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Costal Management

Coastal protection management

Differentiate between hard engineering methods and soft

engineering methods of coastal management
Evaluate the success of coastal protection measure

Types of approaches
1. Hard engineering approach (structural approach)
The construction of physical structures to defend against erosive
power of waves

2. Soft engineering approach (non-structural approach)

Focuses on planning and management so that both coastal areas

and properties will not be damaged by erosion
Aims at changing individual behavior or attitudes towards coastal
protection by encouraging minimal human interference

Hard engineering measures

Sea walls
They are built along the coast to absorb the energy of waves
before they can cause erosion
They can be made of concrete, rock, or wood
They are especially effective in protecting cliffs from erosion
However, they cannot prevent the backwash or the refracted
waves from washing away beach materials beneath the walls
Costly to build and maintain


It can be built with one end attached to the coast or away from
the coast
They break the force of high energy waves before they reach the
When constructed offshore, it can create a zone of calm water
behind them and allow deposition to occur, forming beaches

They are built at right angles to shore to prevent longshore drift

They absorb or reduce the energy of waves and cause materials

to be deposited on the side of the groyne facing the long shore
Erosion can still occur

Soft engineering measure

o Beach nourishment

Constant replenishment of large quantities of sand to the beach

The beach is extended seawards, which leads to the
improvement of beach quality and storm protection
It is costly to transport large quantities of sand to fil up the beach
and sufficient sand is needed
Can effect wildlife

o Relocation of properties

No building of properties is allowed in coastal areas vulnerable to

coastal erosion
The east coast of England has a green line policy that
discourage building located beyond it
With the danger of increasing sea levels due to global warming,
relocation is important to future coastal management

o Planting of mangroves

Mangroves with their prop roots help trap sediments and reduce
coastal erosion
As mangrove communities grow seawards, they extend the
coastal land seawards

o Stabilizing dunes

Access points to the beach should be controlled and designated

so as not to be disturbed by human traffic
Shrubs and trees can be planted to stabilize them roots of trees
reach downwards to tap groundwater and anchor the sand in the

o Growth of coral reefs

Artificial reefs can be created by placing environmentally friendly

and long-lived materials like steel or concrete on the sea floor
Once the materials put in place, living organism start to grow on