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# Lecture 5

Signal Flow Graphs

The node is a signal with name of written adjacent to it. V(s) G(s) Branch Node Figure 5-1 Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 . • Signal-flow graphs consists only of Branches. and Nodes. which represent signals.Signal Flow Graphs • Signal flow graphs are alternative to block diagrams. which represent systems. • The branch represents a system with the arrow showing the direction of the signal flow and the transfer function written adjacent to it. • Figure 5-1 shows the graphical representation of a branch and a node.

Signal-Flow Graphs • Figure 5-2 shows an interconnection of systems and signals . Each signal is the sum of signals flowing into it. the signal V(s) can be written as: R1(s) G1(s) R2(s) -G2(s) G s) 3( (s) G4 V(s) G5(s) -G 6 C1(s) C2(s) (s) R3(s) C3(s) V ( s )  R1( s )G1( s )  R2 ( s )G2 ( s )  R3 ( s )G3 ( s ) Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 . For example. from the SFG in Figure 5-2.

Signal-Flow Graph • Also the signals C2(s) and C3(s) can be written respectively as: C 2 ( s )  V ( s )G5 ( s )  R1( s )G1( s )G5 ( s )  R2 ( s )G2 ( s )G5 ( s )  R3 ( s )G3 ( s )G5 ( s ) C3 ( s )  V ( s )G6 ( s )   R1( s )G1( s )G6 ( s )  R2 ( s )G2 ( s )G6 ( s )  R3 ( s )G3 ( s )G6 ( s ) Converting Block Diagram to Signal-Flow Graph R(s) G1(s) R(s)G1(s) R(s)G1(s)G2(s) G3(s) G2(s) G1(s) R(s) V1(s) V2(s) C(s) R(s) Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 C(s)=R(s)G1(s)G2(s)G3(s) G2(s) V1(s) G3(s) V2(s) C(s) .

Signal-Flow Graph V1(s)=R(s)G1(s) G1(s) ± R(s) G2(s) V2(s)=R(s)G2(s) C(s)=R(s)[±G1(s)±G2(s)±G3(s)] ± ± G3(s) V3(s)=R(s)G3(s) V1(s) V2(s) C(s) R(s) G3 ±1 ±1 C(s) V2(s) (s ) ± 1 R(s) V1(s) (s ) G1 G2(s) V3(s) V3(s) Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 .

Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 . following the direction of signal flow without passing through any other node more than once.Signal-Flow Graph R(s) + E(s) C(s) E(s) G(s) 1 G(s) C(s) R(s) - -H(s) H(s) • Definitions: • Definitions are best understood by taking an example: G6(s) G1(s) R(s) G2(s) V5(s) G3(s) V4(s) H1(s) G4(s) V3(s) G5(s) V2(s) G7(s) V1(s) C(s) H2(s) H3(s) – Loop Gain: the product of branch gains found by traversing a path that starts at one node and ends at the same node.

Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 . G4G6H3 – Forward-path Gain: The product of gains found by traversing a path from input node to output node in the direction of signal flow. There are two forward-path gains: G1G2G3G4G5G7 and G1G2G3G4G6G7 – Non-touching loops: loops that don’t have any nodes in common G2H1 doesn’t touch G4H2. G4G5H3. taken two. G4H2.Signal-Flow Graph There are four loop gains: G2H1. three. [G2H1][G4G5H3]. G4G5H3. and G4G6H3 – Non-touching loop gains: the product of loop gains from non-touching loops. and [G2H1][G4G6H3]. In this example there are only non-touching loop gains taken two at time only. [G2H1][G4H2]. four or more at a time. There are no three or more non-touching loop gains.

..loop gains in  that touch the kth forward path. Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 .Signal-Flow Graphs • Mason’s Rule • The transfer function C(s)/R(s) of a control system represented using SGF is given as: F( s )  C ( s )  k Tk k  R( s )  Where k: is the number of forward paths Tk: the kth forward path gain : 1-loop gains+  non-touching loop gains taken two at time . nontouching loop gains taken three at time+  non-touching loop gains taken four at time-.. k: .

Signal-Flow Graphs • EX 5-1 Find the transfer function for the Signal-Flow Graph in the figure below. Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 .

G4H2G7H4 non-touching loops taken three at a time: 1. G2H1G4H2 2. – G2H1G4H2G7H4 Now using Mason’s Rule definitions we find  Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 . G4H2. 3. G7H4 – Non-touching loops taken two at a time: 1. G2H1G7H4 3. G2H1.Signal-Flow Graphs – forward path gains: only one forward path gain: G1G2G3G4G5 – Loop gains: 1. G2G3G4G5G6G7G8. 2. 4.

Signal-Flow Graphs Now :=1-[G2H1+G4H2+ G2G3G4G5G6G7G8+ G7H4] +[G2H1G4H2+G2H1G7H4+G4H2G7H4]-[G2H1G4H2G7H4] • 1= 1-G7H4 F( s )  T11   [ G1G 2G 3G 4G 5 ][ 1  G7 H 4 ]  Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 .

Dr Eyad Radwan/ Automatic Control-L5 .Signal-Flow Graphs • EX5-2 • Use Mason’s rule to find the transfer function of the SFG below.