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Inter Session Examination - December 2013


: MEE304

Class NBR

: 1265


: Three Hours

- Turbomachines

Slot: A1+A2


(Steam and gas tables will be permitted)

Answer any TEN Questions
(10 X 10 = 100 Marks)

Define total-to-total and total-to-static efficiencies for gas turbines. Give the situations
where these efficiencies are used. State the reasons.


a) A low pressure air compressor develops a pressure of 1500 mm W.G. If the initial
and final states of air are P1 = 1.02 bar, T1 = 300 K and T2 = 315 K, determine the
compressor and the infinitesimal stage efficiencies.
b) Another compressor changes the state of air from P1 = 1.02 bar, T1 = 300 K and
P2 = 2.5 bar with an efficiency of 75%. Determine the infinitesimal efficiency of this
Explain the large deviation in the efficiency of this compressor from that of the L.P
compressor in (a)


Define the following terms:

(a) Stagnation temperature
(b) Stagnation velocity of sound
(c) Stagnation density
(d) Adiabatic flow through nozzle


A centrifugal blower with a radial impeller produces a pressure equivalent to 100 cm

column of water. The pressure and temperature at its entry are 0.98 bar and 310 K. The
electric motor driving the blower runs at 3000 rpm. The efficiencies of the fan and drive
are 82% and 88% respectively. The radial velocity remains constant and has a value of
0.2u2. The velocity at the inner eye is 0.4u2. If the blower handles 200 m3/min of air at
the entry conditions, determine:
(a) Power required by the electric motor,
(b) Impeller diameter,

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(c) Air angle at entry,

(d) Inner diameter of the blade ring,
(e) Impeller width at entry and exit,
(f) Specific speed.

Sketch an axial fan stage with an inlet nozzle, UGVs, DGVs and outlet diffuser. Show
the variation of static pressure through such a stage. Draw the velocity triangles at the
entry and exit of the impeller.


Air enters the inducer section of a centrifugal compressor at P01 = 1.02 bar, T01 = 335K.
The hub and tip diameters of the impeller eye are 10 cm and 25 cm respectively. If the
compressor runs at 7200 rpm and delivers 5.0 kg/s of air, determine the air angle at the
inducer blade entry and the relative Mach number. If IGVs are used to obtain a straight
inducer section, determine the air angles at the IGVs exit and the new value of the
relative Mach number.


Explain with neat sketch the enthalpy-entropy diagram for flow through a centrifugal
compressor stage.


A ninety degree IFR turbine stage has the following data:

Total-to-static pressure ratio

P01/P3 = 3.5

Exit pressure

1 bar

Stagnation pressure at entry


Blade-to isentropic speed ratio

= 0.66

Rotor diameter ratio

d1/d2 =0.45

Rotor speed

N = 16000 rpm

Nozzle exit air angle

2 =20

Nozzle efficiency

N =0.95

Rotor width at entry

b2 =5 cm

Assuming constant meridional velocity, axial exit and that the properties of the working
fluid are the same as those of air, determine the following quantities:
(a) The rotor diameter, (b) the rotor blade exit air angle, (c) the mass-flow rate, (d) the
hub and tip diametersat the rotor exit (e) the power developed and (f) the total-to-static
efficiency of the stage.

Draw the sketch of a ninety degree inward-flow radial turbine stage with an exit diffuser
showing its main components. What are the main advantages of this type over the other
types of inward-flow gas turbines.

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A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of 14.5 meters and a design speed
of 1000 rpm. The vanes are curved back to an angle of 30 with the periphery. The
impeller diameter is 300 mm and outlet width 50 mm. Determine the discharge of the
pump if manometric efficiency is 95%.


Obtain an expression for the work done by the centrifugal pump on water.


A pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 10 metres per second with a jet of water
flowing at the rate of 0.70 m3/s under a head of 30 metres. The bucket deflects the jet
through an angle of 160. Calculate the power given by the water to the runner and the
hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Assume co-efficient of velocity as 0.98.


A Francis turbine with an overall efficiency of 75% is required to produce 148.25 kW

power. It is working under a head of 7.62 m. The peripheral velocity =0.26 2

. The

wheel runs at 150 rpm and the hydraulic losses in the turbine are 22% of the available
energy. Assuming radial discharge, determine :
(a) The guide blade angle, (b) The vane angle at inlet,
(c) Diameter of the wheel at inlet, and (d) Width of the wheel at inlet.

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