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# DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE GLASS BALUSTRADE

I.

General
1. Design Philosophy - PREAMBLE
The purpose of this calculation is to verify the thickness of glass and its
supporting structure for its integrity, strength and stability verification.
The result of this conclusion is that the structure considered adequate
in meeting the required of design criteria.
The balustrade at the balcony area comprises of 16mm thick clear
tempered glass fixed as per the shop drawings. The model has been
analysed for the various load combinations as explained in the load
built-up.
2. Unit of Measurement
Unit of measurement in design shall be in Metric system.

II.

Design Calculations
1. Design Code and reference:
Loading as per BS 6399 Part 1, 1996
Wind loads as per BS 6399 Part 2, 1997
2. Materials
GLASS PROPERTIES
16mm thick clear tempered glass
The modulus of elasticity E = 72.7 GPa
The modulus of Shear G = 29.6 GPa
The modulus of Rupture = 41.4 MPa
Poisson Ratio = 0.23
Density = 24.525 KN/m3
Flexure Strength = 41MPa = 41 N/mm2

The Forces acting on the Handrails apart from self weight are
as follows which is complying with the required standards:
Loading as per BS 6399 Part 1, 1996 Table 4 Minimum horizontal
imposed loads for balustrades has been considered.
The occupancy type used is C3 Group (ix)

## Horizontal uniformly distributed line load at top of the glass 0.74

KN/m
Horizontal uniformly distributed load applied to the infill area 1.0
KN/m2
Point Load applied to part of the infill of glass 0.50 KN
Wind loads calculations as per BS 6399 Part 2, 1997:
Wind loads (WL) calculated as per BS 6399 Part 2 1997:
Basic wind speed Vb = 45.0 m/sec
Hourly basic mean wind speed = Basic Wind speed / gust factor
Gust factor = 3.19 as per Table 24 with effective height <10m &
Diagonal dimensions 10m
Hourly basic mean wind speed = 45 / 3.19 = 14.1m/s
Hence, hourly basic mean wind speed taken as 25 m/s which is DM
Standard.
Design wind speed Vs = Vb x Sa X Sd X Ss X Sp
Where,
Sa Altitude factor = 1.0
Sd Directional factor = 1.0
Ss Seasonal factor = 1.0
Sp Probability factor = 1.0
Design wind speed Vs = Vb x Sa X Sd X Ss X Sp
Design wind speed Vs = 25 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1
Design wind speed Vs = 25 m/s
Wind pressure q = k Ve2
K Constant = 0.613
Effective Wind Speed Ve = Vs X Sb
Sb Terrain and Building factor from Table 4 at 2 KM from sea at height
of 5m with site in country side,
By interpolation, Sb = 1.45

## Ve = 25 X 1.45 = 36.25 m/s

Ve = 36.25 m/s
Wind pressure q = 0.613 x (36.25)2
Wind pressure q = 806 N/m2 or 0.806 KN/m2
The maximum and minimum pressure coefficients are calculated from
Table 5, using span ratio of the glass.
Cp = -0.60,
Net wind Pressure = Cp X q
Net windward (front face) wind pressure q = 0.60 X 0.806 = 0.484
KN/m2
Ultimate load factors are considered.
Design & Ultimate factors are considered.
As per BS standard,
UL = 1.2 DL + 1.2 WL
And for deflection,
UL = 0.9 DL + 0.8 WL
5. Design Method
The analysis is carried out for Glass Balustrade manually on the
tempered glass of 16mm thick is supported at the bottom acting as
cantilever with clear span of 1.050m and the effective width shall be
considered as 0.90m c/c. The Glass properties are input and the
working stress is controlled to 41 N/mm2.
(A)DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE CLEAR TEMPERED GLASS 16MM TH
Design of Glass to be checked against Bending and Deflection:
The Average Physical and Mechanical Properties of Soda Lime
Float Glass

## Modulus of Elasticity (E) -- 10.4 x 106 psi (71.7 x 109 Pa = 71.7

GPa)

Modulus of Rigidity (Shear) (G) -- 4.3 x 106 psi (29.6 x 109 Pa = 29.6
GPa)
Poisson's Ratio -- 0.23
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- 4.6 x 10-6 strain per oF (8.3 x 10-6
strain per oC)
Density -- 156 lbs. per cubic foot (2500 kg/m3)
Modulus of Rupture (Flexure)a -- 6000 lbs/sq. in. (41.4 mpa):
(mean)
(design: 8 breaks in
1000)b

Annealed Glass --

## 2,800 psi (19 MPa)

Heat-Strengthened Glass -- 12,000 psi (83 MPa) 5,600 psi (39 MPa)
Fully Tempered Glass -- 24,000 psi (166 MPa)
MPa)

## The Glass panel is considered a size of 1050mm X 900mm has been

considered to analyse and check the glass design.
Hence, Maximum clear span of Glass Panel is considered as 0.90 m as
per attached sketches.
1. Horizontal uniformly distributed line load at the top as
per BS 0.74 KN/m
2. Horizontal uniformly distributed load applied to the infill
area as per BS 1.0 KN/m2
3. Point Load applied to part of the infill applied at the top
end of glass as per BS 0.50 KN
4. Wind Load front face as per above calculations is 0.484
KN/m2

GLASS CALCULATIONS
The Glass is considered of size 900mm X 16mm thick with 1050mm
high.
Horizontal Load and moment acting at the support is calculated as
mentioned below:
Case 1:

## Width of the loading to be considered as 900 mm

Horizontal load = 0.740 KN/m
Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom
surface i.e. at a distance of 1.050m.

Mx1 = 0.777KNm
Case 2:

## Area of the loading to be considered as 0.90m X 1.050 = 0.945 m2

Horizontal load = 1.0 X 0.945 = 0.945 KN
Distance from the centre of loading to the bottom surface = 1.050/2 =
0.525m
Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom
surface i.e. at a distance of 0.525m.
Mx1 = (0.945) X 0.525
Mx1 = 0.496KNm
Case 3:

## Horizontal load = 0.50 KN

Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom
surface i.e. at a distance of 1.050m.
Mx1 = (0.50) X 1.050
Mx1 = 0.525KNm
Case 4: Wind Load
Check for Moment:
The width of the glass railing structure is considered as 900mm,
Hence, the wind load acting is calculated as mentioned below
WL = 0.90 X 0.484 = 0.435 KN/m.
Factored Load = 1.2 X 0.435 = 0.522 KN/m
Maximum Bending Moment due to the above loading criteria for a span
of 1.050 m
B.M (max) = w l2 /8
B.M (max) = 0.522 X (1.050)2 /8
B.M (max) = 0.072KNm

## The maximum moment from the above calculations is 0.777KNm which

needs to be checked and verified with the existing glass structure. The
Moment of resistance of the section must be larger than above value.
Calculation of Moment of Resistance (MR)
MR = Z x P o
Z = Sectional Modulus
Z=I

xx

## The glass section used is 900 X 16 mm,

Moment of Inertia & Sectional Modulus are calculated as below:
The moment of inertia Ixx = bd3/12 = 900 X 163 / 12,
I

xx

= 307,200 mm4

## Z = bd2/6 = 900 X 162 / 6,

Z =38400 mm3
MR = 38400 X 166
MR = 6.374KNm which is greater than the 0.777KNm
The Moment of Resistance is greater than the Maximum Bending
moment. Hence the section used to resist the ultimate loads supported
is safe.
Check for Deflection for wind load:
= WL4 / (8 EI)
< L / 360
E = 72000 MPa
I xx = 307,200 mm4 as shown above,
Loading shall be considered as 80% of the Ultimate load in calculating
the deflection,
W = 0.80 X 0.484 = 0.387 KN/m
= (0.387) X (1050)4 /(8 X 72000 X 307200)
Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered.

= 2.66mm
L/360 = 1050 / 360
L/360 = 2.917mm
Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.
Check for Deflection for case 1 load:
= PL3 / (48 EI)
< L / 200
E = 70000 MPa
I xx = 307200 mm4 as shown above,
Loading shall be considered as 80% of the Ultimate load in calculating
the deflection,
P = 0.80 X 0.740 = 0.592 KN = 592 N
= (592) X (1050)3 /(48 X 72000 X 307200)
Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered.
= 0.646 mm
L/360 = 1050 / 360
L/360 = 2.917mm
< 2.917mm
Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.
Check for shear force:
Shear Force acting = 0.740 KN
Shear Force developed due to the section = Shear Stress X Area
Shear Force = 64 X 14400 = 921.60 KN
Hence, the shear force developed is more than the required from the
design calculations.
Conclusion:

All sections used are structurally sufficient and meet its intended purpose.