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1. Design Philosophy - PREAMBLE
The purpose of this calculation is to verify the thickness of tube and
its supporting structure for its integrity, strength and stability
verification. The result of this conclusion is that the structure
considered adequate in meeting the required of design criteria.
2. Unit of Measurement
Unit of measurement in design shall be in Metric system.


Design Calculations
1. Design Code and reference:
BS 5950: Steel Structural use of steel work in building
2. Materials
Bracket Connection
The modulus of elasticity of Steel E = 210000 MPa
Ultimate Bending stress Po - = 275 MPa = 275 N/mm2
Ultimate Shear Stress Pv = 0.4X Po = 0.4X275 = 110 MPa = 110
All bolts used shall be of high yield.
3. Loading
Dead Load Self weight is considered
The Forces acting on the Handrails apart from self weight
are as follows which is complying with the Structural
Performance of Handrails and Railings ASTM E 985:

Handrail shall be designed to resist a load of 50 plf (0.73 kN/m)

applied in any direction at the top and to transfer this load through
the supports to the structure.
Handrail shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200
pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at any point along the
top, and have attachment devices and supporting structure to
transfer this loading to appropriate structural elements of the

Horizontal Load is considered as 89 Kgs.

Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom
surface i.e. at an average distance of 0.10m.
Mx1 = (89) X 0.10
Mx1 = 8.90 kgm
Mx1 = 89 Nm = 0.089KNm

Maximum Moment developed due to horizontal concentrated load is

0.089KNm, this moment has to be resisted by the 16mm SS Rod.

Bottom Connection details:

The SS Rod is connected with the steel base plate that is anchored with
bolts embedded into the concrete 120mm deep to resist shear force or
reaction and moments from the above forces.
The maximum reaction is equal to 0.89 KN that has to be resisted by
the connection.
Check for Shear:
Shear Stress = Shear Force / Cross-sectional area


A = 804 mm2
Shear Stress = 890 / 804
Shear Stress = 1.10 N/mm2 which is less than the allowable Shear
Allowable Shear Stress = 110 N/mm2
Hence, the above section is safe against Shear.
Moment Developed by Tube Section:
The area in contact with the concrete surface shall develop moment
that will resist the moment from the above calculations.
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx =

(D)3 /32

Zxx =

(16)3 / 32 = 402.12 mm3

Sectional Modulus = 402.12 mm3

MR = Zxx X Fy
MR = 402.12 X 275
MR = 0.1106KNm

Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.

Design of Bolt M8 X 100mm:
The shear resistance of screws should resist the maximum shear force
acting on the window profile.
Maximum Shear force Vmax = 890 N
Shear Capacity of the Bolt = 0.4 X 0.785 X 64 X 275/1000 = 5.52 KN
Tensile capacity of the Bolt = 0.6 X 0.785 X 64 X 275/1000 = 8.29 KN
Hence, the bolts size mentioned above is safe against shear and
All sections used are structurally sufficient and meet its intended