You are on page 1of 12

DEP SPECIFICATION

FORMATION TOPS, FAULT INTERSECTIONS, AND FLUID
FILL PREDICTION FOR EXPLORATION, APPRAISAL, AND
DEVELOPMENT WELLS

DEP 25.80.10.11-Gen.
February 2014

ECCN EAR99

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE

DEM1

© 2014 Shell Group of companies
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, published or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner or Shell Global Solutions International BV.
This document contains information that is classified as EAR99 and, as a consequence, can neither be exported nor re-exported to any country which is under an
embargo of the U.S. government pursuant to Part 746 of the Export Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Part 746) nor can be made available to any national of such
country. In addition, the information in this document cannot be exported nor re-exported to an end-user or for an end-use that is prohibited by Part 744 of the Export
Administration Regulations (15 C.F.R. Part 744).

The objective is to set the standard for good design and engineering practice to be applied by Shell companies in oil and gas production. three categories of users of DEPs can be distinguished: 1) Operating Units having a Service Agreement with Shell GSI or another Shell Company. combination of DEPs or any part thereof. They shall be returned after use. The copyright of DEPs vests in Shell Group of companies. be disclosed by users to any company or person whomsoever and the DEPs shall be used exclusively for the purpose for which they have been provided to the user.11-Gen.ECCN EAR99 DEP 25. In particular. DEPs shall not. oil refining. that may issue DEPs or advise or require the use of DEPs. Shell GSI disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use. including any copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of Shell GSI. The use of DEPs by these Operating Units is subject in all respects to the terms and conditions of the relevant Service Agreement. the Principal will typically expect them to follow those design and engineering practices that will achieve at least the same level of integrity as reflected in the DEPs. Where deemed appropriate DEPs are based on.generally .10. regional. The right to obtain and to use DEPs is restricted. operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. application or implementation of any DEP. they shall be solely responsible for such use. (Shell GSI) and. The system of DEPs is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual Operating Units to adapt the information set forth in DEPs to their own environment and requirements. national and industry standards. or reference international. without the prior written consent of Shell GSI. 3) Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users referred to under 1) or 2) which requires that tenders for projects. . Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual arrangements.V. even if it is wholly or partly caused by negligence on the part of Shell GSI or other Shell Company. 2) Other parties who are authorised to use DEPs subject to appropriate contractual arrangements (whether as part of a Service Agreement or otherwise). If in doubt. All administrative queries should be directed to the DEP Administrator in Shell GSI. or any other such facility. Consequently.80. These views are based on the experience acquired during involvement with the design. at the time of publication. chemical processing. without detracting from his own responsibility. February 2014 Page 2 PREFACE DEP (Design and Engineering Practice) publications reflect the views. the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall. This right is granted primarily to Shell companies and other companies receiving technical advice and services from Shell GSI or another Shell Company. gasification. and thereby to help achieve maximum technical and economic benefit from standardization. The information set forth in these publications is provided to Shell companies for their consideration and decision to implement. in some cases. or companies affiliated to these companies. for those requirements not specifically covered. When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use DEPs. materials supplied or . This is of particular importance where DEPs may not cover every requirement or diversity of condition at each locality. including the quality of their work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. construction. Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users. of Shell Global Solutions International B.work performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant standards. of other Shell Companies. and is typically granted by Shell GSI (and in some cases by other Shell Companies) under a Service Agreement or a License Agreement. Users shall arrange for DEPs to be held in safe custody and Shell GSI may at any time require information satisfactory to them in order to ascertain how users implement this requirement. gas handling. The benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to Shell GSI and/or any Shell Company. consult the Principal.

....................................................................5 1..........................................................11-Gen............................................................. GENERAL............................................................................3 FORMATION DEPTH..................... 4. 3..... PRIOR TO DRILLING.......................................................1 1........... FAULT DEPTH.........................................................4 1. ......6 INTRODUCTION... INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS..................................................2 4.............ECCN EAR99 DEP 25...........................................3 1............................. 4................. CROSS-REFERENCES.. February 2014 Page 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.................................... APPLICATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES............... BACKGROUND...................................................................... WELL PLANNING........................................80..............10.... 5.................. AND FLUID FILL PREDICTION PROGNOSIS DOCUMENTATION...............................................................1 4..........................2 1.......................................................................... DEFINITIONS........... DISTRIBUTION................................................... SUMMARY OF MAIN CHANGES.................................................... 2......................................................................................... SCOPE............ 1........... COMMENTS ON THIS DEP............................ REFERENCES....................................................................................

The Principal may then negotiate with the Authorities concerned. When DEPs are applied. the distribution of this DEP is confined to Shell companies and. If national and/or local regulations exist in which some of the requirements could be more stringent than in this DEP. This responsibility varies between regions and OUs. Any authorised access to DEPs does not for that reason constitute an authorization to any documents.10. This DEP is related to the following DCAF control(s):  Well Proposal.11-Gen. the objective being to obtain agreement to follow this DEP as closely as possible. and relief wells. are provided as input to pore pressure predictions. In all cases. It covers all formations from surface to total depth for the planned well. and well designs.5) regarding the changes 1. but not limited to exploration. This is a revision of the DEP of the same number dated February 2013. fluid fill and fault depths. this is of particular importance when existing facilities are to be modified. INTRODUCTION 1. INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS Unless otherwise authorised by Shell GSI. drilling hazards analyses. data or information to which the DEPs may refer. the Contractor shall inform the Principal of any deviation from the requirements of this DEP which is considered to be necessary in order to comply with national and/or local regulations. environmental. and pilot holes. This DEP may also be applied in other similar facilities.  Well Functional Specification.80. appraisal. . This DEP contains mandatory requirements to mitigate process safety risks in accordance with Design Engineering Manual (DEM) 1 – Application of Technical Standards. It is not in the scope of this DEP to specify which discipline(s) will perform the analyses leading to the prediction.1 SCOPE DEP 25.ECCN EAR99 1. including. see (1. economic and legal aspects. a Management of Change (MOC) process shall be implemented. This DEP is intended for use in facilities related to oil and gas production. to Contractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers nominated by them. development. The purpose of this DEP is to ensure that reliable estimates of formation depths. February 2014 Page 4 This DEP specifies requirements and gives recommendations for formation and fault marker top and fluid fill prediction and is applicable to all wells. which capture the full range of uncertainty. the Contractor shall determine by careful scrutiny which of the requirements are the more stringent and which combination of requirements will be acceptable with regards to the safety.2 DISTRIBUTION.  Pore Pressure Prediction Report The custodianship and accountability for this DEP resides with the Production Geology Discipline Head. where necessary. water.

February 2014 Page 5 The Contractor is the party that carries out all or part of the design. the Principal.3 DEFINITIONS 1. engineering. The term Formation in this document does not refer to the lithostratigraphic unit definition unless appropriate in the region where a well is planned. and on behalf of.2 Specific definitions Term Definition AH Depth Along Hole Depth – The depth as measured along the trajectory of a well. Security. commissioning or management of a project or operation of a facility. Safety.80. construction. The capitalised term SHALL [PS] indicates a process safety requirement. The Manufacturer/Supplier is the party that manufactures or supplies equipment and services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.11-Gen. 1.3. The Principal is the party that initiates the project and ultimately pays for it.10. RFT Repeat Formation Tester SS Subsea – When referring to a depth as subsea depth. The word shall indicates a requirement. often spanning across national boundaries. procurement. The Principal may undertake all or part of the duties of the Contractor. GP Geophysics HSE-CA Health. and Environment LWD Logging While Drilling OU An organisation within a region involved in hydrocarbon exploration and production within a country PG Production Geology (or Production Geoscience) PP Petrophysics PT Production Technology RE Reservoir Engineering Region An organisation within Upstream International or Upstream Americas that represents a group of Assets involved in hydrocarbon exploration and production.ECCN EAR99 1. Safety and Environment Critical Activity HSSE Health. The Principal may also include an agent or consultant authorised to act for. The word should indicates a recommendation. ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable BHP Bottom Hole Pressure DCAF Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework DEP Design and Engineering Practice DFE Drill Floor Elevation Formation A marker bed or rock layer that is expected to be penetrated by a well and occurs at a scale that can be expected to be predictable and meaningful in the context of a well proposal.3. this indicates the true .1 General definitions DEP 25.

00. non-editorial changes.com/standards. LWD.4 TD Total Depth THP Tubing Head Pressure WE Well Engineering CROSS-REFERENCES Where cross-references to other parts of this DEP are made. Select “Submit DEP Feedback”.05.3. DEP Feedback System (Users with access to Shell Wide Web) Enter comments directly in the DEP Feedback System which is accessible from the Technical Standards Portal http://sww.80-Gen. fill in the online form and submit.shell. 1. the referenced section number is shown in brackets ( ). The following are the main.2 Added the following terms and associated definitions: AH Depth. . DEP. DEP Standard Form (Other users) Use DEP Standard Form 00. DFE. Section/Claus e Change 1. ALARP.com Select a DEP and then go to the details screen for that DEP. SS.com. to record feedback and email the form to the Administrator at standards@shell.80. Feedback that has been registered in the DEP Feedback System by using one of the above options will be reviewed by the DEP Custodian for potential improvements to the DEP.10.6 COMMENTS ON THIS DEP Comments on this DEP may be submitted to the Administrator using one of the following options: Shell DEPs Online (Users with access to Shell DEPs Online) Enter the Shell DEPs Online system at https://www. TD 1. Other documents referenced by this DEP are listed in (5). Click on the “Give feedback” link. February 2014 Page 6 vertical depth from mean sea level to the point being described. fill in the online form and submit. 1.11-Gen.shelldeps. HSSE.5 SUMMARY OF MAIN CHANGES This DEP is a minor revision of the DEP of the same number dated February 2013.ECCN EAR99 DEP 25.

Formation depth (top and base). fault depth. fault depth. fault depth. DEP 25.) and thereby the well design. and fluid fill predictions are also used for designing casing points. and fluid fill predictions are used as input into the pore pressure prediction process (DEP 25.11-Gen.10-Gen. kick-off points. Formation pressure predictions are also used in casing design and in the design of surface facilities which may inadvertently be exposed to reservoir pressure. or for design of under-balanced or managed pressure drilling operations. February 2014 Page 7 BACKGROUND Formation depth. and for identifying potential well hazards.80. and fluid fill prediction are HSSE critical activities (HSE-CA) for the design of new wells.80.ECCN EAR99 2. while minimizing the risk of fluid losses and differential sticking of drill pipe. The resulting formation pressure predictions are used to determine the fluid density required to ensure overbalance for primary well control.10. Formation depth. Fluid fill predictions including composition of the fluids and are also used in material selection. .10.

For exploration projects the standards and signoff specified by the XORP shall be followed. In case the design is to be re-used for further activities. including but not limited to production wells. fault depth. NOTE: This standard is related to DCAF control(s). and Pore Pressure Prediction Report. . February 2014 Page 8 APPLICATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES Specific organizational roles and responsibilities for formation depth.ECCN EAR99 3. It is recognized that prediction of formation depths. or where the maturity and size of an existing asset makes it impractical to follow this DEP on an individual well level. and fluid fill prediction are covered in the region or OU-specific governance (such as DCAF and HSE-CA).10. well interventions and disposal wells.80. a modified approach may be taken that is suitable for the scale of the project.11-Gen. Well Functional Specification. the assessment shall be updated at defined intervals and when new data is acquired. Any scaling of the DEP shall be documented as ALARP and approved based on the regional or OU operational and technical controls. DEP 25. The final deliverables specified in this DEP shall be signed off by the Accountable Technical Authority and Responsible Technical Authority (where applicable) as specified by the Regional/OU standard as well as DCAF. fault depths. An audit trail of these changes shall be maintained. and fluid fill are critical input into pore pressure and fracture pressure predictions. Well Proposal. Where this DEP is applied to individual wells in large projects with multiple wells. injection wells.

. and prognosed logs with casing points labeled. additional information. especially if it is critical that it is not penetrated (i.e. and a map view of the well trajectory including target boxes and coordinate reference system shall be provided in addition to the tabular form. local datum). Furthermore. NOTE: 4. the realistic possible shallow and realistic possible deep depths should also be provided.. cross-sections both perpendicular and parallel to the dominant geological trends. For fluid fill. FAULT DEPTH. maps indicating lateral fault uncertainty (or position of any other hazard that should not be penetrated by the well). Coordinate Reference System: Depth Reference: Formation/ Fault AH Depth of Expected well penetration (including depth reference.10. GP. i. zones where partial or total mud-losses occur.80. February 2014 Page 9 4.80. shallow water flow formations. FORMATION DEPTH. WELL PLANNING For each new well to be drilled: a) A depth and fluid fill prognosis SHALL [PS] be documented in tabular form for every formation that may be encountered by the well. PG. These could be due to shallow gas. b) The discipline accountable for formation depth. seismic cross-sections through the well trajectory. the probability of encountering the formation should be documented. fault depth. pore pressure increase).2 H2S prediction is the subject of a separate standard (DEP 25. the most likely fill prediction SHALL [PS] be provided together with possible alternatives carrying a low (water) and high (corrosive or toxic gas) HSE risk. Table 1 Formation depth. DFE) Expected fluid(s) X coordinate at expected penetration point Y coordinate at expected penetration point Min Exp Max A cross-section along the planned well trajectory. and fluid fill prediction prognoses SHALL [PS] be documented in tabular form. .1 GENERAL Formation depth. DFE.). Where applicable. and fluid fill prediction prognosis Well Trajectory: True Vertical Depth including depth reference (i. WE) for indications of subsurface hazards in the overburden. e. and fluid fill prediction shall consult across each of the other subsurface disciplines (RE.11-Gen. PP...e. In addition to the range specified above. fault depth. fault depth. stringers or “floaters”. or faults. Table 1 provides an example format and shows the parameters that should be included. AND FLUID FILL PREDICTION PROGNOSIS DOCUMENTATION 4. Where it is not certain that specific formations will be encountered.ECCN EAR99 DEP 25. such as correlation panels of nearby wells. stray sands. sticky/swelling shales. should be included.e.10.18-Gen.g. the Table should extend to include formations below TD. SS.

tied to well trajectory). and nature of data gathering during drilling (near-bit LWD. Ensuring that potential hazards are identified.  Nearby faults or other hazards (including subsea structure.  Time to Depth conversion models and uncertainty. models used) to ensure consistency The rationale for the prognosis range. e. additional offset well penetrations). this should be provided.g. Whether a more detailed quantification of the uncertainty would result in an improved well design.. It should specify: i. including a demonstration that uncertainty in geological and geophysical data has been taken into account.ECCN EAR99 DEP 25. If so.. Impact of positioning uncertainties and deviations from designed well paths while remaining within target areas. Examples of these might be:  Offset well penetrations and regional geologic studies  Seismic interpretation and time to depth conversion  Static reservoir models  Shallow hazards surveys. iii.11-Gen. iv. seismic data. vi. The main uncertainties and the resulting range of uncertainty in the depth prognosis.. reports. February 2014 Page 10 c) An audit trail shall be maintained for the formation depth. v. including hazards that are not meant to be penetrated (e. iii. but could be penetrated by the actual well.g.80.  Impact of formation or fault strike and dip relative to the well trajectory. v. iv. time limitation. overpressured formation below planned TD). The conditions under which the prognosis is valid (e.10. fault depth.g.. seismic data. Requirement for. ii. well-site geologist. faults. The possible impact of data not yet obtained but expected before activity execution (e. Key points and actions from the meeting should be minuted. and documentation  Coordinate Reference System checks of all critical data (well trajectory. An explanation of how the range of depth uncertainty was derived and its impact on pore pressure prediction. d) A discussion with the accountable organization for the Pore Pressure Prediction Process SHALL [PS] take place.g. The uncertainty related to fluid fill and its impact on pore pressure prediction. Pore Pressure Prediction ahead of the bit. A discussion on the use of analogue formations for a formation strength assessment. The data and “model(s)” that have been used to generate the prediction. ii. and fluid fill prognosis. Key elements of the discussion should include: i. actively producing and plugged/abandoned wells) that may not be penetrated by the proposed trajectory.  Potential for seismic lateral and vertical positioning errors. intermediate formation pressure measurements.) . etc.

vi. shallower pore pressure outside range). PRIOR TO DRILLING Just before (and during) the drilling of a new well or well entry for which a depth and fluid fill prognosis has been provided. The final prognosis in tabular form shall be signed off by the Accountable Technical Authority and Responsible Technical Authority (where applicable) as specified by the Regional/OU standard as well as DCAF. casing design. and depth and fluid fill prognosis model(s)/data. marker depths outside predicted range. ii. iii.10. revision of well trajectory.ECCN EAR99 DEP 25. including the resulting range of uncertainty in the depth prognosis and fluid fill. Noting the well trajectory for which the formation depth. Similarly. etc.g. fault depth.g. this should be provided. Key points and actions from the meeting shall be minuted. it should be ensured that the planned well trajectory has not changed and that any changes have been documented with the correct change control process. v. c) The Coordinate Reference system and depth reference (quantified against a specified datum) should be consistent between the well proposal.80. planned trajectory. and fluid fill prediction is valid. such as zones with risk of loss of circulation both expected to be penetrated by the well and those nearby that should be avoided during drilling.11-Gen. A change control process with trigger points at which a new depth and pore pressure evaluation is required (e. An explanation of how the range of depths was derived and its impact on well engineering.. The uncertainty related to fluid fill and its impact on well design including the impact of depth uncertainty on fluid fill prediction. How the depth and fluid fill prediction range can or cannot be mapped to the categories used by Well Engineering standards (e. . Whether a more detailed quantification of the uncertainty would result in an improved well design.). iv.3 i. b) The impact of any depth prognosis and fluid fill changes shall be included in the pore pressure prediction and shallow hazards prediction. This should include a discussion of the TD criteria for each hole section. Ensuring that potential hazards are identified. the validity of the well proposal depth and fluid fill assumptions should be checked against any new information that may have become available since the depth and fluid fill prognosis was written. the relevant discipline SHALL [PS] review and document the validity of the depth and fluid fill prediction prognosis: a) Immediately prior to spudding a well (or starting a well entry) and during the drilling of the well (or well entry).. Key elements of the discussion should include : f) 4. If so. February 2014 Page 11 e) A discussion with Well Engineering concerning the marker top and porefill prognosis shall take place. vii.

10.00.com/HSSE/ Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework (DCAF) Standard https://sww-knowledgeepe. Fracture Gradient (PP/FG) and Borehole Stability Prediction for Exploration.10-Gen. reference is made to the following publications: NOTES: 1.10. Shell HSSE & SP Control Framework. 2. Well Entries. The DEPs and most referenced external standards are available to Shell staff on the SWW (Shell Wide Web) at http://sww.exe/53120776/DCAF_Standard_v3. Formation Pore Pressure. SHELL STANDARDS DEP feedback form DEP 00. together with any amendments/supplements/revisions thereto.05. Design Engineering Manual (DEM) 1 – Application of Technical Standards DEM1 http://sww.80-Gen.pdf? func=ll&objid=53120776&objaction=download EP. February 2014 Page 12 REFERENCES In this DEP.manuals.ECCN EAR99 5. the latest edition of each publication shall be used.shell.com/standards/.80.com/teamsiep/livelink. and Abandonments DEP 25.03 ST-06 .10.shell.80. Unless specifically designated by date. Appraisal an Development Wells.11-Gen.80. DEP 25.shell. Hydrogen sulphide prediction for produced fluids from new and existing wells in oil and gas fields DEP 25.18-Gen.