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# Chapter 8 Microwave filters

## 8.3 Filter design by the insertion loss method

power loss ratio, maximally flat and equal-ripple LPF
prototypes
8.4 Filter transformations
impedance and frequency scaling, LPF HPF, BPF, BSF
8.5 Filter implementation
Richards transformation, Kurodas identities
8.6 Stepped-impedance low-pass filters
microstrip LPF
8.7 Coupled line filters
Z- and Y-inverters, microstrip BPF
8.8 Filters using coupled resonators
BSF, BPF
8-1

## 8.3 Filter design by the insertion loss method

Power loss ratio (insertion loss)

PLR

PLR

Pinc

PR

filter
(lossless)
Pin

LPF

PL

Pinc
Pinc

PL Pinc PR
1

1 ()

1
M (2 )
1
M (2 ) N (2 )

M ( )
Discussion
1
N (2 )
1. Pinc ( Pavs , available power from source) Pin PR
Pin PL for a lossless filter
P
insertion loss IL 10 log PLR 10 log inc ( 10 log GT ) (12.13)
PL
2

20 log S 21 , if S L 0)
return loss RL 10 log

Pinc
20 log
PR
8-2

2. ( w) is an even function of w ( w)

M(w2 )
(p.169)

2
2
M(w ) N(w )

## v (t ) : real Re V ( w) : even, Im V ( w) : odd V ( w) V * ( w)

I ( w) I * ( w), Z ( w) Z * ( w), ( w) * ( w)
2

## 3. Maximally flat (Butterworth, binomial) LPF

w
PLR ( w) 1 ( )2 N , wc :cutoff frequency, 1 PLR ( wc ) 2 3dB
wc
stopband attenuation 20 NdB / decade

## 4. Equal ripple (Chebyshev, optimal) LPF

2 w 2N
PLR ( w) 1 TN ( ) , PLR ( wc ) 1
wc

## ripple 10log(1 ) in passband, stopband attenuation 20 NdB / decade

frequency responses (p.400, Fig. 8.21)

8-3

## 5. Filter design procedure:

specification LPF prototype LPF, HPF, BPF, or BSF
transformation microstrip realization
6. Filter specification:
frequency range, BW, IL, stopband attenuation and frequencies,
input and output impedances, VSWR, group delay, phase
linearity, temperature range, and transient response.
LPF prototype
go=1
wc=1

g2
g1

g3

8-4

gN+1

go=1

g1

g3
g2

wc=1

g4

gN+1

Discussion
1. Maximally flat LPF prototype design equations
IL 10 log[1 (

w 2N
) ]
wc

wc 1, g o g N 1 1, g k 2 sin
log(10 IL ( w ) /10 1)
N
w
2 log
wc
8-5

(2 k 1)
2N

k 1, 2 ,...N

## 2. Element values for maximally flat LPF prototype are given in

Table 8.3 of p.404, frequency response given in Fig. 8.26 of p.405.
3. Equal-ripple LPF prototype design equations
IL 10 log[1 TN2 (
10

ripple ( dB )
10

w
)]
wc

1 w
N
cos(
cos
) 0 w wc

c
TN ( w)
cosh( N cosh 1 w ) w w
c

wc
cosh 1[10 IL ( w ) /10 1] /[10
N
w
cos 1 ( )
wc

ripple ( dB )
10

8-6

1]

wc 1, g o 1, g1

sinh

, g N 1

N odd
1,

2
coth
, N even

2N

ln[coth
gk

2 a1

10 log( 1)
]
17 .37

4 a k 1a k
, k 2,3,... N
bk 1bk

a k sin

k
( 2 k 1)
, bk 2 sin 2
, k 1,2,... N
N
2N

4. Element values for equal-ripple LPF prototype (p.406, Table 8.4) and
frequency response (p.407, Fig. 8.27)

8-7

## 8.4 Filter transformations

g o 1 R o impedance R o
Impedance scaling
C
scaled values: RS ' Ro , RL ' Ro RL , L ' Ro L, C '
Ro
Frequency scaling
w
w
w :1 wc P 'LR ( w) PLR ( ) same impedance, w
wc
wc
jX L j

w
L
L jwL ' L '
wc
wc

jBC j

w
C
C jwC ' C '
wc
wc

scaled values:

## Impedance and frequency scaling

scaled values: RS ' Ro ,RL ' Ro RL ,L '
8-8

Ro L
C
,C '
wc
Ro wc

## Frequency scaling for HPF, BPF and BSF

LPF

HPF

BPF

L
wo

1
wc L

1
wcC

BSF

wo L

C
wo

8-9

L
wo

1
wo L

wo C

1
wo C
C
wo

w2 w1
: fractional BW
wo

Discussion
1. Ex. 8.3 design a maximally flat LPF, fc=2GHz, Zo=50, IL(3GHz)
=15dB
from Fig.8.26, IL 15dB for

w
1 0.5 @ 3GHz N 5
wc

C1
C1 ' C5 '
0.984 pF
50 wc
L2 ' L4 '
C3 '

50 L2
6.438nH
wc

C3
3.183 pF
50 wc

## frequency response (p.412, Fig. 8.30) with the comparison of

equal-ripple and linear phase LPF

8-10

PLR

PLR

w
-1

-wc

wc

wc
0 ,1 wc , 1 wc w
w
1
1
1

jwL'
jwC
L'

wC

wc C
j c

LPF
HPF
w

C' 1
wc L
1

jwL j

wc L
w
jwC'

8-11

## 3. LPF BPF frequency scaling

PLR

PLR

w
-1

0 wo ,1 w2 , 1 w1 w

-wo

wo

-w2 -w1

w1 w2

1 w wo
(
), wo

w
wo

w1 w2 ,

w2 w1
wo

1
1
1
C

jwC
C'
, L'

Cwo
C w wo
C

j (
jw
)

wo
w
wo jw BPF
wo
LPF

L' L , C'
Lwo
L w wo
L

) jw
jwL j (

wo
w
w
w
jw

o
o
8-12

wo C

wo L

PLR

PLR

-wo

w
-1

-w2 -w1

0 ,1 w1 , 1 w2 w

wo
w1

w2

wo w

w wo

wo
1
jw
1

jwC

C
1
jC
(
) jwC C wo

C'
,
L'

w
w
o

wo
wo C

w wo
LPF
BSF

L' L , C' 1
1

)
jwL jL (

wo
wo L
w
w
w
jw
o
o

w wo
jwL Lwo
8-13

## 5. Ex. 8.4 design a N=3, 0.5dB equal-ripple BPF, fo=1GHz, Zo=50,

BW=10%
from Table 8.4, L1 L3 1.5963, C 2 1.0967, R L 1
L1 ' L3 '
C1 ' C 3 '
L2 '

L1 50
127 nH
wo

0.199 pF
wo L1 50

50
0.726 nH
wo C 2

C 2 '

C2
34.91 pF
50 wo

8-14

## 8.5 Filter implementation

Richards transformation
, tanl = tan ( l/vp)
lumped elements commensurate lines with S.C. or O.C. stub

Z in j L
1
Z in
jC

Z in jL

1
Z in
j C

c
L,
8
1 c
,
C 8

Discussion
1. 1 tan l tan 2 c tan 1
c
c
c
4
c 8

c
2. c
8f c 4c stub response repeats every 4c.
8

c 8

8-15

Kurodas identites
1
Z2

Z1

Z1
U.E.

Z2
U.E.

Z2
n2
U.E.

n 2Z1

## U.E. (unit element) : c/8 line

8-16

Z1
n2

1
n2Z 2

U.E.

Z2
n 1
Z1
2

1 : n2

Z1

Z2

U.E.

Z2
n2
U.E.

Z1
n2
1
n 2Z 2

1
Z2

Z1

U.E.

n2 :1

n 2Z1

U.E.
n2 1

Z2
Z1

Discussion
1. Use c/8 redundant lines to separate stubs.
2. series L (short stub) shunt C (open stub)
series C and shunt L change positions
8-17

3. derivation of (a)

Z1

cos l
jY sin l
o

1
Y

Z1
n2

Z2
n2
U.E.

U.E.

Z2

Z o ,l

1
jZ o sin l
1
j

cos l
1 2
Z o

jZ o

1 0

open-circuited shunt stub

j

1
0 Z o

1 1
0
short-circuited shunt stub
1
1

jZ o
8-18

1
0

Z
1

D L

A
C

1
1 2

1 2

1 2

1
j

Z 2

j ( 1 1 )
Z1
Z2

D R

Zo
1

open-circuited series stub
j

0
1

1 j Z
o

0
1

0 1
j
1
Z 1
j Z 1
Z
1 2 1
Z2

j Z 1

j Z 2

1
j Z 1

n 2 1
1

n2
2
2

1 j n
1
0
1

Z
Z
1
(
)

1
2

n2
Z2
2

n
1

Z
j n 2
Z1

1 2 1

Z2
Z2

8-19

## 4. Microstrp LPF design procedure

series L, shunt C c/8 series short stub, c/8 shunt open stub
add redundant c/8 Zo lines c/8 shunt open stubs
consider discontinuity effects
5. Ex.8.5 design a 3dB equal-ripple LPF with fc=4GHz, N=3,
Zin, Zout=50
Zo=3.3487 Zo=3.3487
L1=3.3487

L3=3.3487
l = c /8
C2=0.7117
Zo=1.405

8-20

Zo=3.3487 Zo=3.3487
Zo=4.35
Zo=1

Zo=1.405

Zo=1

(a)
(b)
Kurodas identity

Zo=1.299

50

Zo=4.35

Zo=1.405

217.5 217.5

Zo=1.299

50
l = c/8

frequency response
(p.421, Fig.8.37)

8-21

## 6. Similar procedures can be used for bandstop filters, but Kuroda

identities are not useful for highpass or bandpass filters.

## Series capacitor transformation is not

available in Kuroda identities.

8-22

## 8.6 Stepped-impedance LPF

Short transmission line section
jZo tan

Z o , ,l

l
2

jZ o tan

jZo sin l

Zo

Zo
j sin l

j tan

low Zo

Zo

j tan

l
2

high Zo
jwL jZh lh

Z l , ll
4

Z
1
l
jwC jll

8-23

Z h , lh

Discussion
1. (derivation)

A
C

C
A

Z C1

Z o , ,l

Z11 Z12

B cos

D jYo sin

Z22 Z12
Z11 Z12 jZo[

Z12

jZo tan

8-24

jZ o sin
,
cos

Zo
j tan
Zo
j sin

Zo
j sin

Zo
j tan

2sin2

cos
1
2

] jZo

sin sin
2sin cos
2
2

Y12
Y11 Y12

Y22 Y12

D
B
Y 1

B
Y11 Y12

1
jZ o sin

jZ o tan

1
jZ o tan
B

A
1

jZ o sin
B
1 cos
1

[
]
jZ o sin sin

j tan

Zo

## 2. Microstrp LPF design procedure

L, C select proper Zh, Zl at cutoff frequency RoL= Zh lh,
Ro/C= Zl / ll lh , ll consider parasitics of L,C and discontinuity
effects
3. Considerations of Zl

l
4

Zl
1
1

sin ll CZl

j sin ll jC
2
8-25

Zl

1
C 2

1
ll sin 1 CZl open stubs?

4. Considerations of Zh
Z h 2L, fabrication ?
L
1
jZ h sin lh jL sin lh

1
L
Zh
lh sin 1
, capacitor coupling?
2

Zh
l

## 5. Ex.8.6 design a maximally flat LPF with fc=2.5GHz, IL(4GHz)=20

dB, Zin, Zout =50, Zh=120, Zl =20
L2=1.414

L4=1.932

C1=0.517 C3=1.932

L6=0.517

C5=1.414

8-26

lh =RoL/ Zh,
ll =CZl / Ro
frequency response
(p.425, Fig.8.41)

## 8.7 Coupled line filters

Coupled line BPF element

C
C

/4

jC 1 C 2

1
C2

jC 1 C 2

j 1 C2
1

( j 1 C 2 )( j 1 C 2 )

j 1 C2

[C 2 (1 C 2 )]2 4C 4 4C 2 1

[ j 2C 1 C 2 ]2 4C 2 (1 C 2 ) 4C 4 4C 2

1 + 4

=1

1
if C
,
2

1 =0,

4
8-27

=1

/4

b1
b j
2
b3

b4

b1
b j
2
b3

b4

j 1 C2

1 C2

j 1 C2

j 1 C2

1 C2

j 1 C2

[ (1 C 2 )+C 2 ]a1
0

C 1

0
2 0
=

0
0

[ j 1 C 2 C j 1 C 2 C ]a1
ja1

8-28

a1

2
0
C

1
j
C
a

2 0
Ca1
j 1 C

0
0

j 1 C2 a
C
1

2
Ca1
j 1 C

## Impedance and admittance inverters (p.422, Fig. 8.38)

impedance inverter
K, 90
Z in

/ 2

Zo

/ 2

K,

K Z o tan

jX Z o
tan 1

-C

-C
C

J , 90

ZL
J2
Yin
YL

K
ZL

K
,X
K
2
1 ( )2
Zo

/ 2

Yo

2X
Zo

YL

1
,
J
4

/ 2 J Y tan , B
o
2

jB Yo
tan 1

1
C

-C
8-29

-C

J
J
1 ( )2
Yo

2B
Yo

J C

## (derivation of impedance inverter)

/ 2
K,

Zo

/ 2

jX Z o

A B cos l
C D jY sin l

Z o K l 2 0
jZ o sin l
,
j

cos l l

4
K

cos 2

j sin
Z o
2

0 cos
2

1 j
Z sin 2
o

jZ o sin 1
2
1

cos
jX
2

A B 1
C D Y

0
1

jK

Z

jZ o sin cos o sin
2
2X

1
cos
j ( sin cos 2 )
2 Z o
X
2

Zo

sin 2 )
X
2

Zo

cos
sin

2X

jZ o (sin

K
(1) (2) X
1 2 X
Zo
tan
K
cos
sin 0
1 ( )2
Zo
2X
Zo
Z
Z
j

1
1
j ( sin cos 2 ) sin o cos 2 o ...(1)

2 tan
2
2
K
X
K
Zo
X
2K / Zo
2X

2
Z
K

K
Z
tan
,
tan

2
o
Zo

o
sin sin
...(2)

2
Zo 1 ( K )2
jZ o (sin sin 2 ) jK
1 tan 2
2
X
Z
o
2
X
Zo
2

8-30

-C
K,

-C

A B 1 Z
C D 0 1

C
Y

A B 1
C D Y

0
1

Z o K l 2 0 jK
jZ o sin l
A B cos l

,
j

C D jY sin l
cos l l
0

o
K

4
1
K
1
1
C

1
1
1

1
0
A
B
0
j

j
C
j C

C D

j C 1

0
0
1
1 jC

8-31

/ 2

1
,
J
4
A B cos l
C D jY sin l

cos

sin
jY
o

sin
Yo
2 1

cos 0
2

Yo

/ 2

Yo J l 2
jZ o sin l
0

cos l l
jJ
4

1 cos
2
jB

1 jYo sin
2

jB Yo

A B 1 Z
C D 0 1

j

J

Y
j

sin cos o sin
Yo
2
2B

2
2
B

1
1
sin cos 2 )
Yo
B
2

Yo
cos
sin
2B

J
(1) (2) B
J
1 ( )2
Yo
j(

2B
Yo
tan 1
sin 0
Yo
2B
Y
Y
j
1
1

## j ( sin cos 2 ) sin o cos 2 o ...(1)

2 tan
J
B
J
Yo
B
2
2
2 J / Yo

2B
2
Yo
J

tan
, J Yo tan
2
Yo
2
sin sin ...(2)

Yo 1 ( J ) 2
2
jYo (sin sin ) jJ
1 tan 2
B
Yo
2
B
2
Yo
2
cos

8-32

C
1
,
J
4

-C

A B 1 Z
C D 0 1

Z
-C
Y

A B cos l
C D jY sin l

0 1
A B 1
C D j C 1

Y J l 2
jZ o sin l o
0
,

cos l l
jJ
4
1

0
1
0

j C

jC 1
1
jC

8-33

1
jJ

0
1
j C

A B 1
C D Y

0
1

J C

Discussion
1.
3

1/2 -1/2

Zo,

J
-90o

Zo,

1/2 1/2
1

design equation #1

Z oe Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) 2 ]

,
2 Z oo Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) 2 ]

## V1e V1e V1o V1o

For the left circuit: V1 V V V V , I1

Z oe Z oe Z oo Z oo

1e

j
1e

V2 V e

1e

j
1o

V e V e

1e

1o

1o

e
e
e
e
V e , I2
Z oe
Z oe
Z oo
Z oo

1o

## V1e V1e V1o V1o

V3 V V V V , I 3

Z oe Z oe Z oo Z oo

1e

1e

j
1e

V4 V e

1o

1e

1o

j
1o

V e V e

## V1e j V1e j V1o j V1o j

e
e
e
e
V e , I4
Z oe
Z oe
Z oo
Z oo

1o

8-34

V1 Z11
V Z
4 14

Z14 I1
V1
,

Z
Z11 I 4 11 I1

, Z14
I4 0

V4
I1

V1o V1o e j 2
ports 2, 3 open, I 2 I3 0
I4 0

V1e V1o

Z oe Z oo
V1e V1o

Z oe Z oo

Z11
A B Z 41
C D 1

Z
41

I 4 0

j
Z11 ( Z oe Z oo ) cot
2

j
Z14 ( Z oe Z oo ) csc
2

Z11Z 44
( Z oe Z oo ) 2 ( Z oe Z oo ) 2 cos
Z oe Z oo
Z14
cos 2 j

Z 41
Z
Z
Z
Z
(
)
sin

oo
oe
oo

oe

Z 44

Z oe Z oo
sin
cos

2j
Z 41
Z
Z
Z
Z

oe
oo
oe
oo

8-35

Zo,

J
-90o

Zo,

j cos
jZ o sin
jZ o sin 0

sin
cos
jY

cos jJ

Yo
j

2
2
2
(
)
sin
cos
sin
cos
Z
J

jZ
J
o
o

J
J

2
Y
Y
2
2
o
o
jJ cos j
sin ( Z o J ) sin cos
J
J

Yo
Z oe Z oo
Yo2
j 2 sin
2
" " ( Z o J ) sin cos
cos , jJ cos j
sin 2
J
Z oe Z oo
J
Z oe Z oo
cos
jY sin
o

Z oe Z oo
Y
J
Z o J o , Z oe Z oo 2 2 2 JZ o2
Yo
Z oe Z oo
J

Z oe Z o (1 JZ o J 2 Z o2 )
Z oo Z o (1 JZ o J 2 Z o2 )

8-36

Z1

2.
Zo, 2

Z1

1 : -1

Z2

2Z o

design equation #2 L
,C
2o Z o
o
Z1
Z1
Z12
Z

1
2
1
1 0
1
jZ o sin 2 Z 2
cos 2
Z2
Z2

jY sin 2

Z
cos 2 1
0 1
1
o
1 1
Z 2
Z 2
Z 2
jZ o
Z2
jZ o
Z2
sin
2

sin 2
Z1
(1 ) cos 2
Z1 jZ o cot
Z2
8-37

Z12
2 Z1

Z2
Z
1 1
Z 2

jZ o cot jZ o cot 1 : -1
jZ o
sin 2

for

2 l

C
Zin

1 : -1

jZ o wo
w

, cot 0
w w
w
w
w
w
l o
sin 2 sin(
) sin

c
wo
wo
wo
wo
j ( wo w) L
1
jwL
Z in

2
2
1

1
w
LC
1
(
w
w
)
LC

o
jwC
jwL

j ( wo w) L
jwo ( wo w) L jwo2

L
1
2w
2w
(2 wo w w 2 ) 2
wo
2Z o
jwo2
jwo Z o
1

,C
" "
L
L

2w
w
wo
Lwo2 2 wo Z o
8-38

J1

1
Zo

2 g1

, Ji

2 Z o gi 1 gi

, J N 1

1
Zo

2 g N g N 1

C1

L2
L1

C2
Zo

Yin

J1

J2

8-39

J3

Zo

ZoJ:1
J
-90

0
left :

jJ

1 : ZoJ

Zo, o/4

j
0

right:

J
jY

JZ
jZ o o
0 0

Zo, o/4
0 1
1 , JZ o
JZ o 0

ZoJ1:1

0 0
jYo
JZ o

jZ o
0

1 : ZoJ3
C1

L1

J2
-90

C2

L2

Zo

Yin
8-40

## 4. Coupled line BPF design

g1

g2

g3

Z o
gi
shunt
element

o g i
o Z o
, Ci
Li
g i Z o series element

o
o g i Z o
8-41

gN

shunt element
,
series element

2 1
o

J1

design equation #3 J1

Zo

JN+1

J2

J1
-90o

1
Zo

Zo, 2

1
, Ji
, J N 1
Zo
2 g1
2 Z o gi 1 g i

Zo, 2

J2
-90o

design eq. #1 ,
2

JN+1
-90o

2 g N g N 1

Zo

Z oe Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) 2 ]

2
Z oo Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) ]

N+1
8-42

## 4. Microstrp coupled line BPF design procedure

LPF prototype gi Ji Zoei, Zooi microstrip line Wi, Si
consider discontunuity effects
J1

1
Zo

2 g1

, Ji

2 Z o gi 1 gi

, J N 1

1
Zo

2 g N g N 1

Z oe Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) 2 ], Z oo Z o [1 JZ o ( JZ o ) 2 ]

## 5. Ex.8.7 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple coupled line BPF, N=3,

fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50
i

gi

1
2
3
4

1.5963
1.0967
1.5963
1.0000

ZoJi

Zoe

Zoo

0.3137
0.1187
0.1187
0.3137

70.61
56.64
56.64
70.61

39.24
44.77
44.77
39.24

8-43

frequency response
(p.436, Fig.8.46)
IL(1.8GHz) 20dB

/4 stub

design equation

C
O.C. line: Z in
Z in

j tan(

Zo

Zo
w wo w
w o w c

, l
j tan
c 4
c 4 fo
wo
2 wo
2

w
2 wo

## series LC: Z in jwL

j

Z o
4
,C
o Z o
4 o

jZ o tan

w
2 wo

jZ o

( w wo )
2 wo

L
L w wo
1
1
( w LC
) j
(
)
j

jwC
C
C
w
w
w LC
o

4 wo L
L ( w wo )( w wo )
L 2( w wo )
j
j 2 L ( w wo ) Z o
C
wo w
C
wo

## Zo, o/4 S.C.

C
8-44

design equation
Zo
4
, L
C
o Z o
4 o

Discussion
1. BSF using /4 open-circuit stub
g1

J=1/Zo
-90o

g2

g3

J=1/Zo
-90o
8-45

gN

J=1/Zo
-90o

Zo, o/4

Zo, o/4

Zo, o/4

Zoi, o/4
4Zo

BSF:
open-circuit
shunt
stub
Z
oi
design equation
4
gi
(BPF:

Zo
4 gi

8-46

## 2. Ex.8.8 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple /4 stub BSF,

N=3, fo=2GHz, BW=15%, Zo=50
i

gi

Zoi

1 1.5963 265.9
2 1.0967 387
3 1.5963 265.9
frequency response (p.440, Fig.8.49)
3. Design procedure for microstrip BPF or BSF using /4 stub
LPF prototype gi /4 open-circuit or short-circui stubs Zoi
microstrip line consider discontunuity effect
4. BPF using capacitively coupled series resonator
Zo

J1
90o

Zo,

Zo,

J2
90o
8-47

JN+1
90o

Zo

1 / 2 1 / 2

N 1 / 2 N 1 / 2

2 / 2 2 / 2

Zo

jB1

Zo,

jB2

Zo,

jBN+1

Zo

Zo

jB1

Zo, 1

jB2

Zo, 2

jBN+1

Zo

2B
2B
design
o (l o ), i i i 1 (tan 1 i tan 1 i 1 )
2
2
2
Yo
Yo
equation
Bi

Ji
1 (Zo J i )2
8-48

## 5. Design procedure for microstrip BPF using capacitively coupled

resonator
LPF prototype gi Ji Bi, i Ci, i microstrip gap width
and line length consider discontunuity effect
6. Ex.8.9 design a 0.5dB ripple equal-ripple BPF using capacitively
coupled resonators, fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50, IL(2.2GHz) >
20dB
Ci(pF)

i(deg)

1 1.5963 0.3137
6.96
0.554
2 1.0967 0.1187
2.41
0.192
3 1.5963 0.1187
2.41
0.192
4 1.0000 0.3137
6.96
0.554
frequency response (p.443, Fig.8.51)

155.8
166.5
166.5

gi

ZoJi

Bi(x10-3)

8-49

## 7. BPF using capacitively coupled shunt stub resonator

J01
-90o

J12
-90o

C1 L1

C01
-C01

C2 L2

CN LN

JN,N +1
-90o

C12

CN,N+1

C1 L1 -C12 -C12 C2 L2

design equation Z o J 01
C 01

4 g1

J 01
w0 1 ( Z 0 J 01 ) 2

CN LN -CN,N+1

, Z o J n , n 1

, C n , n 1

8-50

4 g n g n 1

J n , n 1
w0

, Z o J N , N 1

, C N , N 1

4 g N g N 1

J N , N 1
w0 1 ( Z 0 J N , N 1 ) 2

C01

C12

C1 L1
C01

Zo, l1

CN,N+1

C2 L2
C12

CN LN

CN,N+1

Zo, l2
Zo, l2

design equation
C n' C n C n 1,n C n ,n 1 C n C n , C n C n 1,n C n ,n 1
ln

Z o wo C n

2
8-51

## (derivation of the change of stub length due to a shunt capacitor)

Cn

Zo, /4
YL

Y YL jwo C n

YL

1
tan l
Zo

Z o 1 jY tan l
L
Zo

o l
Zo

1
1
1 Z o jZ L tan l

Z jZ o tan l
Z
Z o Z L jZ o tan l
Zo L
Z o jZ L tan l
YL j

jwo C n j

Zo, /4

l 1

YL j

l
Zo

2 l
Z w C
l o o n
Z o
2

8-52

## 8. Design procedure for BPF using capacitively coupled shunt stub

resonator
LPF prototype gi Ji-1,i Ci Ci li resonator length
consider discontunuity effect
9. Ex.8.10 design a 0.5dB ripple 3rd order equal-ripple BPF using
capacitively coupled shunt resonators, fo=2GHz, BW=10%, Zo=50,
i

gi

ZoJi-1,i Ci-1,i(pF)

Ci(pF)

li()

1 1.5963 0.2218
0.2896 -0.3652 -0.04565 73.6
2 1.0967 0.0594
0.0756 -0.1512 -0.0189
83.2
3 1.5963 0.0594
0.0756 -0.3652 -0.04565 73.6
4 1.0000 0.2218
0.2896
frequency response (p.447, Fig.8.54)