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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013

13 Normal Distribution
1.

[CJC/2011/P2/Q8]
The weight of the contents of a randomly chosen packet of biscuits type A may be taken to have
a normal distribution with mean 260 g and standard deviation 10 g. The weight of the
packaging may be taken to have an independent normal distribution with mean g and
standard deviation g.
Let C and G be the random variables denoting the weight in g of the contents of a randomly chosen
packet of biscuits type A and the weight in g of the packaging respectively.
(i) Given P(C + G > 290 ) = 0.075396 and P(C G < 270) = 0.99168 , show that =15
and = 3 correct to the nearest integer.

[4]

The weight in g, of the contents of a randomly chosen packet of biscuits type B may also be taken to
have a normal distribution with mean 180g and standard deviation 15g.
(ii) Find the probability that the difference in weight between the contents of 5 randomly chosen
packets of biscuits type B and thrice the contents of a randomly chosen packet of biscuits type
A is more than 10g.
[4]
A random sample of 120 packets of biscuits type B is taken and the mean weight of the contents is
calculated.
(iii) Find the probability of the sample mean to be greater than 182g.
[2]
(iv) A hundred such samples, each of 120 packets of biscuits type B, are taken. How many of these
samples would you expect the sample mean to be less than 182g, correct to nearest integer? [2]
2.

[IJC/2011/P2/Q10]
In this question you should state clearly the values of the parameters of any normal distribution you
use.
The mass, in grams, of a randomly chosen jar of Tasty brand jam is a random variable with the
distribution N(300, 42). The mass, in grams, of a randomly chosen Yummy brand jam is a random
variable with the distribution N(350, 52).
Find the probability that the masses of 2 randomly selected jars of Tasty brand jam differ by
more than 10g.
[3]
(ii) Find the probability that out of four randomly chosen jars of Yummy brand jam, exactly one
weighs more than 355g and the other three weigh not more than 345g each.
[3]
(iii) A crate contains ten jars of Tasty brand jam and five jars of Yummy brand jam. Find the
probability that the average mass of fifteen jars of jam in a randomly chosen crate lies between
317g and 322g.
[4]

(i)

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


3.

[MJC/2011/P2/Q9]
The masses of the girls and boys in a school have independent normal distributions. Their means and
standard deviations are summarized in the following table.
Gender

Mean (kg)

Standard deviation (kg)

Girls

47

Boys

53

(i) Find the probability that the difference of the masses of 2 randomly chosen boys is less than
1.5 kg.
[3]
(ii) Find the probability that the total mass of 2 randomly chosen boys is greater than twice the
mass of a randomly chosen girl.
[3]
(iii) Find the probability that the average mass of 3 randomly chosen girls and 7 randomly chosen
boys is less than 51 kg.
[3]
4.

[NYJC/2011/P2/Q10]
A fruit stall at a local market sells kiwis and avocados. The mass of a randomly chosen kiwi and an
avocado may be assumed to be independent and normally distributed with means 82g and 115g and
standard deviations g and 9g respectively.
(i) Ken randomly chooses three avocados. Find the probability that one of the avocados has
mass between 110g and 115g, while the other two each has mass more than 115g.
[3]
(ii) The probability that a randomly chosen kiwi has mass more than 0.09 kg is 0.1055. Show
that the value of is 6.40, correct to 3 significant figures.
[2]
(iii) Find the probability that the average mass of 2 kiwis and 3 avocados exceed 100g.
[2]
The fruit stall sells kiwis at $12 per kg and avocados at $15 per kg.
(iv) Ken has $a. Calculate the least value of a (to the nearest integer) such that the probability that
Ken has sufficient money to pay for 2 kiwis and 3 avocados is at least 0.99.
[3]

5.

[PJC/2011/P2/Q13]
Tai Ming travels to work by one of two possible routes. If he travels by route A, he takes bus 10 to
reach the workplace directly. If he travels by route B, he takes bus 20 and then he walks the rest of
the way. The time taken by bus and the time taken to walk are independent of each other.
The travelling times are all normally distributed with parameters (in minutes) as shown in the tables
below.

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ROUTE A
Time taken by bus 10

Mean
14

Standard Deviation
2.5

ROUTE B
Time taken by bus 20
Time taken to walk

Mean
6
6

Standard Deviation
1.7
2.1

JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


(i) Find the probability that Tai Ming takes more than 12 minutes to travel by route A.
(ii) Find the probability that the difference in time taken between the two routes is at least 3
minutes.

[2]
[4]

Tai Ming travels by route A on three days and route B on two days. Find the probability that, for
the five days, the total time taken for Tai Ming to travel to work is less than 70 minutes.
[2]
6.

[RJC/2011/P2/Q11]
The mass of an abalone of a certain grade follows a normal distribution with mean 180g and
standard deviation g. It is found that 8% of the abalones are heavier than 200g.
(i) Show that = 14.2, correct to 3 significant figures.
(ii) When the abalones are chosen for sale, those lighter than 165g are rejected. Find the
probability that a randomly chosen abalone is rejected.
(iii) Find the probability that the mean mass of a sample of fifteen abalones chosen at random
differs from the population mean mass by more than 5g.

[2]
[1]
[3]

This grade of abalones is priced at 450 dollars per kilogram.


(iv) A customer orders five abalones. Find the probability that the customer ends up paying more
than 420 dollars for the abalones.
[3]
7.

[RVHS/2011/P2/Q12]
A typical lesson at Lim Tuition Centre consists of lecture and tutorial. The durations of lecture and
tutorial may be assumed to have independent normal distributions with the following means and
standard deviations.

Lecture duration
Tutorial duration

Mean (hours)
0.8
1.1

Standard deviation (hours)

0.195

A lesson is said to be overly long if its total duration exceeds 2.3 hours.
(i) Given that 90% of the lessons have lecture duration of at most 1 hour, find the value of . [3]
(ii) Find the probability that in an overly long lesson the duration of the lesson is at most 2.5
hours.
[3]
(iii) One hundred lessons are sampled randomly from the centre. Find the probability that less than
ten lessons are overly long.
[2]
(iv) Tan Tuition Centre also conducts its lessons consisting of lecture and tutorial. The total
duration of a lesson has a normal distribution with mean 2.2 hours and standard deviation 0.4
hour. The Lim and Tan centres charge their pupils at rates of $20 and $19 per hour
respectively. Assuming cost is the only factor, determine which centre should a pupil sign up
with.
[3]

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


8.

[TPJC/2011/P2/Q9]
(In this question, state clearly the mean and variance of any normal distribution you use in your
calculation.)
In an office building in Shenton Way, there are 640 male employees and 560 female employees. The
weights, in kg, of male employees and female employees are modelled as having independent normal
distributions with mean and standard deviations as shown in the table.

Male
Female

Mean weight
68
50

Standard deviation
2
2

The Health Promotion Board wishes to conduct a study on the weight of these 1200 employees.
A random sample of 150 employees is to be selected to undergo a weight test. The medical
personnel go to the office canteen and randomly choose the first 150 employees he sees there.
Explain why this sampling method is not a good method.
[1]
Describe a more suitable sampling method, and give one advantage of your choice.
[3]
(ii) Calculate the probability that the total weight of 4 female employees is less than three times
the weight of a male employee.
[3]
(iii) Calculate the probability that the mean weight of a random sample of 80 male employees
differs from their mean by at most 0.5 kg.
[3]
(iv) 25 employees are randomly chosen of which k of them are male. If the probability that the
total weight of these 25 employees exceeding 1500 kg is approximately 0.987, find the value
of k.
[5]

(i)

9.

[VJC/2011/P2/Q8]
Men and children staying in a particular hotel have masses, in kg, that are normally distributed with
means and standard deviations as shown in the following table. Their masses are independent of each
other.
Mean mass (kg)
Standard deviation (kg)
Men
68
10
Children

20

(i) A man and a child are randomly chosen from the hotel. Find the probability that the mass of
the man is less than three times the mass of the child.
(ii) Two men and three children are randomly chosen from the hotel. Find the probability that
their average mass will lie within 60 kg from 100 kg.
The safety limit of a hotel lift is 600 kg.
(iii) Nine men are chosen at random from the hotel. Find the probability that their total mass
exceeds the safety limit.
(iv) Nine men from the hotel enter the lift, at a time when a large number of sumo wrestlers are
staying at the hotel. Give one reason why the probability that their total mass exceeds the
safety limit may be different from the value calculated in part (iii).

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[2]
[3]

[2]

[1]

JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


10.

[TJC/2011/P2/Q7]
The heights of a randomly chosen boy and a randomly chosen girl in a junior college are denoted
by B and G respectively. The random variables B and G are independent normal variables with
means and standard deviations as shown in the table.

Boys (B)
Girls (G)

Mean (cm)
170
155

Standard deviation (cm)


4
5

(i) Explain briefly why the assumption of a normal distribution with the above mean and
standard deviation for the heights of the boys may be reasonable even though such a height
cannot possibly be negative.
[1]
(ii) Find the probability that 3 times the height of a randomly chosen girl will exceed the total
height of 2 randomly chosen boys by more than 120 cm.
[3]
(iii) Find the value of k such that P( G 155 < k ) = 0.85

[3]

(iv) Three boys are chosen at random. Find the probability that the first chosen boy is taller than
165 cm and the other two boys are shorter than 165 cm.
[2]
11.

[HCI/2011/P2/Q9]
A cab company charges its customers according to the distance travelled and the waiting time when
the cab is stationary. The distance travelled, in km, and the waiting time, in minutes, of a customer
who travels from Statistics Road to Pure Math Street in a single trip, are modelled as having
independent normal distributions with means and standard deviations as shown in the table below.
Mean

Standard deviation

Distance travelled, in km

0.7

Waiting time, in minutes

2.1

(a) Find the probability that the total distance travelled in three randomly chosen trips differs
from thrice the distance travelled in another randomly chosen trip by at least 3 km.
Customers pay $0.50 for every km travelled and $0.30 for each minute of waiting time.
In addition, customers have to pay a fixed flag down charge of $2.80 per trip.
(b)(i) State the mean and variance of the total fare paid in a randomly chosen trip.
(ii) Find the probability that out of 10 randomly chosen trips, a customer is charged less
than $8 in at least 6 trips.

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[4]

[2]
[3]

JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


12.

[JJC/2011/P2/Q8]
A popular singer holds an autograph signing session to promote his latest album. Many fans are seen
queuing up to get his autograph on their albums. For each fan, the time taken for the singer to sign his
autograph is a random variable having a normal distribution with mean 3 seconds and standard
deviation 0.8 seconds. It may be assumed that the singer signs continuously, one album straight after
another and the signing times are independent of each other.
(i) For a randomly chosen fan, the probability that the singer takes more than k seconds to sign
his autograph is 0.12. Find k.
[1]
(ii) Find the probability that the time taken to sign for two randomly chosen fans differs by more
than 2 seconds.
[4]
(iii) Five fans are chosen randomly. Find the probability that the signing times for two of them are
each at least 4 seconds and the signing times for the other three fans are each at most 3 seconds.
[3]

13.

[ACJC/2011/P2/Q8]
In a glass factory, it is found that 20% of glass panels produced by machine A are more than 3 mm
thick. Given that the thickness of glass panels produced by machine A follows a normal distribution
with mean 2.56 mm and standard deviation mm, show that = 0.523 .
[2]
(i) For the manufacture of a certain type of windscreen, two of the glass panels produced by
machine A are used to form a double panel. Find the probability that the thickness of a double
panel is between 4 mm and 6 mm.
[2]
(ii) One hundred samples, each consisting of 5 glass panels produced by machine A are tested for
their thickness. In how many of these samples would you expect to find the mean thickness to
be greater than 3 mm?
[3]
(iii) The thickness of glass panels produced by machine B for a certain type of shower screen has
a normal distribution with mean 5.9 mm and standard deviation 0.35 mm. Find the probability
that the average thickness of 2 glass panels produced by machine A and 3 glass panels
produced by machine B is at least 4.2 mm.
[3]

14.

[AJC/2011/P2/Q9]
The lifespan of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) television, A, is normally distributed with a mean of
45000 hours and a standard deviation of 2000 hours. The lifespan of a Plasma television, B, is also
normally distributed with a standard deviation of 1850 hours. It is known that there is a 50% chance
that the lifespan of a Plasma television is less than 30000 hours.
(i) A LCD television and two Plasma televisions are randomly selected. Show that the
probability that twice the lifespan of the LCD television exceeds the total lifespan of the two
Plasma televisions by at least 25000 hours is 0.852. State an assumption needed for your
calculations.
[3]
(ii) A batch of 50 Plasma televisions is produced. Find the probability that more than 14 but
fewer than 22 of the Plasma televisions have a lifespan of more than 30000 hours.
[2]
(iii) Find the least value of n such that the probability that the average lifespan of n LCD televisions
is at most 46500 is at least 0.99.
[3]
(iv) Explain which of the following two probabilities is greater.
(I) P(A+B > 50000)
(II) P(A > 25000 and B > 25000)
[1]

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


15.

[DHS/2011/P2/Q9]
In a certain junior college, the marks (out of 100) scored by a JC 1 student in a Class Test, Common
Test and Promotional Examination are denoted by C, T and S respectively. C, T and S may be
modelled by normal distributions with means and standard deviations as shown in the table below.
Type of assessment
Class Test, C
Common Test, T
Promotional
Examination, S

Mean
68
65

Standard deviation

70

10

(i) Given that P(C > 85) = 0.05, determine the value of .

[2]

In a particular year, a student sits for five Class Tests, a Common Test and a Promotional
Examination. The average mark of the five Class Tests constitutes 20% of the overall assessment
mark for the year. The Common Test and Promotional Examination constitute 20% and 60% of the
overall assessment mark for the year respectively.
For the following parts, assume = 10 .
(ii) Find the probability that the average mark scored by a student in the five Class Tests is more
than 75.
[3]
(iii) Find the probability that a student scores an overall mark of more than 80 for the year.
[4]
(iv) State an assumption used in your calculations for (iii).
[1]
16

[MI/2011/P2/Q9]
The masses, in kg, of a D24 durian and a Mao Shan Wang durian are independent random variables
with the distributions N (1, 0.252 ) and N (1.6, 0.52 ) respectively. The costs, per kg, of one D24
durian and one Mao Shan Wang durian at a particular store are $12.00 and $22.00 respectively.
Find the probability that
(i) the mass of three D24 durians is more than twice the mass of one Mao Shan Wang durian,
(ii) the total cost of three D24 durians and two Mao Shan Wang durians is more than $105,

[3]
[3]

In a sample of n D24 durians, it is known that the probability that the mean mass of a D24 durian
in this sample is more than 1.05 is less than 0.08. Find the least value of n .
[4]

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


17.

[NYJC/2011/P2/Q10]
A fruit stall at a local market sells kiwis and avocados. The mass of a randomly chosen kiwi and an
avocado may be assumed to be independent and normally distributed with means 82g and 115g and
standard deviations g and 9g respectively.
(i) Ken randomly chooses three avocados. Find the probability that one of the avocados
has mass between 110g and 115g, while the other two each has mass more than 115g.
[3]
(ii) The probability that a randomly chosen kiwi has mass more than 0.09 kg is 0.1055.
Show that the value of is 6.40, correct to 3 significant figures.
[2]
(iii) Find the probability that the average mass of 2 kiwis and 3 avocados exceed 100g.
[2]

The fruit stall sells kiwis at $12 per kg and avocados at $15 per kg.
(iv) Ken has $a. Calculate the least value of a (to the nearest integer) such that the probability that
Ken has sufficient money to pay for 2 kiwis and 3 avocados is at least 0.99.
[3]
18.

[SAJC/2011/P2/Q10]
The operator of Queen Motorways records its weekly earnings from road toll charges according to the
categories of vehicles using the road. The weekly earnings (in thousands of dollars) for each category
are assumed to be normally distributed. These distributions are independent of one another and are
summarised in the table below.
Vehicle Category
Cars
Buses
Lorries

Mean (thousands)
120.3
69.2
64.5

Standard deviation (thousands)


10.4
12.5
9.5

Find the probability that the difference in weekly earnings for buses and cars is not more
than $60,000.
[3]
(ii) Find the probability that over a 5-week period, the total earnings for lorries exceed $345,000.
What assumption must be made in your calculation?
[3]

(i)

Each week, the operator allocates part of the earnings for repairs. This is determined for each
category of vehicle according to estimates of long-term damaged caused. It is calculated as follows:
x% of earnings from cars, 8% from buses and 15% from lorries.
(iii) Given that the probability that the total amount for repairs is at least $25,000 in a given week
is 0.097, find x.
[3]
(iv) Queen Motorways also records its weekly takings from collection of administration fees from
drivers who pay the toll charges by cash. The mean weekly takings is $2000 and the standard
deviation of the weekly takings is $800. State, with a reason, whether the weekly takings
follows a normal distribution.
[1]

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013


19.

[SRJC/2011/P2/Q10]
(a) A random variable Z has the distribution N (0, 1) . Given that P ( Z > k ) = p , where k > 0 ,
determine P ( k < Z < k ) in terms of p, leaving your answer in the simplest form.

[2]

(b) Pineapples are sold by weight at a price of $2.50 per kilogram. The masses of pineapples are
normally distributed with mean of 0.75 kg and a standard deviation of 0.2 kg. Papayas are
sold by weight at a price of s dollars per kilogram. The masses of papayas are normally
distributed with mean 1.2 kg and a standard deviation of 0.1 kg.
(i) Find the probability that the mass of 1 randomly chosen pineapple differs from another
randomly chosen pineapple by at least 0.05 kg.
[3]
(ii) The probability that the total price of 7 randomly chosen pineapples exceeds twice the
price of a randomly chosen papaya by $8.00 is 0.765. Find the price of a kilogram of
papaya.
[4]
(iii) Find the probability that, of 3 randomly chosen pineapples, 2 are priced at more than
$2.00 each and the other one is priced at less than $2.00.
[2]
20.

[YJC/2011/P2/Q8]
A fruit seller grades apples according to their mass. It is given that the mass of a randomly chosen
apple follows a normal distribution with mean g and standard deviation 30 g. Apples with a mass
exceeding 150 g are graded as large while apples with a mass less than 70 g are graded as small.
The proportion of large apples is the same as the proportion of small apples.
(i) Explain why is 110 g. [1]
(ii) Find the probability that the total mass of two randomly chosen apples exceeds 230g.
(iii) Using a suitable approximation, find the probability that a buyer who picks 50
apples randomly will have at least three apples which are graded as large.

[2]
[4]

The fruit seller also grades oranges according to their mass. It is given that the mass of a randomly
chosen orange has an independent normal distribution with mean 190 g and standard deviation 24 g.
The fruit seller sells the apples at $0.20 per 100 g and the oranges at $0.15 per 100 g.
(iv) Find the probability that the average cost of an apple and two oranges exceeds $0.25.
[3]

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JC2 H2 Mathematics MYE Revision 2013

1.

(ii) 0.995

(iii) 0.0721

(iv) 93

2.

(i) 0.0771

3.

(i) 0.209

(ii) 0.852

(iii) 0.442

4.

(i) 0.158 (ii) 6.40

(iii) 0.691 (iv) 8

5.

(i) 0.788

(ii) 0.480, 0.756

6.

(i) 14.2

(iii) 0.173

7.

(i) 0.156 (ii) 0.851 (iii) 0.953 (iv) Lim

8.

(ii) 0.710 (iii) 0.975

9.

(i) 0.329 (ii) 0.405 (iii) 0.655

10. (ii) 0.622 (iii) 7.20

11. (a) 0.216 (b)(i) 8.3, 0.5194

(ii) 0.0821

12. (i) 3.94

(ii) 0.00253

(ii) 0.145

(iii) 0.384

(iv) 0.147

(iv) 15
(iv) 0.00998

(ii) 0.0771 (iii) 0.0140

13. (i) 0.818 (ii) 2.99 or 3.00 (iii) 0.972 or 0.971

14. (i) 0.852 (ii) 0.160 (iii) 10 (iv) I

15. (i) 10.3

16. (i) 0.427 (ii) 0.534, 50

(ii) 0.0588

17. (i) 0.158 (ii) 6.40


19. (a) 2p-1

125

(iii) 0.0346
(iii) 0.691

(iv) 8

(b)(i) 0.860 (ii) $1.72 (iii) 0.289

18. (i) 0.708 (ii) 0.145 (iii) 6.14


20. (ii) 0.407 (iii) 0.833 (iv) 0.694