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A. Ya.

Malkin

35

3
DEFORMATION
AND DEFORMATION RATE

3.1 DISPLACEMENTS AND DEFORMATIONS

Figure 3.1. Displacement of two points in a body and
appearance of deformation.

The result of action of outer
forces can be either movement of
a body in space or change of its
shape. Here, we are interested in
describing the changes occurring inside a body. The change of
a shape of a body is essentially
the change of distances between
different points on its surface.
Thus, change of shape can only
occur if there are changes of distances between different sites
inside a material, and this phenomenon is called deformation.
The change of distances between points inside a body is
transmitted to the neighborhood
of a point which can be moni-

36

Deformation and deformation rate

tored by following the change of very small (infinitesimally small) distances between two points.
Let the distance between two points A and B in a material be ds (Figure 3.1). As
a result of some outer action, they both move and their new positions become A′
and B′, and the distance between them now is ds′. The absolute value of (ds’ − ds)
is not important, because the initial length ds might be quite arbitrary, only relative change of the distance between two sites, determined as
ε=

ds′ − ds
ds

[3.1]

The definition 3.1 is not tied to any coordinate system, meaning that ε is a scalar. It can be expressed through components of tensor of deformation (or
strain), ε ij . The position of a site in a body is characterized by its radius-vector,
r, and, because we have two sites, it is necessary to introduce two vectors: r1 for
the point A and r2 for the point B. The quantitative determination of deformation can be accomplished by following the relative displacement of two vectors,
expressed as (dr1 - dr2)/dr1. If we assume that a body after deformation remains
intact (between sites A and B), the distance between points A’ and B’ is still infinitesimal.
The difference (dr1 - dr2) is a displacement, u. As a difference of two vectors, it is
also a vector which can be expressed by its three projections: u(u1, u2, u3). Relative displacement is characterized not only by its length but also by its orientation in space. Since two vectors, u and x(x1, x2, x3), describe relative
displacement, the latter is of tensorial nature. Indeed, deformation and relative
displacement are tensors and components of these tensors can be calculated as
derivatives du/dx. It is also pertinent that there are nine such values (three projections of vector u and three of vector x), as could be expected for a tensor. The
values of all derivatives are dimensionless and they are expressed in absolute
numbers or percents.
Accurate calculations of the components of the deformation tensor give the following expression:
ε ij =

1  ∂u i ∂u j
+
2  ∂x j ∂x i

 1  ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u 2 ∂u 2 ∂u3 ∂u3 
+ 

+
+
 2  ∂x ∂x


x
x
x
x



j
i
j
i
j
i


[3.2]

It is only true if deformations are small. Are both displacement and deformation identical in this case? In order to answer this question. by definition. derivatives in this formula are very small (<< 1) and their pair products. let us calculate the relative displacement which is.3] where the first line represents the projections of deformation along the x1-axis. Malkin 37 The complete expression for ε ij consists of linear (first parentheses) and quadratic (second parentheses) terms. This tensor. and so on. a gradient of u: g = grad u The result can be presented in the form of a matrix: . which enter into the second right-hand member in Eq 3. Ya.A. is as follows: ∂u1 ∂x1 ∂u 1  ∂u d ij =  2 + 1 2  ∂x 1 ∂x 2 1  ∂u3 ∂u1  + 2  ∂x1 ∂x3       1  ∂u1 ∂u 2  + 2  ∂x 2 ∂x1 ∂u 2 ∂x 2  1 ∂u3 ∂u1  + 2  ∂x1 ∂x3       1  ∂u1 ∂u3  + 2  ∂x3 ∂x1 1  ∂u 2 ∂u 3  + 2  ∂x3 ∂x 2 ∂u3 ∂x3       [3. Hence they can be omitted. and thus only the two first members (first parentheses) of the equation are essential. and that is why the tensor consisting only of first derivatives is called an infinitesimal deformation (or strain) tensor. In many cases. In this Section we shall discuss only small deformations.2. are negligibly smaller than derivatives. dij. Relative displacement is definitely the cause of deformations inside a body. The large deformations (if the first derivatives in Eq 3.2 are not small) will be considered in a separate Section below.

5] The first. may occur as shown in the central part of Figure 3.5 represents rotation. for the u3-component of the vector u. so-called symmetrical. Now. part of the tensor gij coincides with the deformation tensor dij. so-called antisymmetrical. It is evident that the summation of du2/dx1 and -du1/dx2 does not lead to deformation but to rotation of the body element.2 helps to explain the concept. having gradients du2 /dx1 and -du1 /dx2. we need to understand the physical meaning of this difference or the meaning of the second.6] . It can be written in the following form: gij = dij + θij [3. let us superimpose these two displacements. It is quite evident that the tensors dij and gij are not equivalent. as shown on the right diagram. Figure 3.38 Deformation and deformation rate ∂u1 ∂x 1 ∂u g ij = 2 ∂x1 ∂u   3 ∂x1 ∂u 1 ∂x 2 ∂u 2 ∂x 2 ∂u 3 ∂x 2 ∂u 1  ∂x 3  ∂u 2  ∂x 3  ∂u 3   ∂x 3  [3. Two displacements. the second line is the same for the u2-component. The difference between them becomes clear if we decompose components of the tensor gij into two parts in the following manner: g ij = ∂u i 1  ∂u i ∂u j = + ∂x j 2  ∂x j ∂x i  1  ∂u i ∂u j +  −  2  ∂x ∂x i j       [3. but gij ≠ dij Then. and the third. It means that the second term in Eq 3.2. Let us follow the deformation of a body element drawn as a rectangle.but not deformation.4] where the first line includes derivatives of the u1-component of displacement along three coordinate axis. part of the displacement tensor. u2 and -u1.

which means that two neighboring sites (the distance between them being infinitesimally small) move with different velocities.2. Thus displacement at any point of a body is a sum of deformation and rotation. it means that a body moves as a whole and no deformation takes place. Malkin 39 Figure 3. at any point of a body. is the same. The deformation appears only as a consequence of velocity gradient at “a point”.A. If velocity is v (a vector value). its gradient is calculated as . Superposition of two shear deformations leading to rotation.7] and describes the rotations (turns) of infinitesimal volumes inside a body.2 DEFORMATION RATE If velocity (as a vector). Ya. 3. where θij consists of differences of the structure θ ij = 1  ∂u i ∂u j − 2  ∂x j ∂x i     [3.

e. The velocity. Differentiation in respect to scalar . . r. at a point located at the distance.adds nothing new to the result. Thus aij is a tensor determined by two vectors (v and r). Let us analyze the rotation of a solid (non-deformable) body around some axes. It means that in rotation of a solid body the gradient of velocity does exist but there is no deformation (because the body was assumed to be non-deformable). v. Thus v = ωr. and the gradient of velocity.8] where space coordinates are described by radius-vector..10] where Dij is the rate of deformation tensor. and wij is the so-called vorticity tensor. v = du/dt. . The same is true for the deformation rate.time.9. the rate of deformation tensor characterizes local changes of shape. grad v = dv/dr. i. As in the previous case. it was established that the whole gradient of displacement is not controlling deformation. d/dt. The difference between tensors aij and Dij (similar to gij and dij) can be easily illustrated by a simple example.40 Deformation and deformation rate aij = dv/dr [3. where ωis the constant angular velocity. The relationship between gradient of velocity and gradient of displacement can be found from the equation: a ij = dv d  du  d 2 u d  du  dg ij = =  =  = dr dr  dt  drdt dt  dr  dt In the previous section. The deformation is related to the first term in Eq 3. r. is evidently equal to ω. a ij = 1  ∂v i ∂v j + 2  ∂x j ∂x i  1  ∂v i ∂v j +  −  2  ∂x   j ∂x i     [3. The velocity is the rate of displacement. while the vorticity tensor describes the rate of rotation of local elements of a body without their deformation. only its symmetric part. from the axes is equal to ωr.9] one obtains aij = Dij + wij [3. The reasoning is the same as above. By decomposing tensor aij into symmetrical and antisymmetrical components.

it is very easy to illustrate the essential difference between small and large deformations. In this sense. But this approach to the definition of deformation contains an inherent contradiction.3. and it is axial extension. In the discussion of a concept of large deformations. using the model from Figure 3. Having such an approach. for example. The simple question is: what is the deformation in this case? In the first case. and the tensor dij is used instead of ε ij. drawn in Figure 3.3 LARGE DEFORMATIONS The difference between small and large deformations depends on the value of derivatives in Eq 3.3.A. Then the deformation in the first step is ε 1 * = ∆l1 l o and ε 2 * = ∆l 2 l1 in the .e. Ya. if ∆l = 1. i. and it is expressed as ε 11 = du1 dx 1 .1. That is why only materials having memory of their initial state are important here. the increase in the length occurs in two steps: initially by ∆l1 and then ∆l2. Let us compare two situations.3: In the first case (case I). Two ways of realization large deformation of unispecimen length. the quadratic terms can be neglected. Let a bar of the length lo be stretched by ∆l. The so-called engineering measure of de fo rm a t i o n equals ε * = ∆l l = 0.1 (or 10%). products of derivatives (in parentheses). Certainly in this case we also can use an engineering measure of deformation as a characteristic of change of Figure 3. let lo = 1 and ∆l = 0. Malkin 41 3. If all derivatives are much smaller than 1. The reasoning becomes much more complicated if ∆l is comparable with l. flow of a liquid may not be considered as deformation because all states are equivalent. it is always assumed that a reference state for deformation can be established. Liquid does not have initial (or reference) state.2.. equal to 1 (or 100%).

the quadratic terms in formulas for ε I * and ε II * are negligible in comparison to the linear terms.. In fact. This appears only as a result of large deformations. it becomes apparent that there is a need to introduce such measure of deformation which does not depend on the order of operations. the sample does not “know” which way it was brought to the final state. From the above.Green tensor of deformation. One of the most widely used is the so-called Cauchy .1 ε H .11] Large deformations analyzed by this measure obey the law of additivity. any function of deformation can be treated as a measure of deformation. and in this approximation (which is quite reasonable if ∆l1 and ∆l2 << lo) both measures of deformation become identical. In rheological literature. This increase is equal to (l1 + l2) and the deformation ε II* is calculated as ε II * = ∆l1 + ∆l 2 l o ( ∆l1 + ∆l 2 ) + ∆l12 + ∆l1 ∆l 2 = l o l1 lo The ε I * ≠ ε II * contradicts the physical meaning of the experiment’s interpretation because the final result is not the same in both cases. defined by: ε H = ln( ∆l l) [3. whereas calculations show a difference. because if deformations are small. It is directly related to the concept of large deformations ex- . Then the complete deformation is the sum of both ε I *= ε1 *+ ε 2 *= ∆l1 ∆l 2 l o ( ∆l1 + ∆l 2 ) + ∆l12 = + l o l1 l1 lo In the second case (case II).e. the increase of the length is achieved in one step. because initial length of a sample in the second step is l1. as required. It is easy to note that in the example discussed above ε HI = ε HII i. Cij.42 Deformation and deformation rate second step. the result does not depend on the history of deformation. Such measure is called a Hencky measure. some other values are used as a measure of deformations.

Y. The Cauchy .A.13] The main new approach which appears in the theory of large deformations concerns the importance of knowing the rate of deformation not only in a fixed coordinate system but in moving one. The value of this question has been already demonstrated by the example of large deformations in uniaxial extensions.12] where δ ij is the unit tensor (or Kronecker delta). It means that the behavior of a material in moving sites must be described because changes occur not at a point of a space but in a traveling element of a material which deforms along its re- . According to the definition. as well. Another tensor of large deformations is frequently used. the relationship between both is C ij C-1ij = δ ij Introducing different measures of deformations does not exclude the main question regarding the initial state . as DY ∂Y = + Dt ∂t ∑ v k ∂Y ∂x k [3. Ya. and the Cauchy-Green tensor is determined as: C ij = δ ij + 2ε ij [3. In such a case.2.point of reference of the deformed state. Malkin 43 pressed by Eq 3. C-1ij . This is the tensor inverse (or reciprocal) to the Cauchy .Green tensor characterizes change of the distance between two arbitrary “particles” in a “point”: here again we speak about a point.Green tensor. which can be written for any arbitrary variable. Cij. D/Dt. the problem is solved by using a so-called material or substantial derivative. For static states this problem can be solved by introducing the Hencky measure of deformations. not as a mathematical idea. temperature effect or chemical reaction) in moving media. named the Finger tensor. but as a physical object which contains many “particles”. But the same problem appears and becomes more pertinent for a continuously moving medium where the position of deformed elements of a body is changing in time and we want to describe the process or the rate of deformation. A similar situation has importance in classical hydrodynamics where transformation is followed (for example.

but on higher derivatives of deformation. There are different mathematical ways to realize the idea of transformation of the rate of deformation tensor into a fixed coordinate system and. one needs to use measures of large deformations and calculate their time derivatives. their behavior is modeled by equations containing a sum of n-th order time derivatives of deformation (so-called rheological equations of a differential type). devoted to properties of viscoelastic materials.13. In the case of the substantial time derivative. not on the rate of deformation only. An observer who measures properties of a material is always positioned in fixed (unmovable) coordinate system. and that is why it is important to apply proper rules of transition from the reference state.Eriksen.44 Deformation and deformation rate placement. In Chapter 7. This concept is called the principle of material objectivity and it states that all physical phenomena. An(t). As a result of large deformations. as well. Moreover. in some theoretical studies. and White Metzner. it is also important here that the choice of different reference states must not lead to an ambiguous estimation of deformation. D/Dt. recalculating them into a fixed coordinate system. Bn(t). must not depend on a coordinate system used for their mathematical formulation. there is a necessity to introduce kinematic tensors of a higher order hich are determined as time derivatives of the Cauchy-Green or Finger ten sors. and then comparing the results with an experiment. material elements can travel far away from their initial position. various special forms of time derivatives. generalized by Eq 3. certainly including laws of deformation. tensors of the n-th order. The most popular are the Rivlin . the physical meaning of this operation requires us to calculate derivatives for a moving medium which follow time changes in a material point changing its initial position. They are used if it is assumed that rheological behavior of a material depends. If deformation is large. This problem in the theory of large deformations is solved by introducing time derivatives of a different type. Similar to our discussion of large uniaxial extension. depending on the choice.2 They are determined as . Hence the general approach consists of formulating ideas concerning possible rheological behavior of a material for a moving (and deforming) element of a medium. This is completely true for the rate of deformation.

11 The use of various measures of large deformations and different types of their time derivatives allows one to arrive at qualitative predictions concerning possible effects in rheological behavior of a material. are extensions along three orthogonal directions. and d3.5 Cosserat. A complete treatise on modern theories of large deformations of solids is included in book by Green and Adkins. let us represent an infinitely small volume in a body as a sphere (Figure 3. d2. the directions of the radii AB. And the sphere itself has transformed into an ellipsoid with semi-axes of lengths (1 + d1)dr.4) with a center positioned at a point A and radius of the sphere dr (infinitesimal small length). For the infinitesimal deformation tensor. and x3. A*C*. respectively.10 and for liquids. d1. As a result of movements and displacements. the following changes have taken place in a body: the point A has moved to a new position A*.7 Fundamental works were also contributed by Biot. . and AD have changed to the directions A*B*. respectively. and (1 + d3)dr. (1 + d2)dr. and A*D*. by Lodge. 3. the principal deformations. AC. For this aim.4 PRINCIPAL VALUES AND INVARIANTS OF THE DEFORMATION TENSORS The principal deformations (strains) are calculated in the same way as principal stress. 6 and Jaumann.8 More recently.A. x2. The coordinates of the central point A are x1. Later ideas of the theory of large deformations were discussed and developed by Finger. Saint-Venant3 was the first who realized the necessity to consider the concept of large (finite) deformations. It can be illustrated by a very spectacular picture of deformations in the vicinity of some point. Rivlin9 discussed studies on large deformations in numerous publications.4 Zaremba. Malkin A n (t) = 45 D n C ij (t) Dt n and Bn (t) = − D n C-1ij (t) Dt n where Cij and C-1ij are the Cauchy-Green and Finger tensors. respectively. but it is the task of an experiment to find a model which can adequately describe physical phenomena observed for different real materials. Ya.

15 gives a particularly evident result: ε v = d1 + d2 + d3 [3. which can be written as follows: εv = V ell − Vsph Vsph [3. . If deformations are small and it is possible to neglect quadratic terms in comparison with linear terms.14] Simple calculation shows that ε v = (1 + d1)(1 + d2)(1 + d3) .1 [3. volumetric changes are equal to the first (linear) invariant of the tensor of infinitesimal deformations and that is the physical meaning of the latter. ε v .4.15] It is very easy to show that ε v is expressed through invariants of the deformation tensor because change of volume must not be associated with the choice of the coordinate system.. The deformations characterize the change of the shape of a volume element of a body — transition from a sphere to an ellipsoid.16] i.e. and the invariants do not depend on the coordinate axes. Transformation of a sphere into an ellipsoid as a consequence of three principal deformations along their axes. Besides they determine the relative change of the volume.46 Deformation and deformation rate Figure 3. the Eq 3.

dij. we can write: d ij = εv δ ij + d (dev) ij 3 where the second member in the right-hand part of the equation is a deviatoric part. Considering that the first invariant is the volume change. be (∆l + l0) /l0. λ. can be decomposed into spherical and deviatoric parts. the deformation tensor. Malkin 47 The volumetric changes in deformation can also be represented through extension ratios. 3. and become a*. and c* as a result of deformation.A. let us (conditionally) cut out a small rectangular parallel pipe. λ 3 = c * c and the volume change is calculated as ∆V + V a * b * c * = = λ 1λ 2λ 3 V abc The last formula allows one to state a very simple rule of constancy of volume in deformations of any type: λ 1λ 2λ 3 = 1 [3. Ya. Then the extension ratios are: λ1 = a * a.1.17] Like any other tensor. For this purpose. one can write du 1  du ε 11 = 1 +  1 dx1 2  dx1 2  1 1  = (λ − 1) + (λ − 1) 2 = (λ2 − 1) 2 2  [3.5 UNIAXIAL ELONGATION.18] . d (dev) . oriented along the principal axes. Let the length of its edges be a. b*. of the dij-tensor which describes shape transformation occurring ij without changes in volume. b and c before deformation. If (du1/dx1) = λ . λ 2 = b * b. POISSON RATIO Let a bar of sufficient length to be stretched and increase its length by ∆l/l0 or the extension ratio. at a some site in a body.

20] If ∆l << lo and consequently ∆r << ro (small deformations). If its elongation is ∆l. µ < 0. For simplicity. dij. µ.5.5. and. then. the last formula gives ∆V V = (1 − 2µ ) [3. If λ << 1. the bar undergoes changes in the lateral direction. Only for some rubbers µ = 0. and the length. into spherical and deviatoric terms for uniaxial extension. For real solid materials. It is interesting to use the general method of decomposing the deformation tensor. the Poisson ratio.19] It is now easy to calculate the volume change. The quantitative characteristics of this property is the ratio of relative lateral contraction to the relative longitudinal extension and this special property of a material is called the Poisson ratio. radius is decreased by ∆r. The relative change of volume ∆V/V is ∆V V= (ro + ∆r) 2 (l o + ∆l) − ro2l o ro2l o [3. as a result of stretching. by definition. lo. ro. resulting from uniaxial stretching. meaning that their elongation is accompanied by increase in volume. the deformation tensor for such case can be written as: . let the bar have a round cross-section with the radius. one can see that deformations occur without volume changes when and if µ = 0. and deformation is equal toε. independent property of a material.48 Deformation and deformation rate Additional to being stretched in the axial direction. is: µ= ∆r ro ∆l lo [3.21] Poisson ratio is a measure of volume changes during small deformations. The relation between relative changes of dimensions in the lateral and axial directions cannot be established on the basis of a purely geometrical picture of deformations because this relation is an inherent.21. From Eq 3.5.

is determined by the slope which will be denoted as γ: . according to Eq 3. u1.22] If ε << 1. Then ∆r / ro = 2 3. respectively. are shown in Figure 3.20.5 as the condition for maintaining the constant volume at stretching has no general meaning.6 SIMPLE SHEAR AND PURE SHEAR Simple shear is a very important type of deformation because movement of all fluids and liquid-like materials is based on the principle of sliding of neighboring layers relative to each other. du1 dx2.5 a and b.20 shows. and formal definition 3.22 is converted to an ordinary condition such that µ = 0. takes place. and the rule of µ = 0. Eq 3. µ = 1 12. The schemes of simple shear for an element of a body in the case of small deformations. Its gradient. we have for ∆V/V=0: 1 − 2µ(1+ ε ) + µ 2ε (1+ ε ) = 0 [3. This example shows that adaptation of infinitesimal deformation mechanics (µ = 0. but in the more general case it is not true. Indeed. 3. however. In this case according to Eq 3.19. a displacement. A similar approach will also be taken in the next Chapter for the discussion of elasticity theory. and in the general case of arbitrary deformation.2 is not valid. Malkin 49 0 2 0 0 ε 0 − 1 2 µ 1+ µ d ij =0 -µε 0 = εδ ij + ε 0 -1 0    3 3  0 0 -1 0 0 -µε The structure of this sum is very similar to the structure of the stress tensor decomposition into two parts (compare with the analogous procedure in Chapter 2). that for large deformations Eq 3. let the bar be stretched by 9 times (it is quite possible for rubber ribbons or melted fibers). Ya. More precise analysis of Eq 3.22. It means that ∆l lo = 8 and the volume can remain unchanged if the final radius becomes equal to 1/3 of its initial value.5 as a necessary condition for constant volume at extension) to the range of large deformations must not be done in a straightforward manner.19 for the Poisson ratio. preserving the formal definition 3.A.5. For example. Along the direction of shear marked by an arrow.

u2 . ε ij . are marked by arrows (factor 1/2 is omitted in drawing this Figure).50 Deformation and deformation rate γ = tanα = du1 dx2 Since the length of linear elements. 1 2 γ 2 This tensor is graphically illustrated in Figure 3. appears.5. which were oriented before deformation in the x2-direction. one more displacement component. According to the deformation of the ε ij tensor. This phenomenon is known as the Poynting effect. its components are: 1 ε 12 = ε 21 = γ 2 ε 22 = Figure 3.23] The value of γ = du1/dx2 for simple shear determines all components of the tensor at large deformations. It is related to the change in the length of the segment OA. which after displacement now becomes OA*: OA * − OA = 1+ γ 2 OA ( ) 1 2 −1 [3.5 b in which the components of the tensor. observed in twisting of wires: their length slightly changes in this case. Twisting is an example of shear deformation. and the observed change of the length in the axis direction is . The appearance of a diagonal component in the deformation tensor in a simple shear is a direct consequence of large deformations because ε 22 is proportional to γ 2 and its value becomes negligible if γ << 1. Small (a) and large (b) deformations in simple shear. is changed in shear.

A.g. γ 2 = tanβ.25] where λ 1 .24] 2) The main components of the deformation tensor may be written as follows: 1 1 1 γ 1 = (λ11 − 1).Green tensor in shear are important for theoretical discussion concerning rheological models of elastic liquids. θ. not only the lengths of linear elements change (e. β. γ 3 = (λ23 − 1) 2 2 2 [3. between the direction of shear.5). These values are related to the angle β in Eq 3. and to the plane deformation state (as in Figure 3. but rotation of the elements of a body also takes place. Calculations give the following expression for Cij: γ 1  C ij = γ 1+ γ 2  0 0 0 0  1 In a simple shear. along the principal directions). they are as follows: γ 1 = cotβ. . Ya. Let us now discuss some models of simple shear which are often used in rheological literature and are illustrative for the tensorial nature of the deformation tensor. This effect is illustrated in Figure 3. λ 2 . of the diagonal from OC to OC* position. γ 2 = (λ22 − 1). Components of the Cauchy .and λ 3 are principal elongations (or extension ratios in the directions of principal axes)..17.5.24. and the orientation of the principal axis is calculated as 1 β = atan( γ 2 [3. The angle. Malkin 51 restricted to ε 22 -component of the deformation tensor. x1. and γ 3 = 1 A result obtained from the last set of formulas for λ i indicates that in simple shear no volume change occurs because γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 = 1 in accordance with Eq 3. is shown. where the angle of turn (rotation).

It is seen that ωij = 0 if all differences of the displacement gradient equal zero. is due to displacement.6.5. this condition has following form: du1/dx2 = du2/dx1. infinitely small volumes “at a point” and the rotation of infinitesimal elements of a body as a whole has no effect on its deformation. This case. therefore. with simultaneous stretching along the direction OM. due to deformation. no element of the body undergoes rotation. called pure shear. It means that pure shear can be considered (and can be realized) through the superposition of two uniaxial extension deformations (with different signs).52 Deformation and deformation rate Shear deformation. and α is its gradient.6 can be obtained in a different way. But in real materials this difference can appear to be essential. For small displacement. Geometrical image of a pure shear is drawn in Figure 3. because an act of deformation involves certain volumes which may include a large number of molecules or their constituent parts. unlike for large deformations. It is possible to find such shear conditions where no rotation occurs. which in general form is expressed by Eq 3.θ = α 2.6. For the simple shear. It is quite evident that the transition from the square OAMB to the rhomb OA*M*B* can be achieved by pressing the square along the direction AB. since deformations occur in the Figure 3. parallel to its initial position. Scheme of pure shear. AA*. In pure shear the diagonal AB of the small square (at some point) moves. That is why rotation in simple . in this Figure. into new position A*B*. the angle of rotation. the difference between simple and pure shear is not significant. must be used. Figure 3. Any gradient of displacement consists of deformation and rotation. and the diagonal OM does not change its position at all.7. where the general Eq 3. being only extended to OM*.5 is applicable. From the point of view of continuum mechanics. is based on definition of the ωij from Eq 3.

as mentioned above. for example. the length after deformation l.1). Let the extension ratio of a uniform bar loaded along its axis be equal to λ (initial length lo. and its value is determined by the Poisson ratio ε 22 = ε 33 = − µε 11 = − µε * In some cases. orientational extension of fibers) and everyday life. ε *. The same force creates unlimited deformation in a liquid and only small deformation in a steel object.1 UNIAXIAL EXTENSION OF A BAR (BEAM. we shall summarize the main relationships describing deformation.7. Some principle examples have been already discussed in the preceding Sections of this Chapter. lateral contraction takes place. That is why calculation of deformation is possible only for materials having established properties. 3. If ε * << 1 then ε 11 = ε * In uniaxial extension. regardless of rheological properties of a material. if we wish to divide the full deformation into plastic and elastic parts (such problem is pertinent to fiber spinning technology where . Ya. it is especially important to know the components of complete deformation.. the calculation of deformation fields cannot be carried out for an arbitrary scheme of loading because reaction of a material to an external force depends on inherent properties of a medium and its geometrical size and shape.A. The deformation can be found. Malkin 53 shear does influence the rheological behavior of deformable (in particular flowing) materials and is taken into consideration in formulating laws of deformations in the form of time derivatives used to calculate the rate of deformation. FIBER) It is one of the most frequently met cases in technology (e. and here we shall summarize the main results. Now. Stress analysis of uniaxial extension was discussed in Chapter 2. the extension ratio λ = l/lo). only for homogeneous deformation fields.g.7 EXAMPLES Unlike stress analysis. 3. is (λ . The engineering measure of deformation.

oil. sealants. only for homogeneous flow can the shear rate be estimated beforehand. 3. Their values in our case are as follows: -2 C11 = λ2 . Hence. Besides. determining peculiarities of flow.2 SHEAR Shear deformations are very typical for all hydrodynamic problems. . It is necessary to use the measure of deformation which is additive to the prehistory of loading and the Hencky measure of deformations. ε H . depending on rheological properties of a medium. and many others. may have variable impact even under the same geometrical conditions and stress. cutting and threading are operations in which shear plays a dominant role. Such flow occurs in a very thin gap between two parallel surfaces. to satisfy the requirement. with one of them fixed and the other moving with constant velocity. polymer solutions and melts. ε 22 and ε 33 . depending on the Poisson ratio. the Cauchy . clay. v. such as paints.7.54 Deformation and deformation rate the main goal is to produce highly oriented fibers). ε 11 -component of the deformation tensor has the following structure: ε 11 = ε * + 1 2 1 1 ε * = (λ − 1) + (λ − 1) 2 = (λ2 − 1) 2 2 2 In applications of the theory of large deformations to rubbers and rubbery polymeric solutions. For uniaxial extension ε H = ln(1+ ε *) = lnλ In the case of large deformations. as already discussed. colloids. C-1 11 = λ Other components of Cij and C-1ij -tensors are expressed through deformations. liquid-like and plastic materials. many engineering applications rely on shear: twisting of bars and tubes. including the flow of low viscosity liquids (water. gasoline). Shear rate.Green and Finger methods of large deformation calculations are widely used. Main theoretical results concerning large deformations in shear were discussed in detail in the last section of this Chapter and need not be repeated.

it is widely used for measurement of rheological properties of various liquids in so-called rotational viscometers. (the direction 1 is along the radius) can be calculated using Eq 3. stretching films. one of which is rotating with constant velocity. The surface of the cover increases as a result of deformations. The calculation of the deformation field. can be performed for homogeneous static (equilibrium) state (e. The third principal deformation. considering volumes of a material before and after deformation. ε 1 . Ya. h.A. between surfaces moving in parallel to each other is small. The initial width of a cover is δ o and δ o << Ro.3 PLANE DEFORMATION (STRAIN) STATE Plane (two-dimensional) stress and deformation (strain) state appears in thin items. as discussed in Chapter 2. γ&.21. If the width of a gap. and so on.7. up to the certain size). membranes.. and after increase of inner pressure the radius becomes R. Let the initial radius of a balloon be Ro. in a flowing liquid is calculated as γ& = v/h This formula also applies when both surfaces are curved but the size of the gap is much smaller than the radius of curvature. the shear rate. The extension ratio equals λ = R/Ro. It is easily seen that in the case under discussion . for example. and more important. Malkin 55 This condition is typical for flow in narrow gaps of bearings. if flow occurs in a very narrow gap between two coaxial cylinders. The directions along the radius of a sphere and tangential to its surface are principal directions because shear stresses and deformations are absent in thin shells. a sphere (balloon) filled with gas. 3. regardless of rheological properties of matter.g. having known pressure. shells. and for (R − Ro)/Ro<<1 we have: ε 2 = ε3 = r − Ro = λ −1 Ro where the directions 2 and 3 are tangential to the surface of the cover. The stress fields for some typical situations have been analyzed in Chapter 2.

If the values of principal extension ratios are λ 1 . if the cover is made out of rubber). Some general principles are worth citing because they apply to analysis of large deformations of rubbers.5 and we have ε1 = 1 −1 λ2 3.7. µ = 0. λ 2 . or the engineering deformations along principal axes are ε i *= λi −1 then the values of the Cauchy-Green and Finger tensors are: .and λ 3 .56 Deformation and deformation rate ∆V/V = 1 . Important to note is that consideration must be given to the real rheological properties of the material in question.(R2δ/R 2o δo) It means that R 2δ R 2o δ o = 2µ and δ δ o = 2µ(R o R) 2 = 2µ λ2 Then ε 1 = (δ − δ o ) δo = 2µ −1 λ2 If volume of a material under deformations is constant (for example.4 THREE-DIMENSIONAL DEFORMED STATE Many engineering applications can benefit from analysis of these relationships.

follows its behavior and treats the results of measurements in a fixed coordinate system. Description of all occurrences (including deformation itself) must be done in relation to a moving point. The boundary is determined by the value of relative displacement (or gradient of displacement). the equality λ 1λ 2λ 3 = 1 means that deformation proceeds without changes of volume. C3 = λ23 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 C-1 1 = λ 1 . If displacements are inhomogeneous throughout a body. C 2 = λ22 . Hence it is necessary to know the rules . some new effects appear.17). Ya. C3 = λ 3 The first invariants of C and C-1 tensors are C I = (λ 1λ 2λ 3 ) 2 and C-1II = (λ 1λ 2λ 3 )-2 As discussed above (see Eq 3. physical phenomena occur at a site which moves and during deformation vacates its initial position. Hence the condition of constant volume in three-dimensional deformations of arbitrary type is: CI = C-1II = 1. it is reasonable to neglect the square of this value in comparison with the value itself. deformations can be treated as infinitesimally small. and the deformation by a vector of displacement and a radius-vector of a point. First of all.A. The relative displacement is described by a radius-vector of two points for which displacement is considered. carrying out experiments with a material. In this case. One can thus neglect all quadratic terms included in the relationship. If this value is small (<< 1). An observer. which is a dimensionless value. If large deformations are considered. Displacement is a vector.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS Action of outer forces results in displacement of the points of continuum. which also includes rotation of elements of a body as a whole. 3. which are the consequence of changes of infinitesimal distances between different points inside a body. Deformations can be small (or infinitesimally small) or large. and relative displacements appear. where the displacement occurs. Deformation is only a part of relative displacement. C 2 = λ 2 . but relative displacement and deformation are objects of tensorial nature. they lead to deformations. because to describe them both it is necessary to operate with two vectors. Malkin 57 C1 = λ21 .

Z. Math. 2339 (1964). Time derivative of displacement of a point is its velocity. time derivative of relative displacement is a gradient of velocity. et sur les conditions de lèur resistance quond es désplacements êpouvés par leurs points ne sont par trés petit. J. 42. Gradient of velocity is a sum of rate of deformation and vorticity tensor as elements of a body which can not only deform but simultaneously rotate it. 1847. Appl. B. The ratio of relative changes of lateral and longitudinal sizes is called the Poisson ratio. White and A. 594. 3. Wien Sitzungsberichte. 257 (1969).. such as elongation of long items at their twisting (Poynting effect). Finger. Techn. 7. 6. de St. R. Paris. and they lead to some effects of a second order. Sci. dous les limits de leur élasticité. Metzner. J. Sci.9 REFERENCES 1. L. B. Acad.. 4. Large deformations are characterized by special measures of deformation. Thèorie des corps deformable. This type of deformation is equivalent to a two-dimensional situation of superposition of extension and compression in mutually perpendicular directions. Time derivatives of tensors are also tensors. J. Wiss. 5. 103 (1894). J. Int. such as the Hencky measure (a logarithmic measure subjective to additivity rule). Concept introduced by G. 103 (1884). C. At large shear deformations. L. (IIa).. which is an inherent property of a material. 24. In the process of uniaxial longitudinal extension. J. Acad. 5. For the range of small deformations the volume of a body remains unchanged if the Poisson ratio equals 0. Bull. Simple shear is accompanied by rotation of elementary volumes in space. 3.Green.5. Hencky. H. Rubber Chem. Sci. 2. S. 614 (1903). which is a simple shear. special rules exist which take into consideration large deformations and movement of a deforming site in space. F. but in large deformations this simple rule is not obeyed... diagonal components of the deformation tensor appear. 8. Wiss. Polym. Cauchy . Paris. it is necessary to apply pure shear in which rotation does not exist. Sci. There is a special interesting case of deformation when volume changes are not taking place. Acad. (IIa). Polym. Wien Sitzungsberichte. Cosserat. 1867 (1963). . Zaremba. Venant.58 Deformation and deformation rate of transformations and the tensor values used for projecting deformations from a moving to a fixed coordinate system. a body undergoes lateral compression. White. Mémoire sur équilibre des corps solides. Acad. Mech. A. Kirchhoff. In order to exclude rotation. and Finger tensors of large deformations. J. 144 (1925). 1909. It may reflect behavior of a material.. and for calculation of the rate of deformation. Cracovie. Appl. and time derivative of deformation is rate of deformation. Angew.

173 (1950). Mech.. M. Phyl. Roy. London. Rivlin. London. 379 (1949). 5-th Int. 243. Oxford University Press. A. Large Elastic Deformations. Appl. Malkin 7. 385 (1911). S. Proc. Biot. 8. A195.A. 1960. Wien Sitzungsberichte. 1939. Soc. A. Wiss. Jaumann. 459. 120. Theory of elasticity with large displacements and rotations. 9. Congr. 463 (1949). .. 10. 240.. Elastic Liquids. Roy. 241. Lnd. 491. Acad. Soc. 1964. Adkins. E. 251 (1951). A. Lodge. 11. 242. Ser. 59 G. Trans. S. Green and J. Proc. Ya. E. 509 (1948). Academic Press. R.