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CrY Report Template

Determining a Rate Law and Rate


Constant
Name:

Somang Kim

Date Completed:

9/14/2016

Date Submitted:

9/22/2016

TA Name:

Jin Hyun Moon

Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to see the similarities and differences of zero, first,
and second order graphs using absorbance measurements taken over a time of reaction
and calculating concentrations from the recorded data to produce the graphs.

Procedure: Please refer to the Chem 1220 General Chemistry Lab Manual,
Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Hayden McNeil, Experiment 3
pages 25-27 for proper instructions.

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

Presentation of Data
Partners Name: Erin ODaniel

A. Calculation of Beers law constant.

[CrEDTA]f

Absorbance
(A) After
Boiling

Solution 1

.00333M

.632

Solution 2

.00367M

.728

Solution 3

.00400M

.728

Solution 4

.00431M

.851

Value for m

197

B. Absorbance data for timed experiments


Table 1: Beer's Law
S1
S2
S3
S4

[CrEDTA-] (M)
absorbance
0.00333
0.632
0.00367
0.728
0.00400
0.728
0.00431
0.851

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

Table 2: Solution 1
Time(min)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75

Absorbance
[CrEDTA-]t
[Cr3+]
ln[Cr3+]t
1/[Cr3+]t
0.0420
0.000214
0.00312
-5.77
321
0.0600
0.000305
0.00302
-5.80
331
0.0940
0.000478
0.00285
-5.86
351
0.128
0.000651
0.00268
-5.92
373
0.161
0.000819
0.00251
-5.99
398
0.190
0.000967
0.00236
-6.05
423
0.220
0.00112
0.00221
-6.11
452
0.246
0.00125
0.00208
-6.18
481
0.271
0.00138
0.00195
-6.24
512
0.294
0.00150
0.00183
-6.30
545
0.314
0.00160
0.00173
-6.36
577
0.333
0.00169
0.00164
-6.42
611
0.354
0.00180
0.00153
-6.48
654
0.370
0.00188
0.00145
-6.54
691
0.387
0.00197
0.00136
-6.60
735
0.403
0.00205
0.00128
-6.66
781

Table 3: Solution 2
Time(min)
1
6
11
16
21
26
31
36
41
46
51
56
61
66
71
76

Absorbance
[CrEDTA-]t
[Cr3+]t
ln[Cr3+]t
1/[Cr3+]t
0.0440
0.000224
0.00345
-5.67
290
0.0700
0.000356
0.00331
-5.71
302
0.115
0.000585
0.00308
-5.78
324
0.157
0.000799
0.00287
-5.85
348
0.196
0.000997
0.00267
-5.92
374
0.233
0.00119
0.00248
-6.00
402
0.267
0.00136
0.00231
-6.07
433
0.298
0.00152
0.00215
-6.14
464
0.327
0.00166
0.00201
-6.21
498
0.353
0.00180
0.00187
-6.28
534
0.379
0.00193
0.00174
-6.35
574
0.404
0.00206
0.00161
-6.43
619
0.423
0.00215
0.00152
-6.49
659
0.443
0.00225
0.00142
-6.56
706
0.462
0.00235
0.00132
-6.63
758
0.479
0.00244
0.00123
-6.70
811

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

Table 4 :Solution 3
Time(min)
2
7
12
17
22
27
32
37
42
47
52
57
62
67
72
77

Absorbance
[CrEDTA-]t
[Cr3+]t
ln[Cr3+]t
1/[Cr3+]t
0.0480
0.000244
0.00376
-5.58
266
0.0720
0.000366
0.00363
-5.62
275
0.122
0.000621
0.00338
-5.69
296
0.170
0.000865
0.00314
-5.77
319
0.212
0.00108
0.00292
-5.84
342
0.252
0.00128
0.00272
-5.91
368
0.290
0.00148
0.00252
-5.98
396
0.326
0.00166
0.00234
-6.06
427
0.356
0.00181
0.00219
-6.12
457
0.386
0.00196
0.00204
-6.20
491
0.413
0.00210
0.00190
-6.27
527
0.437
0.00222
0.00178
-6.33
563
0.460
0.00234
0.00166
-6.40
603
0.481
0.00245
0.00155
-6.47
644
0.502
0.00255
0.00145
-6.54
692
0.523
0.00266
0.00134
-6.62
747

Table 5: Solution 4
Time(min)
3
8
13
18
23
28
33
38
43
48
53
58
63
68
73
78

Absorbance
[CrEDTA-]t
[Cr3+]t
ln[Cr3+]t
1/[Cr3+]t
0.0520
0.000265
0.00405
-5.51
247
0.0800
0.000407
0.00390
-5.55
256
0.128
0.000651
0.00366
-5.61
273
0.176
0.000895
0.00341
-5.68
293
0.224
0.00114
0.00317
-5.75
315
0.263
0.00134
0.00297
-5.82
336
0.303
0.00154
0.00277
-5.89
361
0.337
0.00171
0.00260
-5.95
385
0.370
0.00188
0.00243
-6.02
412
0.401
0.00204
0.00227
-6.09
441
0.429
0.00218
0.00213
-6.15
470
0.457
0.00233
0.00198
-6.22
504
0.481
0.00245
0.00186
-6.29
537
0.505
0.00257
0.00174
-6.35
574
0.527
0.00268
0.00163
-6.42
614
0.547
0.00278
0.00153
-6.48
655

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

C. Calculation of rate law and rate constant.


1st order

Order of reaction with respect to [Cr3+]


Rate Constant
Solution 1

-0.0122/s

Solution 2

-0.0140/s

Solution 3

-0.0140/s

Solution 4

-0.0133/s

Average average
deviation

-0.0134

0.000646

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

Beer's Law Graph (Absorbance vs. Concentration) (Graph 1)


0.9

0.8

y = 196x
R = 0.9988

0.7

Absorbance (unitless)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

0.003

0.0035

0.004

0.0045

0.005

[CrEDTA-]t (M)

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

Zero Order (Graph 2)


0.00450

Solution 4
y = 0.0043e-0.013x

0.00400

Solution 3
y = 0.004e-0.014x

[Cr 3+] (M)

0.00350

Sol 1

Solution 2
y = 0.0036e-0.014x

0.00300

Sol 2
Sol 3
Solution 1
y = 0.0032e-0.012x

0.00250

Sol 4
Expon. (Sol 1)
Expon. (Sol 2)
Expon. (Sol 3)

0.00200

Expon. (Sol 4)

0.00150

0.00100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (min)

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

First Order: ln[Cr3+] vs Time (Graph 3)


-5.40
0

10

20

30

-5.60

40

50

60

70

80

Solution 4
y = -0.0133x - 5.44
R = 0.9995
Solution 3
y = -0.0140x - 5.53
R = 0.9994

-5.80

Sol 1
Sol 2
-6.00

ln [Cr3+]

Sol 3
Sol 4
Linear (Sol 1)

-6.20

Linear (Sol 2)

Solution 2
y = -0.0140x - 5.63
R = 0.9995

Linear (Sol 3)
Linear (Sol 4)

-6.40

-6.60

-6.80

Solution 1
y = -0.0122x - 5.74
R = 0.9993

Time (min)

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

2nd Order: 1/[A]t vs .Time (Graph 4)


800

Solution 4
y = 6.17x + 283
700

Solution 3
y = 6.95x + 238
Sol 1

1/[A]t (1/M)

600

Sol 2
Sol 3

Sol 4

500

Linear (Sol 1)
Solution 2
y = 6.36x + 211

Linear (Sol 2)
Linear (Sol 3)

400

Linear (Sol 4)

Solution 1
y = 5.44x + 196
300

200
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (min)

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

sSample Calculations
Concentration of Cr and Cr(EDTA) for solution 1:
[ 3+ ]0 = 0.0200 ()
[ ]0 =

(0.0200 )(4.00)
=
= 0.00333

24.00

Beer's Law Concentration (slope):


=


1.12 0.370
196
=
=

0.00523 .00200

[Cr(EDTA)-]t for solution 1, 10 mins:


[ ]=10 =

0.0940
=
= 0.000478

196

[Cr3+]t for solution 1, 10 mins:


[ 3+ ]10 = [ 3+ ]0 [ ] = 0.00302 0.000478 = 0.00285

ln[Cr3+]t for solution 1, 10 mins:


[ 3+ ]10 = ln(0.00285) = 5.86
1/[Cr3+]t for solution 1, 10 mins :
1
[ 3+ ]10

1
351
=
0.00285

Rate constant of solution 1, first order (Graph 3):


[ 3+ ]70 [ 3+ ]10
6.60 (5.86)
0.0122
=
=
=
70 10
70 10

Rate constant of solution 4, first order (Graph 3):


=

[ 3+ ]73 [ 3+ ]13
6.42 (5.61)
0.0133
=
=
73 13
73 13

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

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Discussion
In this experiment, the rate law and rate constant for a reaction was observed and calculated. In
part A, the spectrophotometer was calibrated to read absorbance in 545nm. In part B, four
solutions were made by mixing differing volumes of 0.0200M Cr(NO3)3 and a fixed volume of
0.200M Na2H2EDTA. The reaction is represented as
(2 )6 3+ + 2 2 + 23 + + 42
Time was recorded as soon as each of the four solutions were mixed. The absorbance for each
solution were recorded every 5 minutes and the concentrations and the rates of reaction were
calculated for each solution.
The reaction was concluded to be first order because of the linearity and the parallel relations for
all four solutions. The rate constants for solution 1, 2, 3, and 4 were -0.0122/s, -0.0140/s, 0.014/s, and -0.0133/s respectively.
In a given reaction, the rate law and the order of the reaction is determined experimentally. In a
zero order reaction graph, the concentration of the reactant is directly compared with time. In a first
order reaction, the natural log of the concentration is compared with time. In a second order
reaction, the inverse of the concentration is plotted with time. The order of reaction for an
experiment is determined when the graph of the respective number order has a linear relationship
between the time and the concentration. For this experiment, since the first order graph showed the
most linearity and similarity of rate (slope) for each solution, it was concluded that the reaction was
a first order reaction. The parallel relationship between the lines of each solution is important since
it indicates that the reaction rate for each solution is similar. The lines for each solution in the first
order graph adequately fit the linear trend shown by the r squared value for each solution being
close to 1.
The rate constants for each solution were also similar in value, the average deviation being
0.000646. In the first order graph, the lines were generally parallel to each other, with the exception
of solution 2. The line for solution 2 crosses with solution 1 and shows to have a slightly increased
rate of reaction after 40 minutes. This could have been due to the solution being outside of the
constant temperature that the rest of the solution was contained in.
Since the rate order is first order and the rate of concentration for chromium 3+ decreased during
the reaction, the rate law would be the product of the average rate constant and the concentration
of the reactant Cr 3+ :
= [] = 0.0134s [Cr3 +]
In this experiment, one source of error that occurred was in part C when the test tube was tilted to
return drops of water after it was boiled. Some of the solution spilled out of the tube during the
process which resulted in a lower reading of the absorbance since the solution was diluted. One
experimental limitation is that when the remaining solution is boiled, the steam from the water can
be added to the solution diluting the solution and decreasing the absorbance. Another experimental
limitation can be the cuvette preventing the real reading of the solution since the spectrophotometer
is not measuring the absorbance of the solution directly, rather the cuvette with the solution.

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

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Conclusion
In this experiment, the rate law and the rate constant for a reaction was graphed and calculated.
Concentrations of four different solutions were measured, calculated, and graphed with time to
find the order of the reaction. The reaction was found to be a first order reaction. The rate
constant for the four solution are -0.0122/s, -0.0140/s, -0.014/s, and -0.0133/s and the average
rate constant is -0.0134/s.

Copyright 2016 by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University

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