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TEORI ETIKA

Teleology...
 an act is considered morally right or acceptable
if it produces some desired result, i.e.,
pleasure, knowledge, career growth, a self-
interest, or utility
 assessing the moral worth of a behavior by
looking at its consequences (consequentialism)

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Two Teleological
Philosophies...
 Egoism: right or acceptable behavior in terms of
consequences for the individual
 maximize your self-interest, concerned with the
consequences, seeking alternative that contributes the
most to self-interests
 Utilitarianism: concern with consequences in
terms of seeking the greatest good for the greatest
number of people
 looking for the greatest benefit for all those affected by
a decision

Utilitarianism:
 An action is right if and only if it achieves the
greatest good for the greatest number.

 Utilitarianism makes moral judgments based


on the consequences of actions, or
consequences of rules of actions

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Deontology:
(Greek: deon-duty; logos-science)

 An action is right if it is an action of a certain


kind; if it is your duty to perform. An action is
wrong if it is your duty not to perform.

 For example, always wrong to torture, rape,


enslave someone, no matter what the
consequences are.

Deontology...

 focuses on the rights of the individual and on


the intentions associated with behavior not on
the consequences
 believe there are some things we should not
do regardless of the utility

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An analytical approach to ethical problems
Step 1
Ask

Justice
Rights
Utility Are benefits
Are human
Do benefits and costs
rights
exceed costs? fairly
respected?
distributed?

Yes No Yes No Yes No

Step 2

Compare results

If yes is the answer to all If no is the answer to all


three questions, it is three questions, it is
probably ethical probably unethical

If the answers are


mixed, it could be either
ethical or unethical

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Step 3

Assign priorities to

Utility Rights Justice

ETIKA BISNIS &


PENERAPANNYA DI
PERUSAHAAN

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Business Ethics: What Does It
Really Mean?
Definitions
 Ethics involves a discipline that examines
good or bad practices within the context of a
moral duty
 Moral conduct is behavior that is right or
wrong
 Business ethics include practices and
behaviors that are good or bad

Business Ethics: What Does It Really


Mean?
Business Ethics:Today vs. Earlier Period

Societys
Expectations
Expected and Actual Levels

of Business
of Business Ethics

Ethics

Ethical
Problem

Actual
Ethical Problem Business
Ethics

1950s Time Early 2000s

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Why ethical problems occur in business
Nature of
Reason ethical Typical Attitude
problem approach
Personal gain Selfish interest Egoistical "I want it!"
and selfish versus others' mentality
interest interests
Competitive Firm's interest Bottom-line "W e have to
pressures on versus others' mentality beat the
profits interests others at all
costs!"
Business goals Boss's interests Authoritarian "Do as I say,
versus personal versus mentality or else!"
values subordinates
values
Cross-cultural Company's Ethnocentric "Foreigners
contradictions interests versus mentality have a funny
diverse cultural notion of
traditions and what's right
values and wrong."

Ethics and the Law


 Law often represents an ethical minimum
 Ethics often represents a standard that exceeds
the legal minimum
Frequent Overlap

Ethics Law

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Why should business be ethical?

Fulfill public expectation for business.


Prevent harming others.
Seek profitability.
Improve business relations and employee productivity.
Reduce penalties under U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines.
Protect business from others.
Protect employees from their employers.
Promote personal morality.

Factors Influencing Ethical Behavior

Have an
ethical day!

Leadership Strategy and Performance

Corporate Individual
Culture Characteristics

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Sources of Ethical Norms

Regions of
Fellow Workers Fellow Workers
Country

Family Profession
The Individual
Conscience
Friends Employer

The Law Religious


Society at Large
Beliefs

Developing Moral Judgment

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A ge g ro u p D e ve lop m en t sta ge a n d B asis of eth ic s
Stages of m amoral
jo r eth ic s development
referen t r ea soand
n in g
M ature ad u lth oo d S tagethical
e 6 U n iv ersa reasoning
l p rin ciples: P rin cip le -c entered
Ju stice, fairne ss, u n iv ersal re aso n ing
hu m an rig h ts
M ature ad u lth oo d S tag e 5 M o ral be liefs a bo v e P rin cip le -c entered
an d b ey on d sp ecific so cial re aso n ing
cu stom : H u m an rig h ts, social
co ntract, bro ad co nstitu tio nal
prin cip les
A d ulth oo d S tag e 4 S o cie ty at larg e: S oc iety -an d -la w
C ustom s, trad itio ns, law s cen te red rea so ning
E a rly a du lth oo d , S tag e 3 S o cia l gro up s: F rien ds, G rou p -ce ntered
ad o le scen ce sch o ol, co w o rk ers, fa m ily re aso n ing

A d o le sce nce , S tag e 2 R e w a rd se ek ing : E go -ce ntered


y o uth S elf-interest, o w n n ee ds, re aso n ing
recip rocity
C h ild h oo d S tag e 1 P u n ishm en t a vo idan ce: E go -ce ntered
P un ish m en t av o id an ce, re aso n ing
ob ed ience to p ow e r

Source: Adapted from Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development (New York: Harper & Row, 1981).

Elements of Moral Judgment

Amoral Managers Moral Managers


Moral Imagination
Moral Identification
Moral Evaluation
Tolerance of Moral Disagreement
and Ambiguity
Integration of Managerial and Moral
Competence
A Senses of Moral Obligation

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The components of ethical climates
Focus of ethical concern
Individual Company Society
person
Egoism Self- Company Economic
(self-centered interest interest efficiency
Ethical criteria

approach)
Benevolence Friendship Team Social
(concern-for- interest responsibility
others approach)
Principle Personal Company Laws and
(integrity morality rules and professional
approach) procedures codes

Source: Adapted from Bart Victor and John B. Cullen, The Organizational Bases of Ethical Work Climates,
Administrative Sciences Quarterly 33(1988), p. 104.

How to Build in Ethics


 TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
 MISSION STATEMENT
 ETHICS CODE
 POLICIES/PROCEDURES
 TRAINING
 WHISTLE-BLOWERS HOTLINE
 ETHICS OFFICER
 INDEPENDENT AUDIT
 DISCIPLINARY ACTION

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Codes of Conduct
 Must provide clear direction about ethical
behavior when temptation to behave
unethically is strongest.
 But, also must leave room for a manager to use
his or her judgment in situations requiring
cultural sensitivity.
 Intl. managers who are not prepared to grapple
with moral ambiguity and tension should pack
their bags and come home

How to support ethical decision


making in the organization?
 culture, values & programs
 compliance & leadership
 recognition of the role of co-workers &
managers
 balancing stakeholder interests
 management of situational pressures
 rewards beyond short-term performance

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Creating an Ethical Corporate
Culture
 Core values are not specific enough to guide managers through
actual ethical dilemnas.
 Managers should be guided by precise statements that spell out
the behavior and operating practices that the company
demands.
 90% of all Fortune 500 companies have codes of conduct.
 70% have statements of vision and values.
 In Europe and the Far East, the percentages are lower but are
rising rapidly.

Business Ethics: It Begins with


Leadership

As Leaders, we must do a better job at creating


and sustaining organizational cultures that
support ethical behavior.

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Guidelines for Ethical Leadership
 Treat corporte values and formal standards of
conduct as absolutes.
 Design and implement conditions of
engagement for suppliers afnd customers.
 Allow forwign business units to help
forlmulate ethical standards and interpret
ethical issues.
 In host countries, support efforts to decrease
institutional corruptions.
 Exercise moral imagination.

Two approaches to ethics programs


and their effectiveness
Compliance-based programs
Rooted in avoiding legal sanctions.

Companies will establish rules and guidelines for employees to follow.

Emphasizes threat of detection and punishment.

Assumes employees are driven by self-interest.

Research evidence shows that employees do care about moral


correctness of their actions.

Sources: Lynn Sharp Paine, Managing for Organizational Integrity, Harvard Business Review, March/April 1994, pp. 106-117
and Gary Weaver and Linda Klebe Trevino, Compliance and Values Oriented Ethics Programs: Influences on
Employees Attitudes and Behavior, Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(1999), pp. 315-335.

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Two approaches to ethics programs
and their effectiveness
Integrity-based ethics programs
Combine a concern for the law with an emphasis on employee
responsibility for ethical conduct.

Establish a climate of self-governance for employees based on


general principles as guidelines.

Employees told to act with integrity and conduct business dealings


in an environment of honesty and fairness.

Employees are thought of as social beings, concerned for the


well-being of others.

Researchers found that these programs fostered lower


observed unethical conduct.
Sources: Lynn Sharp Paine, Managing for Organizational Integrity, Harvard Business Review, March/April 1994, pp. 106-117
and Gary Weaver and Linda Klebe Trevino, Compliance and Values Oriented Ethics Programs: Influences on
Employees Attitudes and Behavior, Business Ethics Quarterly, 9(1999), pp. 315-335.

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