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Definition of terms:

Accident Undesired event giving rise to death, ill health, injury, damage or other loss.
Incident - Event that gave rise to an accident or had the potential to lead to an accident.
Environment
- Surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land,
natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation
IMS Integrated Management System
Industrial Disabling Injury(IDI) An accident or industrial disease at work resulting in an injury
to person(s) which disables them to the extent that they are not medically fit to resume full duties
for a period of 1 day or more, including any day that would have normally being a rest day.
Restricted Duty Injury (RDI) An accident or industrial disease at work resulting in an injury to
person(s), which disables them to the extent that they can resume work but are unable to carry
out their full duties
Fatality (FAT) An accident or industrial disease at work resulting in an injury to person(s) which
causes their death within one year of the injury or reporting of the disease.
Near Miss An unplanned event or unexpected event that could have resulted in, injury to
persons, damage to plant, equipment or structure, loss of production, release of hazardous
substance or any other event that could have downgraded the safety of plant or persons
First Aid Case (FAC) An accident or industrial disease at work resulting in an injury to
person(s) that requires First Aid treatment only
Medical Case (MC) - An accident or industrial disease at work resulting in an injury to person(s)
that requires medical treatment only
First Aid Treatment Treatment provided by a person(s) who has been trained in First Aid other
than a qualified physician and/ or nurse.
Medical Treatment Treatment provided by a qualified physician and/or nurse.
Why accident needs to be reported?
To know the reason why the operation went wrong. Recommend corrective action to be taken to
prevent a re-occurrence of the incident.
Job safety analysis (JSA) - is a method that can be used to identify, analyze and record the
steps involved in performing a specific job, the existing or potential safety and health hazards
associated with each step and the recommended action(s) procedure(s) that will eliminate or
reduce these hazards and the risk of a workplace injury or illness.
Proactive controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than waiting to respond
to it after I t happens.
Ergonomics - the arrangement of the work area and the job. The workstation arrangement
should not involve excessive bending, twisting or reaching to do the job.
COMPETENT PERSON DESIGNATION:
A competent person is one who, because of training and experience:

is capable of identifying existing or potential hazards in the job being performed;


is capable of identifying working conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous
to the Safety and health of the employee; and
has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate the above
conditions.

Anchor Point - A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices. An
anchorage must be capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of five thousand (5,000)
pounds (2,268 kilograms) for each person attached to it. An anchor point is often a beam, girder,
column, or floor.
Lanyard - A rope (nylon or steel cable) suitable for supporting one person.
Anchor points may be an existing structure, a pipe, or a temporary or permanent engineered
device such as an installed eyebolt, slide rail, or cable arrangement (e.g., static line). These

anchor points must be inspected daily prior to use, by a qualified inspector. Engineered anchor
points must be inspected by a competent person.
Anchor points for lanyards/harnesses and vertical lifelines must meet the following requirements:

safely support one person falling 1.8 meters (6 feet);


be installed in a manner that prevents accidental disengagement from support structures;
be inspected by a competent person on a periodic basis;
be placed where attachment and detachment can be done without causing loss of
balance;
be placed above shoulder height to reduce fall distance; and
be free of sharp edges to avoid cutting the lanyard.

The following are examples of anchor points for individuals using harnesses, lanyards or
vertical lifelines:
Adequate For Use

structural beams 15.24 centimeters (6 inches) or greater in depth for one (1) or more
people;
pipes four 10.16 centimeters (4 inches) or greater for one (1) person;
pipes six 15.24 centimeters (6 inches) or greater for two (2) people;
fixed permanent ladder rails and clips for one (1) person;
permanent platform handrail post below midrail for one (1) person.

Not Adequate For Use

platform or scaffold handrails (except as noted above);


scaffold ladders;
conduit/instruments;
any part of a valve; and
ladder cages and rungs.

Lifeline - A vertically suspended rope with one end attached to a stationary object (such as a
structural member), capable of supporting at least five thousand (5000) pounds (2,268 kilograms)
of dead weight and the other end attached to a lanyard or safety harness.
Safety Harness - A safety harness is an approved design of straps which may be secured about
the employees body in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis,
waist, chest, and shoulders, with a means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall
arrest system.
100% Tie Off Safety Harness
When working at an elevation of 1.8 meters (six feet) or more aboveground, grade, floor, or
approved work surfaces such as platforms and scaffolds, or when working in an area where a fall
potential of greater than 1.8 meters exists, employees will utilize a full-body harness with two
lanyards and shock absorbing unit and proper means of attachment.
COMPRESSED GAS AND OXYGEN CYLINDERS

A.

GENERAL

This procedure provides the Contractor guidance for the protection of personnel engaged
in the use of compressed gas and oxygen cylinders. All cylinders shall be clearly marked stating
its contents.

Note!!! Cylinders shall not be accepted onsite that are not properly labeled as to contents,
capped and secured.
B.

TRANSPORTING AND MOVING CYLINDERS

Cylinders may only be hoisted in engineered designed cages/cradles bearing the safe working
load (SWL) capacity of the cage/cradle. The cradles/cages must be designed to a safety stress
factor of at least five of the maximum load. A competent engineer approved by Owner, must
inspect such cages/cradles weekly and certify it safe for use.
At no time will cylinders be hoisted with choker slings or magnets. Valve protection caps shall not
be used for hoisting cylinders.
When cylinders are moved, they will be secured in a vertical position.
Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a cylinder truck, regulators will be removed and valve
protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved in any fashion or by any means.
Whenever cylinders are moved, the valve will be in a closed position.
C.

PLACING CYLINDERS

Cylinders will be secured in an upright position, except when being hoisted or moved.
Cylinders will be placed where they cannot become part of an electrical circuit and will be kept
away from piping systems and layout tables that may be used for grounding electrical circuits.
When cylinders are in use, it shall be placed in an upright position in trolleys and secured by
chains to keep them from being knocked over.
Cylinders will not be placed where they will be exposed to open flames, hot metal, or other
sources of heat.
Cylinders containing acetylene, propane, butane or oxygen will not be placed in confined area.
Cylinders shall be labeled as to the nature of their contents.
Anti-flashback arrestors and check valves shall be installed on all oxygen and acetylene cutting
gear in use. The anti-flashback arrestor shall be installed at the regulator end and the check valve
at the cutting torch end of each hose while in operation.
D.

STORING CYLINDERS

Oxygen cylinders in storage will be separated from fuel gas cylinders or combustible materials
(especially oil or grease) by a minimum distance of 6 meters (20 feet) or by a noncombustible
barrier at least (6 feet) 2 meters high having a fire-resistant rating of at least 1/2-hour.
Valves of empty cylinders will be closed and capped.
Empty cylinders will be marked and separated from full cylinders.
Cylinders, if stored on a rack, will be stored on a rack with sound flooring. "NO SMOKING" signs
will be posted at storage areas. Signs will be posted at storage areas indicating the contents of
the cylinders
Cylinder and cylinder valves and apparatus will be kept free from oily or greasy substances.
Cylinders will be stored away from sources of heat. Cylinders shall be kept away from sparks, hot
slag and flames or be adequately protected.
Storage areas will be clearly marked with the content of the cylinders stored inside the area.

When not stored in cradles, compressed gas cylinders shall be secured with chains in an upright
position at all times.
E.

USING CYLINDERS

Cylinders will not be dropped or roughly handled. Before connecting a regulator to the valve, the
valves will be opened slowly and closed immediately. This action will be taken in an area where
there are not possible sources of ignition, and the employee will stand to one side when taking
this action. Safety devices will not be tampered with.
Leaking or defective cylinders shall not be used but reported to supervisor for safe handling
assurance.
Confined Spaces is any area with a limited means of access/egress and subject to oxygen
deficiency, accumulation of flammable vapors, or any airborne contaminant that exceeds
established Permissible Exposure Limits and not subject for human occupancy
Confined Space Attendant
a)
Persons authorized as attendants will be trained in and perform assigned duties as
follows:

I.

Remain stationed outside the Confined Space at all times during entry operations.
Maintain an accurate count of all persons inside Confined Spaces.
Ensure that permits specifically required by certain projects will be used as required.
Recognize potential permit space hazards and monitor conditions to ensure that a safe
atmosphere remains.
Maintain continuous communication with authorized entrants.
Authorize evacuation of Confined Spaces when hazardous conditions or permit violations
exist.
Prevent entry of unauthorized personnel.
Contact of advanced rescue personnel if required.
Wear a white reflective vest.

CONFINED SPACE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Acceptable Environmental Conditions: Confined Space workplace conditions in which


uncontrolled hazardous atmospheres are not present and which include an additional
environmental criteria the employer may require for employee entry into a permit-required
Confined Space.
Attendant: An individual stationed outside the permit-required Confined Space who is trained as
required by this standard and who monitors the authorized entrants inside the permit-required
Confined Space. An attendant may not monitor more entrants nor more permit spaces than the
entry permit specifically authorizes.
Authorized Entrant: An employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit-required
Confined Space. Authorized entrants may rotate duties, serving as attendants if the permit
program and the entry permit so state. Any properly trained person with the authority to authorize
entry by other persons may enter the permit space during the term of the permit provided the
attendant is informed of that entry.
Blanking or Blinding: The absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by fastening across its bore a
solid plate or "cap" which completely covers the bore; which extends at least to the outer edge of

the flange at which it is attached; and which is capable of withstanding the maximum upstream
pressure.
Double Block and Bleed: The closure of a line, duct, or pipe by locking and tagging a drain or
vent which is open to the atmosphere in the line between two locked-closed valves.
Emergency: Any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or
event(s) internal or external to the Confined Space, which could endanger entrants.
Engulfment: The surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided solid
substance.
Entry: The act by which a person intentionally passes through an opening into a permit-required
Confined Space and includes ensuing work activities in that space. The entrant is considered to
have entered as soon as any part of the entrant's face breaks the plane of an opening into the
space.
Entry Permit: The written or printed document established by the employer, the content of which
is based on the employer's hazard identification and evaluation for that Confined Space (or class
or family of Confined Spaces if a number of spaces may contain similar hazards) and is the
instrument by which the employer authorizes his or her employees to enter that permit-required
Confined Space. The entry permit: defines the conditions under which the permit space may be
entered; states the reason(s) for entering the space; the anticipated hazards of the entry; for
entries where the individual authorizing the entry does not assume direct charge of the entry, lists
the eligible attendants, entrants, and the individuals who may be in charge of the entry; and
establishes the length of time for which the permit may remain valid.
Entry Permit System: The employer's written procedures for preparing and issuing permits for
entry and returning the permit space to service following termination of entry and designate by
name or title the individuals who may authorize entry.
Hazardous Atmosphere: An atmosphere, which exposes employees to a risk of death,
incapacitation, injury or acute illness from one or more of the following causes:
-

a flammable gas, vapor or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);

an airborne combustible dust at a concentration that obscures vision at a distance of five


feet (1.52 m) or less;

an atmospheric oxygen concentration below 19.5 percent or above 23.5;

an atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a permissible exposure limit is


published in Subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1910 and could result in employee exposure in
excess of its permissible limit(s). When an air contaminant for which OSHA has not
determined a permissible exposure limit may be present in the permit space atmosphere,
OSHA recommends employers consult other sources of information such as Material
Safety Data Sheets, which comply with the Hazard Communication Standard 1910.1200,
for guidance in establishing the acceptable environmental conditions for entry by their
employees; and/or

any atmospheric condition recognized as immediately dangerous to life or health.

Hot Work Permit: The employer's written authorization to perform operations which could
provide a source of ignition, such as riveting, welding, cutting, burning, or heating.

Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH): Any condition which poses an immediate
threat of loss of life; may result in irreversible or immediate severe health effects; may result in
eye damage; irritation or other conditions which could impair escape from the permit space.
Immediate-severe Health Effects: Any acute clinical sign(s) of a serious exposure-related
reaction manifested within 72 hours after exposure.
Inerting: Rendering the atmosphere of a permit space nonflammable, non-explosive, or
otherwise chemically non-reactive by such means as displacing or diluting the original
atmosphere with steam or a gas that is non-reactive with respect to that space.
In-plant Rescue Team: A group of two or more employees designated and trained to perform
rescues in permit spaces in their plant.
Isolation: The separation of a permit space from unwanted forms of energy, which could be a
serious hazard to permit space entrants. Isolation is accomplished by such means as blanking or
blinding; removal or misalignment of pipe sections or spool pieces; double block and bleed; or
lockout and/or tagout of all energy sources.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): Minimum concentration of a combustible gas, vapor, or dust in the
air which ignite in the presence of an ignition source.
Line Breaking: Means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying
flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a pressure or temperature
capable of causing injury.
Low-hazard Permit Space: A permit space where there is an extremely low likelihood that an
IDLH or engulfment hazard could be present and where all other serious hazards have been
controlled.
Not-permitted Condition: Any condition or set of conditions whose hazard potential exceeds the
limits stated in the entry permit.
Oxygen-deficient Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing less than 20 percent oxygen by
volume.
Oxygen-enriched Atmosphere: An atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by
volume.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): The maximum eight-hour time weighted average of any
airborne contaminant to which an employee may be exposed. However, at no time shall the
exposure level exceed the ceiling concentration for that contaminant.
Permit-required Confined Space (permit space): An enclosed space which:
Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work;
Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit (some examples are tanks, vessels, silos, storage
bins, hoppers, vaults, pits and diked areas);
Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy; and,
Has one or more of the following characteristics:

Contains or has a known potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

Contains a material with the potential for engulfment of an entrant;

Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by


inwardly converging walls or a floor which slopes downward or tapers to a smaller crosssection; or,

Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.


Permit-required Confined Space Program: The employer's program for preventing
unauthorized employee entry and for ensuring safe entry into and work within
permit spaces by authorized employees.
Retrieval Line: A line or rope secured at one end to the worker by a chest-waist or fullbody harness or wristlets, and with its other end secured to either a lifting (or
other retrieval) device to an anchor point located outside the entry portal.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV): The American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACHIIG) has established three (3) categories of TLV for airborne
contaminants and they are defined as follows:
Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA): The time weighted
average concentration for a normal eight hour work day and for a 40 hour week
to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without
adverse effect.
Threshold Limit Value-Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL): A STEL is defined as
a 15 minute time weighted average exposure which should not exceed at any
time during a work day even if the eight hour TWA is within the TLV. Exposures
as the STEL should not be longer than 15 minutes and should not be repeated
more than four times per day. These should be at least 60 minutes between
successive exposure at the STEL.
Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C): The concentration that should not be exceeded
even instantaneously.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): Minimum concentration of a combustible gas, vapor, or
dust in the air which ignite in the presence of an ignition source.

Excavation Safety
1.

Excavation

Any man-made cavity or depression in the earth's surface, including its sides, walls, or faces,
formed by earth removal and producing unsupported earth conditions by reason of the
excavation.
2.

Trench Excavation

A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth is greater than
the width, but the width of a trench is not greater than 4.5 meters (15 feet).

3.

Accepted Engineering and Construction Practices

Plans for excavations and protective system methods shall be submitted to Loss Prevention
before work start up.
4.

Protective Systems

Methods used to protect employees from cave-ins, from materials that could fall or roll into the
excavation onto the workers or from collapse of adjacent structures. Protective systems include
supports, sloping and benching, shields and other means to protect workers.
5.

Shoring

Hydraulic, timber or mechanical systems that support the sides of an excavation, designed to
prevent cave-ins.
6.

Hydraulic Shoring

A pre-engineered support system of aluminum hydraulic cylinders (cross-braces) used with


vertical rods (uprights) or horizontal rods designed specifically to support side walls of an
excavation to prevent cave-in.
7.

Benching

A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating the sides of an excavation to form
one or a series of horizontal steps, with a vertical rise between steps.
8.

Sloping

A method of excavating in which the sides of an excavation are laid back to a safe angle to
prevent cave-ins. (The safe angle required varies with different types of soil, exposure to the
elements and superimposed loads. There is no single angle of repose. Soil classification must
be identified to select safe sloping and benching methods.)
9.

Soil Classification System

A method of categorizing soil and rock deposits as types A, B, and C in decreasing order of
stability. Soil type is determined by analysis of the soil's properties and how it performs under
exposure to the elements and superimposed loads.
Type A:
Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 ton per square foot (tc) (144kPa)
or greater are classified as Type A. Examples of cohesive soils are: clay, silty clay, sandy clay,
clay loam and in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam. Cemented soils such as
caliche and hardpan are also considered Type A. However, no soil is Type A if one or more of
the following conditions are true:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

The soil is fissured.


The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic, pile driving, or similar effects.
The soil has been previously disturbed.
The soil is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of
four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater.

(v)

The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a less stable
material.
Type B:

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Soils classified as Type B are:


Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) but less
than 1.5 tsf (144 kPa).
Granular cohesionless soils including angular gravel (similar to crushed rock), silt, silt loam,
sandy loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy loam clay.
Previously disturbed soils except those which would otherwise be classed as Type C soil.
Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength or cementation requirements for Type A, but
is fissured or subject to vibration.
Dry rock that is not stable.
Material that is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a
slope less steep than four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) but only if the material would
otherwise be classified as Type B.
Type C:

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Soils classified as Type C are:


Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf (48 kPa) or less.
Granular soils including gravel, and loamy sand.
Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping.
Submerged rock that is not stable.
Material in a sloped layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or a slope of four
horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V).
Trench Boxes:
A structure that is able to withstand the forces imposed on it by cave-ins, and in the process,
protects employees inside the structure. (Plans for trench boxes are to be submitted to Loss
Prevention.)
2.4.6

Walkways

Where employees, equipment, or members of the public are required or permitted to cross over
an excavation, a close planked bridge or walkway with standard guard rails shall be provided and
kept clear of excavated materials or other tripping hazards. No sidewalk shall be undermined
unless properly shored.
2.5

Access and Egress

Safe means of getting into and out of an excavation shall be provided at intervals not exceeding
7.5 meters (25 feet). Ladders shall conform to the requirements set out in Section 9.2, be placed
at an angle of 75o, and extend at least 0.9 meter (3 feet) above the stepping-off point. Ladders
shall be securely fixed.
Type I Ladder
Portable ladder that supports at least 115 Kg (250 pounds) of weight.
Type IA Ladder
Portable ladder that supports at least 136 Kg (300 pounds) of weight.

B.

SAFE WORK PRACTICES

Two or more people are not permitted to work from the same ladder unless it is specifically
designed for two people. Safety instructions should be given before employees use a two-person
step ladder.
Splice a 13 mm (1/2-inch) rope to the top back rung of stepladders or to the third rung from the
top of straight and extension ladders to provide a tie-off rope when the ladder is set up.
Do not use metal ladders around electrical services or welding.
Climbing trestle ladders is not permitted. Many specialty contractors use trestle ladders and
extension trestle ladders as a tool of their trade; however, trestle ladders are not designed for
climbing. Trestle ladders support planks or scaffold boards. When using trestle ladders for
scaffold board supports, a separate ladder is to be used to access the scaffold deck.
Ladders shall always be used at an angle of 75%. Ladders shall not be used in a vertical position.
Makeshift wooden ladders and painted wooden ladders shall not be used.
When not secured at the top, ladders will be properly anchored at the base to prevent the footings
from slipping and a second person shall hold the ladder firm in place while being used.
When ladders are being used for accessing at the same point more than once, it shall be properly
secured at the top and extend at least one meter above the landing or work surface.
Ladders shall always be supported on the ground or floor but never hung.
Ladders shall always be used at an angle of 75%.

C.

LADDER SPECIFICATIONS
1)

Straight ladders must not be longer than 6 meters (20 feet).

2)

Extension ladders must not be longer than 11 meters (36 feet) when fully
extended.

3)

All straight and extension ladders must have non-slip feet.

4)

Stepladders and platform ladders must not be longer than 3.6 meters (12 feet) as
determined by the front rail.

5)

Wooden ladders may not be painted, except for the platform and top step, which
should be painted to indicate not to step there. Clear preservatives may be used
so defects will not be hidden.

6)

Ladders may be constructed of wood, metal or fiberglass.

7)

Type 1A ladders are recommended. A minimum of Type A ladder is required on


this site.

Scaffold
Any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting structure (including
points of anchorage), used for supporting employees, materials, or both.
Guardrail System

A vertical barrier, consisting of, but not limited to, top rails, midrails, and posts, erected to prevent
employees from falling off a scaffold platform or walkway to lower levels.
F.
FALL PROTECTION
Each employee on a scaffold 1.8 meters (6 feet) or more above a lower level shall be protected
from falling to that lower level.
Guardrail systems shall comply with the following provisions:

Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms.

Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees
other than erection/dismantling crews.
The top edge height of toprails or equivalent member on supported scaffolds shall be
installed between 0.97 meter and 1.2 meters (38 inches and 45 inches) above the platform
surface.
When midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent
structural members are used, they shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system
and the scaffold platform.
When midrails are used, they shall be installed at a height approximately midway between
the top edge of the guardrail system and the platform surface.
SCAFFOLD INSPECTION TAGGING & RECORDKEEPING
Contractor shall maintain a log and record all scaffolds and inspections.
1)

A qualified scaffold inspector shall inspect the scaffold or work platforms to assure that all
applicable safety measures such as handrails, toeboards, ladders, etc., have been
provided.

2)

Specialty scaffolds, suspension scaffolds and scaffolds 12 meters and higher shall be
inspected by the scaffolding engineer.

3)

All scaffolds shall be inspected at least weekly.

4)

The scaffold inspection tag shall show the Contractors name, scaffold number, the area,
type of scaffold, inspectors name, date of inspection and signature.

5)

Scaffolds shall be RED tagged "DO NOT USE" while being erected.

6)

Scaffolds that are not safe for use are to be tagged at a visible location with a RED
"UNSAFE FOR USE" tag.

7)

In the event a scaffold or platform cannot be erected in accordance with the applicable
codes and standards, i.e., handrails or equivalent fall protection, a YELLOW tag is to be
utilized. This YELLOW tag will have a warning message, "SAFETY HARNESSES SHALL
BE WORN, 100% TIE OFF".

8)

Employees observed working on a YELLOW tagged scaffold who are not using safety
harnesses are subject to disciplinary action.

9)

The responsible foreman will place a GREEN "SAFE FOR USE" tag on all scaffoldings
Scaffolding standards and requirements. This tag is to be attached at some point near the
access ladder where it is visible to anyone climbing the ladder. This tag is also to be signed
and dated by the responsible foreman.

10)

Alterations or modifications, which must be made to a Green tagged scaffold, are to be reinspected and re-tagged by the foreman who is responsible for the modification. A new tag
is to be placed on the scaffold or platform.

11)

Employees are not permitted to work on a RED tagged scaffold. Any scaffold that is not
tagged, regardless of reason, shall be assumed to be "UNSAFE FOR USE."

WORK PERMIT SYSTEM


What do you know about work permit system?
There are various permits required on the project. The following are examples of the more
common or most used:

COLD WORK - Work that does not ordinarily create enough heat to ignite flammable gas-air
mixtures or flammable materials.

HOT WORK - Any work, tool, or equipment (welding, burning, grinding, vehicles, portable
welders, etc.) which might provide a source of ignition for a flammable mixture.

OPENING/BLINDING - Exposing the interior of any process equipment such as tanks, pipes,
vessels, etc., to the atmosphere.

CONFINED SPACE - The authorization required to enter any vessel, pipe, confined space,
excavation etc., for any reason.

LOCK AND TAG - Required to prohibit operation of a valve, switch or piece of equipment when
injury or property damage could result from the operation.

EXCAVATION - To provide guidance for and protection of employees working in and around
excavations and trenches.

LIFTING To control all lifts 5 ton and greater and could be engineered or non-engineered lifts.

CONSTRUCTION Apart from any other work, all work requires a daily permit for all construction
work.

ROAD CLOSURE To close Roads to prevent access when hazardous work is being performed.

RADIOGRAPHY Required for all radiography and NDT work.

Again, these are the more frequently used permits. There are some task specific permits required
for certain task i.e. Hot Tapping, etc. that will be addressed by your supervisor.

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)

An ELCB is a specialized type of latching relay that has a buildings incoming main power
connected through its switching contacts so that the ELCB disconnects the power in an earth
lekage (unsafe) condition.

The ELCB detects fault currents from live (hot) to the earth (ground) wire within the installation it
protects. If sufficient voltage appears across the ELCBs sense coli, it will switch off the power,
and remain off until manually reset, An ELCB however, does not sense fault currents from live to
any other earthed body.

Accident Frequency Rate


Number of lost time incident x 200,000 / total Number of manhours work for the period.
Note : 200,000 came from 40 hours per week x 50 weeks a year x 100 personnel
average on site.
Severity Rate
Number of manhours Lost x number of employees / total number of Mahours worked for the
period.

What is a hazard?
The meaning of the word hazard can be confusing. Often dictionaries do not give specific
definitions or combine it with the term "risk". For example, one dictionary defines hazard as "a
danger or risk" which helps explain why many people use the terms interchangeably.
There are many definitions for hazard but the more common definition when talking about
workplace health and safety is:
A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or
someone under certain conditions at work.
Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects (to individuals as health effects or to
organizations as property or equipment losses).
Sometimes a hazard is referred to as being the actual harm or the health effect it caused rather
than the hazard. For example, the disease tuberculosis (TB) might be called a hazard by some
but in general the TB-causing bacteria would be considered the "hazard" or "hazardous biological
agent".

What are examples of a hazard?


Workplace hazards can come from a wide range of sources. General examples include any
substance, material, process, practice, etc that has the ability to cause harm or adverse health
effect to a person under certain conditions. See Table 1.
Table 1
Examples of Hazards and Their Effects

Workplace Hazard

Example of Hazard

Example of Harm Caused

Thing

Knife

Cut

Substance

Benzene

Leukemia

Material

Asbestos

Mesothelioma

Source of Energy

Electricity

Shock, electrocution

Condition

Wet floor

Slips, falls

Process

Welding

Metal fume fever

Practice

Hard rock mining

Silicosis

As shown in Table 1, workplace hazards also include practices or conditions that release
uncontrolled energy like:

an object that could fall from a height (potential or gravitational energy),


a run-away chemical reaction (chemical energy),
the release of compressed gas or steam (pressure; high temperature),
entanglement of hair or clothing in rotating equipment (kinetic energy), or
contact with electrodes of a battery or capacitor (electrical energy).

What is risk?
Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health
effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss.
For example: The risk of developing cancer from smoking cigarettes could be expressed as
"cigarette smokers are 12 times (for example) more likely to die of lung cancer than nonsmokers". Another way of reporting risk is "a certain number ,"Y", of smokers per 100,000
smokers will likely develop lung cancer" (depending on their age and how many years they have
been smoking). These risks are expressed as a probability or likelihood of developing a disease
or getting injured, whereas hazards refer to the possible consequences (e.g., lung cancer,
emphysema and heart disease from cigarette smoking).
Factors that influence the degree of risk include:

how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition,


how the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapour, skin contact), and
how severe are the effects under the conditions of exposure.

What is an adverse health effect?


A general definition of adverse health effect is "any change in body function or the structures of
cells that can lead to disease or health problems".
Adverse health effects include:

bodily injury,
disease,
change in the way the body functions, grows, or develops,

effects on a developing fetus (teratogenic effects, fetotoxic effects),


effects on children, grandchildren, etc. (inheritable genetic effects)
decrease in life span,
change in mental condition resulting from stress, traumatic experiences, exposure to
solvents, and so on, and
effects on the ability to accommodate additional stress.

Will exposure to hazards in the workplace always cause injury, illness or other adverse
health effects?
Not necessarily. To answer this question, you need to know:

what hazards are present,


how a person is exposed (route of exposure, as well as how often and how much
exposure occurred),
what kind of effect could result from the specific exposure a person experienced,
the risk (or likelihood) that exposure to a hazardous thing or condition would cause an
injury, or disease or some incidence causing damage, and
how severe would the damage, injury or harm (adverse health effect) be from the
exposure.
The effects can be acute, meaning that the injury or harm can occur or be felt as soon as a
person comes in contact with the hazardous agent (e.g., a splash of acid in a person's eyes).
Some responses to may be chronic (delayed). For example, exposure to poison ivy may cause
red swelling on the skin two to six hours after contact with the plant. On the other hand, longer
delays are possible: mesothelioma, a kind of cancer in the lining in the lung cavity, can develop
over 20 years or more after exposure to asbestos.
Once the hazard is removed or eliminated, the effects may be reversible or irreversible. For
example, a hazard may cause an injury that can heal completely (reversible) or result in an
untreatable disease (irreversible).

What types of hazards are there?


A common way to classify hazards is by category:

biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc.,
chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical.
ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc.,
physical - radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum),
noise, etc,
psychosocial - stress, violence, etc.,
safety - slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment
malfunctions or breakdowns

Waste Management
Waste Classification (Quoted from Royal Commission Regulations)
Hazardous Wastes

These are defined as any solid, semi solid, liquid, or contained gaseous waste, or combination of
such wastes, which may be because of its quantity, concentration, physical or chemical
characteristics pose a hazard or potential hazard to human health or the environment when
improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of or otherwise managed. These wastes shall
also include chemicals identified as discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification
products/chemicals, containers, residues and spill residues. Hazardous waste also includes all
wastes with the following properties:

Ignitable

Corrosive

Reactive

Toxic

Radioactive

Biohazard

Non-Hazardous Industrial Wastes: These include solid, liquid, semi-liquid or contained gaseous
materials or wastes resulting from industrial, agricultural or mining, water supply treatment, waste
water treatment or air pollution control facilities, provided they are not hazardous, municipal or
inert wastes as defined below.

Municipal Waste or Biodegradable waste : Includes garbage, refuse and other non-hazardous
decomposable materials resulting from industrial, residential and other community sources.

Inert Wastes or Non Biodegradable waste: Are those wastes, which are not biologically or
chemically active in the natural environment, such as glass, concrete, brick and some
plastic/rubber products. Cannot be decomposed materials.
Mechanical Equipment

Operators
Only trained personnel shall operate any mechanical equipment. Operators shall be trained in
the procedures and functions relevant to a specific piece of equipment. They shall be fully aware
of the capabilities and limitations of their equipment and have a day to day knowledge of the
maintenance that it requires.

Operators of mobile heavy equipment shall be in possession of a Saudi Arabian Government


license and a Third Party Inspection unit certificate for that particular class of equipment.

General Requirements
Guards shall shield all moving parts of the equipment. Guards shall be installed on equipment
before it arrives on site and shall be maintained in position.

Guards removed to carry out

servicing shall be replaced before the equipment is returned to service.

All machinery shall be inspected before being placed into service and at regular intervals
thereafter.

Maintenance schedules shall be established and strictly adhered to.

The adjustment, repair, or replacement of parts on moving machinery shall be strictly prohibited.
Machinery shall be stopped and deactivated before any repairs, to ensure that it cannot be
accidentally started.

At the start of every day the operator shall check oil, water, fuel, and hydraulic levels, and that all
gauges on the machine are working correctly. Guards, limit switches, governors, etc. shall also
be checked daily.

When vehicles are left unattended engines shall be stopped and the parking brakes applied. All
hydraulic equipment shall be lowered to the ground before the operator leaves the machine.
o

Cabs shall have 360 visibility and shall be kept clean and free from loose materials or tools.
Windows shall be kept clean at all times and shall be replaced if the glass is broken, pitted, or
cracked.

Where the operator of mobile equipment cannot see the area around his machine an attendant
shall be in position to direct and instruct the operator.Flagman is required to all moving
mechanical equipment such as cranes, bulldozer, excavatiors, forklifts, loaders, backhoe,
manlifts, scissors lift. Such equipment shall be equipped with reversing alarm.

Equipment shall be so located as to ensure that exhaust fumes will not affect other workers.
Petrol driven machinery shall not operate inside buildings or other confined spaces.