You are on page 1of 8

DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE GLASS BALUSTRADE

I.

General
1. Design Philosophy - PREAMBLE
The purpose of this calculation is to verify the thickness of glass and its
supporting structure for its integrity, strength and stability verification.
The result of this conclusion is that the structure considered adequate
in meeting the required of design criteria.
The balustrade at the balcony area comprises of 16mm thick clear
tempered glass fixed as per the shop drawings. The model has been
analysed for the various load combinations as explained in the load
built-up.
2. Unit of Measurement
Unit of measurement in design shall be in Metric system.

II.

Design Calculations
1. Design Code and reference:
Loading as per BS 6399 Part 1, 1996
Wind loads as per BS 6399 Part 2, 1997
2. Materials
GLASS PROPERTIES
16mm thick clear tempered glass
The modulus of elasticity E = 72.7 GPa
The modulus of Shear G = 29.6 GPa
The modulus of Rupture = 41.4 MPa
Poisson Ratio = 0.23
Density = 24.525 KN/m3
Flexure Strength = 41MPa = 41 N/mm2

3. Loading
Dead Load – Self weight is considered
The Forces acting on the Handrails apart from self weight are
as follows which is complying with the required standards:
Loading as per BS 6399 Part 1, 1996 Table 4 – Minimum horizontal
imposed loads for balustrades has been considered.
The occupancy type used is C3 Group (ix)

hourly basic mean wind speed taken as 25 m/s which is DM Standard.0 m/sec Hourly basic mean wind speed = Basic Wind speed / gust factor Gust factor = 3. Sb = 1. Design wind speed Vs = Vb x Sa X Sd X Ss X Sp Where.74 KN/m Horizontal uniformly distributed load applied to the infill area – 1.1m/s Hence.0 Ss – Seasonal factor = 1.19 as per Table 24 with effective height <10m & Diagonal dimensions 10m Hourly basic mean wind speed = 45 / 3.0 Sp – Probability factor = 1.0 Sd – Directional factor = 1.19 = 14. 1997: Wind loads (WL) calculated as per BS 6399 Part 2 – 1997: Basic wind speed Vb = 45. Sa – Altitude factor = 1.45 .0 Design wind speed Vs = Vb x Sa X Sd X Ss X Sp Design wind speed Vs = 25 X 1 X 1 X 1 X 1 Design wind speed Vs = 25 m/s Wind pressure q = k Ve2 K – Constant = 0.613 Effective Wind Speed Ve = Vs X Sb Sb – Terrain and Building factor from Table 4 at 2 KM from sea at height of 5m with site in country side. By interpolation.Horizontal uniformly distributed line load at top of the glass – 0.0 KN/m2 Point Load applied to part of the infill of glass – 0.50 KN Wind loads calculations as per BS 6399 Part 2.

050m and the effective width shall be considered as 0. UL = 0.25 m/s Ve = 36.806 KN/m2 The maximum and minimum pressure coefficients are calculated from Table 5.25 m/s Wind pressure q = 0.60 X 0.90m c/c.25)2 Wind pressure q = 806 N/m2 or 0.613 x (36.8 WL 5. Net wind Pressure = Cp X q Net windward (front face) wind pressure q = 0.7 x 109 Pa = 71.10. UL = 1. The Glass properties are input and the working stress is controlled to 41 N/mm2. Load Combinations Ultimate load factors are considered. Design Method The analysis is carried out for Glass Balustrade manually on the tempered glass of 16mm thick is supported at the bottom acting as cantilever with clear span of 1.806 = 0.2 WL And for deflection.2 DL + 1.Ve = 25 X 1. As per BS standard. Cp = -0.60.9 DL + 0.45 = 36.7 GPa) .484 KN/m2 4.4 x 106 psi (71. using span ratio of the glass. (A)DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE CLEAR TEMPERED GLASS 16MM TH Design of Glass to be checked against Bending and Deflection: The Average Physical and Mechanical Properties of Soda Lime Float Glass  Modulus of Elasticity (E) -. Design & Ultimate factors are considered.

000 psi (166 MPa) MPa) 11.740 KN/m Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom surface i. Wind Load front face as per above calculations is 0. per cubic foot (2500 kg/m3) Modulus of Rupture (Flexure)a -. .800 psi (19 MPa) Heat-Strengthened Glass -. Maximum clear span of Glass Panel is considered as 0.0.74 KN/m 2.4.e.156 lbs. at a distance of 1.4. 1. Horizontal uniformly distributed load applied to the infill area as per BS – 1.484 KN/m2 GLASS CALCULATIONS The Glass is considered of size 900mm X 16mm thick with 1050mm high.3 x 10-6 strain per oC) Density -.24.12.3 x 106 psi (29.200 psi (77 The Glass panel is considered a size of 1050mm X 900mm has been considered to analyse and check the glass design.000 psi (83 MPa) 5. (41.600 psi (39 MPa) Fully Tempered Glass -.6000 lbs/sq.050m.23 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -. Horizontal uniformly distributed line load at the top as per BS –0.0 KN/m2 3. Point Load applied to part of the infill applied at the top end of glass as per BS – 0.4 mpa): (mean) (design: 8 breaks in 1000)b Annealed Glass -- 6.50 KN 4. in.90 m as per attached sketches. Horizontal Load and moment acting at the support is calculated as mentioned below: Case 1: Uniform loading of 0.     Modulus of Rigidity (Shear) (G) -.740 KN/m @ top Width of the loading to be considered as 900 mm Horizontal load = 0.6 x 109 Pa = 29. Hence.000 psi (41 MPa) 2.6 x 10-6 strain per oF (8.6 GPa) Poisson's Ratio -.

at a distance of 0.525m Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom surface i.435 KN/m.522 X (1.M (max) = 0.0 KN/m2 on the surface / infill Area of the loading to be considered as 0.2 X 0.484 = 0.050 Mx1 = 0.50) X 1.50 KN Maximum Moment developed by the above forces from the bottom surface i.e.90m X 1.050)2 /8 B.945 m2 Horizontal load = 1.M (max) = 0.522 KN/m Maximum Bending Moment due to the above loading criteria for a span of 1.050 = 0.740) X 1.435 = 0.90 X 0.777KNm Case 2: Loading of 1.945 = 0. Hence.50 KN @ top Horizontal load = 0.945) X 0.050m.Mx1 = (0.525KNm Case 4: Wind Load Check for Moment: The width of the glass railing structure is considered as 900mm. Factored Load = 1.050/2 = 0.050 m B.525m.e. Mx1 = (0. at a distance of 1.072KNm .525 Mx1 = 0.496KNm Case 3: Point load of 0.0 X 0. the wind load acting is calculated as mentioned below WL = 0. Mx1 = (0.050 Mx1 = 0.945 KN Distance from the centre of loading to the bottom surface = 1.M (max) = w l2 /8 B.

Calculation of Moment of Resistance (MR) MR = Z x P o Z = Sectional Modulus Z=I xx /ŷ The glass section used is 900 X 16 mm.777KNm which needs to be checked and verified with the existing glass structure. Moment of Inertia & Sectional Modulus are calculated as below: The moment of inertia Ixx = bd3/12 = 900 X 163 / 12. Loading shall be considered as 80% of the Ultimate load in calculating the deflection. Check for Deflection for wind load: δ = WL4 / (8 EI) δ < L / 360 E = 72000 MPa I xx = 307.484 = 0.777KNm The Moment of Resistance is greater than the Maximum Bending moment.374KNm which is greater than the 0. W = 0.200 mm4 Z = bd2/6 = 900 X 162 / 6. The Moment of resistance of the section must be larger than above value.80 X 0. Z =38400 mm3 MR = 38400 X 166 MR = 6. .200 mm4 as shown above.387 KN/m δ = (0.The maximum moment from the above calculations is 0.387) X (1050)4 /(8 X 72000 X 307200) Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered. Hence the section used to resist the ultimate loads supported is safe. I xx = 307.

Check for Deflection for case 1 load: δ = PL3 / (48 EI) δ < L / 200 E = 70000 MPa I xx = 307200 mm4 as shown above.646 mm L/360 = 1050 / 360 L/360 = 2.740 KN Shear Force developed due to the section = Shear Stress X Area Shear Force = 64 X 14400 = 921. Conclusion: .60 KN Hence. the shear force developed is more than the required from the design calculations.592 KN = 592 N δ = (592) X (1050)3 /(48 X 72000 X 307200) Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered.66mm L/360 = 1050 / 360 L/360 = 2. Check for shear force: Shear Force acting = 0.80 X 0. Loading shall be considered as 80% of the Ultimate load in calculating the deflection. P = 0.917mm Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.740 = 0.917mm δ < 2.δ = 2. δ = 0.917mm Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.

All sections used are structurally sufficient and meet its intended purpose. .