio can be increased to 5% with the installation of TMD. a pendulum configuration like the Taipei 101 was proposed in this project. if the supplementary damping devices were used. office Acceleration limit (milli-g) 15 25 Considering the difference of human’s sensitivity under different vibration frequencies. Human Comfort According to the human comfort specifications in the Chinese code JGJ3-2002. and the calculated peak acceleration based on the Chinese codes are listed in table 8 Table 8: The wind induced acceleration responses of the Shanghai tower Return Peak acceleration from wind tunnel test Peak acceleration from wind tunnel Chinese code based period (without typhoon) (gal) test (with typhoon) (gal) acceleration prediction (gal) 1 4. A stacked double-hung pendulum method is applied to reduce the required space. The acceleration results with and without TMD system are listed in table 9. Due to the long structural period. Zhao et al. The wind-induced vibrations can be suppressed by changing structural parameters. To lower the maintenance cost. a long suspension length is required.4 Note: for the Chinese code based calculation of along wind and across wind acceleration. and the damping ratio is set as 2%.4 19. The building’s acceleration response can be halved by double the structural mass and stiffness. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 Story drift ratio distribution 140 120 100 Floor 80 60 40 20 0 0 1/2000 1/1000 story drift ratio 1/667 1/500 Figure 6: The story drift ratio curves of the Shanghai tower project 6. the shape factor is set as 1. architectural institute of Japan defines the performance evaluation curves for the building horizontal vibration under wind load (AIJES-V001-2004).

9 6. the building acceleration is 2.1 0. and 5. one can find the development of the engineering technology with the ongoing of the times.9gal with TMD system.3 According to the wind tunnel test results. Through aerodynamic optimization on the building shape.0 12.1766 X.1 0. . witho … 10 † 10 yrs. although the value of certain wind load parameter differs. the state-ofthe-art typhoon model can more accurately reflect the typhoon profile. The building shape modification methods commonly become the resource of the design inspiration of the architects. It was also revealed that. Jinmao tower and Shanghai world financial center. the wind loading can only be accurately obtained through thorough and detailed tests and analyses. such as the high-frequency force-balance method.1 1 Frequency(Hz) yrs. the wind load can be effectively reduced. Conclusions The wind climate study indicates that.0 19.2 10 years return period (with typhoon) 20. Using AIJES-V001-2004 curves.4gal without TMD system if 1 year return period wind load is applied for the vibration assessment. aeroelastic model test and high Reynolds number test were conducted in different design stage of the Shanghai tower project.0 12. By comparing the design wind loads of the Shanghai tower. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 Table 9 Structural control results of supplementary damping devices on the building habitability Wind tunnel Wind tunnel Chinese code (without TMD) (with TMD) (without TMD) 1 year return period (with typhoon) 5. the final overall wind loads for the three super tall building do not differ too much due to the impact of engineer judgment. The wind load results obtained from the wind tunnel study and those obtained by Chinese code based calculation are compared to obtain further understanding on the wind load. Due to the development of the field measurement technique in the past decades. with 0. For super tall buildings like the Shanghai tower project. The wind loading is the governing factor for the structural design of super tall buildings.4 2. the influence of typhoon should be considered in the typhoon prone area. Zhao et al. with 0.1 1 Frequency(Hz) a) Vibration evaluation under 1 year wind load b) Vibration evaluation under 10 year wind load Figure 7 Control effect of TMD system on the habitability of the Shanghai tower 7. typhoon inculuded. the habitability level is increased to H-10 (Figure 7). witho … 11 yr. With the TMD system. typhoon included. typhoon inculuded.4 Chinese (with TMD) 4. 10 H-90 H-70 H-50 H-30 H-10 … † 1 Performance evaluation curves for the building horizontal vibration under wind 100 Acceleration(cm/s 2) Acceleration(cm/s 2) Performance evaluation curves for the building horizontal vibration under wi 100 10 … † H-90 H-70 H-50 H-30 H-10 1 typhoon included. highfrequency pressure integration method. Different wind tunnel test methods. † yr. one can find that the habitability level of the Shanghai tower is H-30 without the TMD system.

. The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Kepert. K et al. Y. 1767 . Technical specification for concrete structures of tall building. DS. Zhang. 4. For the Shanghai tower project. Y. N. R. under 1 year return period wind load. Atomos. Structural design of the Shanghai world financial center. Damping Evaluation Using Full-Scale Data of Buildings in Japan. T. Design Windspeeds in Tropical Cyclone-Prone Regions. Sasaki. London. Ph. Building Structure. Masters. Efectiveness of tuned liquid dampers under wind excitation. Load code for the design of building structures. 58. Suda. 2006. Architectural Institute of Japan. Struct. Ohtsuki. K. the strength design results of critical structural members are mostly controlled by moderate earthquake due to the performance based seismic design requirements. Industrial standard of the People’s Republic of China. / Procedia Engineering 14 (2011) 1759–1767 For the Shanghai tower project. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics (50): 319-328. Decision-making. D. Wind Risk Study for Shanghai. Arakawa. Issues 7-8. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] RWDI. Code for design of high-rising structures. Design and Construction of the Jinmao tower. Powell. Wind induced response of high-rise buildings: effects of corner cuts or openings in square buildings. Fujii. MD and Wadhera. A and Tamura. 1993. although the stiffness design result is controlled by wind load. LW. 2003. 2004. China building industry press. 129. 2469-2484. Wakahara. and with the TMD system installed on the building top. Vickery. GL and Shi. Part I: linear theory. Zhou. Guidelines for the evaluation of habitability to building vibration. 17 (9): 609-621. The evaluation results for 1 year wind load and 10 year wind load are quite different. present. University of Western Ontario. China building industry press. Tamura. Sci. pages 392-405 ARA project report. AIJES-V001-2004. Acknowledgments This study is supported by the Key Technologies R & D Program of Shanghai. 1988. The most important factor for the evaluation of the wind-induced vibration is to choose appropriate wind load level. GBJ 9-87. J. Ontario. China Architecture & Building Press. 2006. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. T. Faculty of Engineering Science. PJ. National standard of the People’s Republic of China. Vol 97. Hurricane hazard modeling: The past. FJ. China Planning Press. 2008. National standard of the People’s Republic of China. Wind-induced Structural Response Studies on Shanghai Tower. 1995. Georgiou. Applied Research Associates. 2009. Kohsaka. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. Canada. T. 2009. 2002. Zhao et al. China (Grant No. and Motioneering. JGJ32002. 2000. 09dz1207704). Load code for the design of building structures (version 2006). 2007į Satake. Vol. Eng. No. XF. 1985. PN. Journal of Structural Engineering. GB50135-2006. Thesis. Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc.. GB50009-2001.D. JL and Yuan. National standard of the People’s Republic of China. and future. The authors acknowledge the supports of Jiming Xie. K. 2001.. Miyashita. China building industry press.X. Wang. J. the highest building habitability standard can be satisfied. The analysis and control of wind-induced vibration is one of the critical design topics for super tall buildings.