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Algebarski racionalni izrazi

Množenje
Množenje algebarskih razlomaka vrši se na isti način kao i množenje običnih razlomaka.
N.p.r.
2 5 10
4 12
3 2 1
6
⋅ =
3⋅ =
⋅ ⋅ =
3 7 21
5 5
7 5 11 385
Prilikom množenja razlomaka treba obratiti pažnju da li se može izvršiti skraćivanje
razlomaka:
4 15 1 3 3
2 7 1 7 7
5
5 10
⋅ = ⋅ =
⋅ = ⋅ =
8⋅ = 2⋅ =
25 16 5 4 20
3 4 3 2 6
12
3 3
ZADACI
2 x − 2 y a − b 2( x − y ) a − b 2
=

=

3a − 3b x − y 3(a − b ) x − y 3
2 x − 4 1 − 3a 2(x − 2 ) − (3a − 1) 2(x − 2 ) 3a − 1
=2=
2.

=

=

3a − 1 2 − x
3a − 1 − (x − 2 )
3a − 1 x − 2
5a a + 1
1
a +1
1
2a 2 (a − b )
2a 2
=
3. 2

=

=
=
a − 1 10a (a − 1)(a + 1) 2
a − 1 (a − b )(a + b ) a + b
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
a − ab a + b
a (a − b ) a + b 2 a
4. 3

=

=
a + a 2 b a 2 − b 2 b(a 2 + a 2 ) a 2 − b 2 b
1.

a + 6 a 2 − 6a + 9
a + 6 (a − 3)
a −3
⋅ 2
=
=

5.
2
a − 3 a + 12a + 36 a − 3 (a + 6 )
a+6
2

2a 2 + 4a + 2 a 3 − 1 2(a 2 + 2a + 1) (a − 1)(a 2 + a + 1) 2(a + 1)(a 2 + a + 1)
⋅ 2
=

=
(a − 1)(a + 1)
a 2 −1
a −a
a (a − 1)
a (a − 1)
2
2
6ab
b + a 6ab
6b
1 1
=

=
7.  +  ⋅ 2
2
2
ab (a + b )
a+b
 a b  a + 2ab + b

6.

2
2
2
2
 x − 1   x + 1 x  x − 1 + x + 2 2(x + 1) − x (2 x + 1) 2 x + 1 2 x + 2 − 2 x − x
− =
+ 1 ⋅ 

=

8. 
=
x+2
2(2 x + 1)
x+2
2(2 x + 1)
 x + 2   2x + 1 2 
2x + 1 2 − x
2−x

=
x + 2 2(2 x + 1) 2(x + 2 )

 x
x2
x2
x  x 2 − y 2  x (x + y ) − x 2 x 2 − x (x − y )  x 2 − y 2
+



=
+
=
9. 
⋅
2
2
2
x − y
xy
(x − y )2  xy
 (x + y )
 x + y (x − y ) (x + y )
 x 2 + xy − x 2 x 2 − x 2 + xy  x 2 − y 2  xy
xy  x 2 − y 2

=
+

=
+


2
2
(x − y )2  xy
(x − y )2  xy
 (x + y )
 (x + y )

[

]

=

xy(x + y ) + xy(x − y ) (x − y )(x + y ) xy (x + y ) + (x − y ) (x − y )(x + y )


=
xy
xy
(x − y )2 (x + y )2
(x − y )2 (x + y )2

=

(x + y ) + (x − y )
(x − y )(x + y)

2

2

2

2

=

2

2

x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 + x 2 − 2xy + y 2 2 x 2 + 2 y 2
=
=
x 2 − y2
x 2 − y2

2 5 2 7 14 4 5 15 3 3 1 3 : = ⋅ = 3: = 3⋅ = :5 = ⋅ = 3 7 3 5 15 5 4 4 7 7 5 35 Dakle iz primjera se vidi da je najjednostavniji put dijeljenje pretvoriti u množenje . 4 x − 4 y 12 x − 12 y 4(x − y ) 12(x − y ) 4(x − y ) (x − y )(x + y ) x − y : 2 : = = ⋅ = 2 3x + 3 y x − y 3(x + y ) (x − y )(x + y ) 3(x + y ) 12(x − y ) 9 (a − 1) : a (a − 1) = (a − 1) ⋅ (x − 2)(x + 2) = (a − 1)(x + 2) a 2 − 2a + 1 a 2 − a = : 2 2. N.a onda vršiti operaciju po pravilumnoženja racionalnih izraza ZADACI 1. a 2 − 4 = 2 a − a a − 4 a + 2 (a + 2 )(a − 2) a (a − 1) (a − 2 )(a − 1) a+2 . 2 = : ⋅ : = + 3 = 2 x − x + 1  x +1 x + 1 x − x +1 x3 +1 x 2 − x + 1 x 2 + 2x + 1 a (x + 1) (x + 1)(x 2 − x + 1) = 2 =a ⋅ x − x +1 (x + 1)2 x 2 − 2x − 8  x2 − x − 3  25x 2 − 110 + 121 x 2 − x − 3 − x (x − 4 ) + 2(x − 4 ) − x + 2 : = ⋅ 6.Algebarski racionalni izrazi Dijeljenje Dijeljenje algebarskih razlomaka vrši se na isti način kao dijeljenje običnih razlomaka. 2 x − 2x x − 4 x (x − 2) (x − 2)(x + 2) x (x − 2) a (a − 1) ax 2 2 2 2 2 3x 2   x   1 − x − 3x x + x + 1 1 − 4 x 2 x + 1 (1 − 2 x )(1 + 2 x ) x + 1 = : = 1 = : ⋅ : 3. 1 − = +    2 (1 − x )(1 + x ) 2 x + 1 1− x2 x +1 1− x2 x +1  1− x   x +1  1 − 2x 2x − 1 = = 1− x x −1 (2x + 1)2 − (2x − 1)2 ⋅ 3(2x + 1) = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 − (4x 2 − 4x + 1) ⋅ 3 =  2x + 1 2x − 1  4x 4.r.  = x 2 − 2x − 8 x−4 25x 2 − 110 + 121  x−4  x 2 − x − 3 − x 2 + 4x + 2 x − 8 x 2 − 4x + 2x − 8 5x − 11 x (x − 4 ) + 2(x − 4 ) = ⋅ = ⋅ x−4 x−4 (5x − 11)2 (5x − 11)2 5x − 11 (x − 4 )(x + 2 ) x+2 = ⋅ = 2 x−4 5x − 11 (5x − 11) 2 a +a 2 a2 + a a2 − a a (a + 1) a+2 a +1 = ⋅ : = 7.  : = −  (2x − 1)(2x + 1) 2x − 1 4x 4x  2x − 1 2x + 1  6x + 3 2 2 4 x + 4 x + 1 − 4x + 4x − 1 3 8x 3 6 ⋅ = ⋅ = 2x − 1 4x 2 x − 1 4x 2 x − 1 ax + a  1 3x  a (x + 1) x 2 − x + 1 + 3x a (x + 1) x3 +1 5.p.