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Introduction of Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior : Its Basic nature

Orgnization: A structured social system consisting of group and individuals

working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives

Organizational Behavior :

The field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational
setting through the use of the scientific method.

The Three Levels of analysis used in organizational behavior :

That is, workers influence their environment and are also influenced by their
At the individual level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the study of
learning, perception, creativity, motivation, personality, turnover, task
performance, cooperative behavior, deviant behavior, ethics, and cognition. At this
level of analysis, organizational behavior draws heavily upon psychology,
engineering, and medicine.
At the group level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the study of group
dynamics, intra- and intergroup conflict and cohesion, leadership, power, norms,
interpersonal communication, networks, and roles. At this level of analysis,
organizational behavior draws upon the sociological and socio-psychological
At the organization level of analysis, organizational behavior involves the study of
topics such as organizational culture, organizational structure, cultural diversity,
inter-organizational cooperation and conflict, change, technology, and external
environmental forces. At this level of analysis, organizational behavior draws
uponanthropology and political science.

The multidisciplinary related to organizational behavior

Political science
Management science

Theory X VS theory Y
Theory X considers that on the whole, workers dislike their work, and have little inherent motivation to
perform well. Therefore, if organizational goals are to be met, 'Theory X' managers must rely heavily
on detailed rules and instructions, on close monitoring, and on the threat of punishment to gain
employee compliance. When practiced, this theory can lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision
and a punitive atmosphere. The 'Theory X' manager believes that all actions should be traced and the

responsible individual given a direct reward or a reprimand according to the action's outcomes. This
managerial style is more effective when used to motivate a workforce that is not inherently motivated
to perform. It is usually exercised in professions where promotion is infrequent, unlikely or even
impossible and where workers perform repetitive tasks. A flaw of this management style is that it limits
the employee's potential and discourages creative thinking. [c
Theory Y, in contrast, is based on the belief that, given appropriate working conditions, most people
perform well. The worker is considered as the most important asset of the company. It is believed that
workers can derive satisfaction from their physical and mental work, viewing it as a game or as
something to be enjoyed. Workers can take responsibility and can solve problems in a creative way, so
that they do not need to be shadowed constantly; workers will commit to objectives in proportion to the
satisfaction they get from achieving them. Thus, Theory Y managers consider that to achieve the
objectives of the company, they must treat each worker as a mature and responsible individual, and
adopt a style of participatory, democratic leadership, based on self-direction and self-control and
requiring little external control
Syntesis of thepry x dan y
For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not opposite ends of the same continuum, but rather two different continua
in themselves. In order to achieve the most efficient production, a combination of both Theories may be
appropriate. It is likely that a manager will need to take both approaches depending on the evolving
circumstances (internal and external) and personalities.
Concepts similar to Theory X and Theory Y have formed part of the theory of military command and control,
with Theory X suggesting a more hierarchical and centralized approach and Theory Y suggesting a more
decentralized one, allowing greater scope for individual initiative.

Perception and learning : understanding & adapting to the work environment

Social Perception and Social Indentify

Social Perception :The process of combining, integrating, and interpreting
information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them.
Social Identify Theory
Personal identify : The characteristics that define a particular individual. E.g:
my characteristic (1m 25 yo, Im 165cm, Im interested in sports)
Social identify : Who a person is, as defined in term of his or her membership
in various social groups. E.g : Group to which I belong (Im an American, Im a
student of PU)
A conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and
ourselves is based on both unique and characteristics (see personal identify)
and our membership in various groups (see social identify)
Causal Attribution of Responsibility
Two major classes of explanations for the causes of someones behavior :
Internal causes of behavior
External causes of behavior
Perceptual biases :

Perceptual biases
Fundamental attribution error
Halo effect
Similar-to-me effect
Selective perception
First impression error

Oganizational Applications
Performance appraisal
The process of evaluating employees on various work-related dimensions.
The employment interview :Self promotion technique
Corporate image :Impression Management by organizations
Individual Differences : personality and abilities
Defining Personality: The unique and relatively stable patterms of behavior,
thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals
The Role of Personality in Organizational Behavior
Personality Matters :
By nature, some individual are highly expressive,
and tend to show their feelings openly. Others, however, are inclined to hold
their feeling inside. Such differences are likely to be seen in many ways on
the job.
Interactionist Perspective : The view that behavior is a result of a complex
interplay between personality and situational factors.
The Interactionist Perspective
Will the person do X ?
Person does or doesnt do X
- Elements of the person
Can the person do X ? Knowledge
Is this the kind of person who is inclined to do X ?
- Elements of the situation
Does the setting encourage or discourage the person to do X ?
Situational demands
How to the Measure Personality ?
Objectives test
Questionnares and inventories designed to measure various aspects of
Reability and validity :
essential requirements of personality tests
The Big Five Dimentions of Personality :
Conscientiousness : hardworking, organized, dependable, persevering VS
lazy, disorganized, unreliable.
Extraversion : gregarious, assertive,sociable VS being reserve, timid, quiet
Agreeableness : cooperative, warm VS cold, belligerent.

Emotional Stability : insecure, anxious,depreesed, emotional VS calm, self

confident, secure.
Openness to Experience : creative, curious, cultured VS practical, closed to
Achievement Motivation
The strength of an indiviuals desire to excel-to suceed at difficult tasks and
to to them better than other persons.
Learning goal orientation -> Primary Goals : enjoy learning, new skills, like a
Performance goal orientation -> Primary Goals : Demonstrate commpeence
to others
Avoidance goal orientation -> Primary Goals :Avoid critism from others or
appearing incompetent to them