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The LPG or propane which is flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in
many applications like homes, hostels, industries, automobiles, vehicles because of its
desirable properties which include high calorific value, which produce the less smoke,
produces less soot, and does not cause much harm to the environment. Natural gas is another
widely used fuel in homes. Both gases burn to produce clean energy, however there is a
serious problem about their leakage in the air. The gases being heavier than air do not disperse
easily and may lead to suffocation when inhaled also when gas leakage into the air may lead
to explosion. Due to the explosion of LP gas the number of deaths has been increased in
recent years. To avoid this problem there is a need for a system to detect and also prevent
leakage of LPG. Gas leak detection is the process of identifying potentially hazardous gas
leaks by means of various sensors. These sensors usually employ an audible alarm to alert
people when a dangerous gas has been detected.
Gas sensors are employed in a wide range of applications in the fields of safety, health,
instrumentation etc... Common examples are domestic/commercial alarms for explosive or
toxic gases, or in automotive application as gas leakage detectors for LPG powered cars and
exhausts detectors inside any fuel powered truck/car. Such sensors, nowadays, are found also
in applications involving air quality control systems and pollution monitoring. Todays
sensors, while featuring a high sensitivity to a wide gases variety, are very compact in size
and have significantly reduced their power consumption to better adapt to portable solutions.
Building a system with a gas sensor is not as easy as it could appear. Despite the sensor could
be treated, basically, as a variable resistor (which value depends on gas concentration in air)
the practical implementation in a project should be done considering some design rules,
especially if the final circuit is a device to be used in a field where reliability is strongly
required. This Structure and configuration of MQ-6 gas sensor is (Configuration A or B),
sensor composed by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, Tin Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer,
measuring electrode and heater are fixed into a crust made by plastic and stainless steel net.
The heater provides necessary work conditions for work of sensitive components. The
enveloped MQ-6 has 6 pin, 4 of them are used to fetch signals, and other 2 are used for
providing heating current.

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Fig: Block diagram of the LPG detection circuit


MQ6 is a semiconductor type gas sensor which detects the gas leakage. The sensitive
material of MQ-6 is tin dioxide (SnO2). It has very low conductivity in clean air. This Gas
sensor not only has sensitivity to propane and butane but also to other natural gases, the
sensor could be used to detect different combustible gas, especially Methane, it is with low
cost and suitable for different application. The MQ-6 gas sensor is shown in below fig.

Fig2.1.1: MQ6 Sensor

This sensor can also be used for detection of other combustible gas such as methane
The concentration range of MQ-6 gas sensor is 300-1000 ppm. This sensor is available in 6
pins package, out of which 4 pins are used for fetching the signals and other 2 pins are used
for providing heating current. This sensor has fast response time The power need by the
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sensor is 5V. This sensor has different resistance value in different concentration. For an
example, if we calibrate the MQ-6 gas sensor to the 1000ppm of propane concentration in air,
then the resistance value would be approximately 20k. The change in the resistance value
with respect to the concentration as discussed below is shown in fig.

Fig 2.1.2. shows the typical sensitivity characteristics of the MQ-6 gas sensor for several

2.1.1 Structure and configuration

Structure and configuration of MQ-6 gas sensor is shown as Fig. 3, sensor composed
by micro AL2O3 ceramic tube, Tin Dioxide (SnO2) sensitive layer, measuring electrode and
heater are fixed into a crust made by plastic and stainless steel net. The heater provides
necessary work conditions for work of sensitive components. The enveloped MQ-4 has 6 pin,
4 of them are used to fetch signals, and other 2 are used for providing heating current.

Fig 2.1.3: structure and configuration of MQ6 sensor

2.1.2 Test Circuit diagram

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Fig 2.1.4: Test circuit of MQ6

The above is basic test circuit of the sensor. The sensor need to be put 2 voltages,
heater voltage(VH)and test voltage(VC). VH used to supply certified working temperature to
the sensor, while VC used to detect voltage (VRL) on load resistance (RL)whom is in series
with sensor. The sensor has light polarity, Vc need DC power. VC and VH could use same
power circuit with precondition to assure performance of sensor. In order to make the sensor
with better performance, suitable RL value is needed Power of Sensitivity body(Ps)
Ps=Vc2Rs/(Rs+RL) Square
Resistance of sensor(Rs): Rs=(Vc/VRL-1) RL

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2.1.3 Technical data

Table 2.1.1: technical data

2.1.4 Characters
* Good sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range.
* High sensitivity to Propane, Butane and LPG.
* Long life and low cost.
* Simple drive circuit.
2.1.5 Applications
* Domestic gas leakage detector.
* Industrial Combustible gas detector.
* Portable gas detector.

2.2 IC LM358

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The IC or integrated circuit is a little black chip, it is a root of modern electronics, and
also an essential component in many electronic circuits. The applications of integrated circuits
involve in each and every electronic circuit board, embedded systems and various electronic
projects. An integrated circuit is a set of various electrical and electronic components like
resistors, capacitors, transistors. All these components are integrated onto a single chip. They
are available in various forms like 555 timers, single circuit logic gates, microprocessors,
microcontrollers, voltage regulators and op-amps like IC 741, LM324 IC, LM358 IC, LM339
IC and many more.
The LM358 IC is a great, low power and easy to use dual channel op-amp IC. It is
designed and introduced by national semiconductor. It consists of two internally frequency
compensated, high gain, independent op-amps. This IC is designed for specially to operate
from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. The LM358 IC is available in a
chip sized package and applications of this op amp include conventional op-amp circuits, DC
gain blocks and transducer amplifiers. LM358 IC is a good, standard operational amplifier
and it is suitable for your needs. It can handle 3-32V DC supply & source up to 20mA per
channel. This op-amp is apt, if you want to operate two separate op-amps for a single power
supply. Its available in an 8-pin DIP package is shown in the below fig.

Fig 2.2.1: LM358

2.2.1 Pin configuration

Fig2.2.2: pin configuration

The pin diagram of LM358 IC comprises of 8 pins,
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Pin-1 and pin-8 are o/p of the comparator
Pin-2 and pin-6 are inverting i/p
Pin-3 and pin-5 are non-inverting i/p
Pin-4 is GND terminal
Pin-8 is VCC+
2.2.3 Features

Wide Supply Ranges.

Single Supply: 3 V to 32 V.

Dual Supplies: 1.5 V to 16 V.

Low Supply-Current Drain, Independent of Supply.

Wide Unity Gain Bandwidth: 0.7 MHz

Common-Mode Input Voltage Range Includes Ground, Allowing Direct Sensing Near

Low Input Bias and Offset Parameters

Input Offset Voltage: 3 mV Typical.
A Versions: 2 mV Typical.
Input Bias Current: 20 nA Typical.
A Versions: 15 nA Typical.

Differential Input Voltage Range Equal to Maximum-Rated Supply Voltage: 32 V.

Open-Loop Differential Voltage Gain: 100 dB Typical.

Internal Frequency Compensation.

2.2.4 Applications

Blu-ray Players and Home Theatres.

Chemical and Gas Sensors.

DVD Recorder and Players.

Digital Multimeter: Bench and Systems.

Digital Multimeter: Handhelds.

Field Transmitter: Temperature Sensors.

Motor Control: AC Induction, Brushed DC, Brushless DC, High-Voltage, Low

Voltage, Permanent Magnet, and Stepper Motor Oscilloscopes.

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TV: LCD and Digital.

Temperature Sensors or Controllers Using Modbus.

Weigh Scales.


It is named as Transistor which is of two terms: transfer-of-resistor. It means that the
internal resistance of transistor transfers from one value to another values depending on the
biasing voltage applied to the Transistor. Thus it is called TRANSfer resISTOR i.e.
A Transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals
and electrical power. Transistors works wonderfully for computer production. With smart
engineering, Transistors help computers power through huge numbers of calculations in a
short time. The simple switch operation of transistors is what enables our computer to
complete massively complex tasks. In a computer chip, Transistors switch between two binary
states 0 and 1. This is the language of computers. One computer chip can have millions of
transistors continually switching, helping complete complex calculations.
2.3.1 What is a Transistor made of?
Transistors are made from silicon, a chemical element found in sand, which does not
normally conduct electricity (it doesnt allow electrons to flow through it easily). Because
electrons have a negative charge, silicon treated this way is called n-type (negative type) and
also known as NPN Transistor. We can also dope silicon with other impurities such as boron,
gallium, and aluminium. Silicon treated this way will lose some electrons, so electrons in
nearby materials will tend to flow into it. A lack of electrons is the same thing as a positive
charge, so we call this sort of silicon p-type (positive type) and also known as PNP Transistor.
2.3.2 Brief Introduction to a NPN Transistor
The NPN transistor can be used in two different modes: forward biased mode and the
reverse biased mode. In forward biased mode, the electric current can easily flow through it.
So it acts like a CLOSED SWITCH. However, in reverse biased mode, the current through it
is practically zero and thus, it acts like an OPEN SWITCH.

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Fig 2.3.1: NPN transistor

BC547 is an NPN Bi-polar junction transistor (BJT) as shown in below figure. A

transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to amplify current. A small
current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals.

B Base

Fig 2.3.2: BC 547 transistor pin configuration

Together with other electronic components, such as resistors, coils, and capacitors, it
can be used as the active component for switches and amplifiers. Like all other NPN
transistors, this type has and emitter terminal, a base or control terminal, and a collector
terminal as shown in figure 2. In a typical configuration, the current flowing from the base to
the emitter controls the collector current. A short vertical line, which is the base, can indicate
the transistor schematic for an NPN transistor, and the emitter, which is a diagonal line
connecting to the base, is an arrowhead pointing away from the base.
BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum
current gain of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549. The transistor terminals
require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is
known as the Biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is
partly on for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter.
BC547 is used in common emitter configuration for amplifiers. The voltage divider is the
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commonly used biasing mode. For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it
remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely
2.3.3 Working Principle of a NPN Transistor
The construction for a Bipolar NPN Transistor are shown in figure 3. The voltage
between the Base and Emitter (VBE), is positive at the Base and negative at the Emitter
because for an NPN Transistor, the Base terminal is always positive with respect to the

Fig 2.3.3: Circuit symbol of transistor

Also the Collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the Emitter (VCE). So for
a bipolar NPN Transistor to conduct the Collector is always more positive with respect to both
the Base and the Emitter.
In Forward biased condition, the collector is connected to high positive voltage with
respect to base i.e. Vcb is very high. So C-B junction is reverse biased. Vcb >> Vbe The base
is connected to low positive voltage with respect to emitter i.e. Vbe is low. When we increase
Vbe 0.7V (the value 0.7V is a typical value of potential barrier voltage) the Transistor is
forward biased. Now large number of electrons in emitter layer is repelled by negative
terminal of Vbe and they flow towards B-E junction. They cross the junction and enter into
small base layer. Here some electrons combine with holes. Also some of them are attracted by
positive terminal of Vbe and remaining maximum number of electrons flow into collector
layer, crossing the second junction i.e. C-B junction.

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The resident electrons of collector are repelled by these (guest) electrons and thus,
then all the electrons are present in collector layer are attracted by positive terminal of Vcb
Thus, all these electrons complete their journey back into emitter layer and produce
conventional currents in the transistor as shown in the above circuit. Thus, as per Kirchhoff
Current Law, we can write, Ic + Ib = Ie Now when Vbe is still increased, more electrons are
repelled by negative terminal of Vbe. So base-emitter junction is more and more forward
biased. Thus the base current (Ib) increases, which in turn increases Ic. Hence, we can say that
collector current (Ib) is the function of base current (Ib). But there is a typical value of Vbe
for each transistor, at which the collector current I no longer remain the function of base
current Ib. Also collector current is directly proportional to the base current. In all this
process, maximum number of electrons from emitter layer flow into collector layer. So
collector current is almost equal to emitter current. Hence we say that, collector current is
proportional to emitter current.

In Reverse Biased condition, both the junctions

are reverse biased as the batteries are

connected in opposite direction. Due to Vcb battery, the collector-base junction is reverse
biased. Similarly, due to Veb battery, the base-emitter junction is also reverse biased. So
charges cannot flow and current in the Transistor is practically zero. This method is not useful
as the Transistor is in cut-off state since current is zero.
2.3.4 Equivalent Replacement
The BC547, BC548, and

BC549 are a group of general-purpose

transistors with

similar electrical characteristics. For basic and simple low voltage audio applications, they are
almost equivalents. The BC548 and BC549 are very similar to the BC547 in every respect
apart from a difference in operating breakdown voltages. BC547 has a 50 V rating for Vcbo
and Vces, and 45 V for Vceo. The BC546 has an 80 V rating for Vcbo and Vces, and 65 V for
Current Rating
The absolute maximum current this transistor can handle is 100 mA. This is the DC current
rating. The peak current rating is 200 mA.
2.3.5 Uses
Typical applications include audio amplification and small signal circuits. It has a
transition frequency range up to 100 MHz When using the transistor as a switch, the max
current rating poses a limit on the type of loads that it can drive. This transistor has a max
collector rating of 100 mA which is enough to drive an LED circuit, or an LDR circuit, or a

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NOT gate. In addition, this transistor can switch low current Arduino microcontroller circuits,
and even a low current micro relay.

2.4 IC NE555 (TIMER)

The NE555 monolithic timing circuit is a highly stable controller capable of producing
accurate time delays or oscillation. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely
controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. For a stable operation as an oscillator, the
free running frequency and the duty cycle are both accurately controlled with two external
resistors and one capacitor.
The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms, and the output structure
can source or sink up to 200 mA.
2.4.1 Package

Fig 2.4.1:NE555 IC

2.4.2 Pin Details

Fig 2.4.2:pin diagram of NE555 TIMER

2.4.3 Schematic Diagram

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Fig 2.4.4:schematic diagram of NE555 TIMER

2.4.4 Applications
Monostable operation
In the monostable mode, the timer generates a single pulse. As shown in Figure the external
capacitor is initially held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. The circuit triggers on a
negative-going input signal when the level reaches 1/3 VCC. Once triggered, the circuit
remains in this state until the set time has elapsed, even if it is triggered again during this

Fig 2.4.5: Schematic diagram of monostable operation of NE555 IC

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Note that because the charge rate and the threshold level of the comparator are both
directly proportional to supply voltage, the timing interval is independent of supply. Applying
a negative pulse simultaneously to the reset terminal (pin 4) and the trigger terminal (pin 2)
during the timing cycle discharges the external capacitor and causes the cycle to start over.
The timing cycle now starts on the positive edge of the reset pulse. During the time the reset
pulse is applied, the output is driven to its LOW state.
When a negative trigger pulse is applied to pin 2, the flip-flop is set, releasing the
short circuit across the external capacitor and driving the output HIGH. The voltage across the
capacitor increases exponentially with the time constant t = R1C1. When the voltage across
the capacitor equals 2/3 VCC, the comparator resets the flip-flop which then discharges the
capacitor rapidly and drives the output to its LOW state.
Figure13 shows the actual waveforms generated in this mode of operation. When Reset is not
used, it should be tied high to avoid any possibility of unwanted triggering.
Waveforms in Monostable Operation

Fig 2.4.6: waveforms of monostable operation

Astable operation
When the circuit is connected as shown in Figure 15 (pins 2 and 6 connected) it
triggers itself

and free runs as a multi-vibrator. The external capacitor charges through R1

and R2 and discharges through R2 only. Thus the duty cycle can be set accurately by
adjusting the ratio of these two resistors.

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In the astable mode of operation, C1 charges and discharges between 1/3 VCC and 2/3
VCC. As in the triggered mode, the charge and discharge times and, therefore, frequency are
independent of the supply voltage.

Fig 2.4.7: schematic diagram of astable operation

Waveforms in astable operation

Fig:waveforms of astable operation

Pulse width modulator

When the timer is connected in the monostable mode and triggered with a continuous
pulse train, the output pulse width can be modulated by a signal applied to pin 5.

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Linear ramp
When the pull-up resistor, RA, in the monostable circuit is replaced by a constant
current source, a linear ramp is generated.
2.4. 5Features
Low turn-off time
Maximum operating frequency greater than 500 kHz
Timing from microseconds to hours
Operates in both astable and monostable modes
Output can source or sink up to 200 mA
Adjustable duty cycle
TTL compatible
Temperature stability of 0.005% per C












mechanical,electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include

alarm devices,timers, and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.
2.5.1 Appllicatios
While technological advancements have caused buzzers to be impractical and
undesirable, there are still instances in which buzzers and similar circuits may be used.
Present days applications include:

Novelty uses
Judging Panels
Modern applications
Educational purposes
Annunciator panels
Electronic metronomes
Game show lock-out device
Microwave ovens and other household appliances
Sporting events such as basketball games
Electrical alarms
Joy buzzer- a mechanical buzzer used for pranks

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Presented here a circuit for raising an alarm on detecting smoke or LPG cooking gas
leakage, or alcohol vapours in breath. This is achieved by using a basic unit with different
sensors for smoke, LPG and alcohol. so, alarms can be made by simply changing the sensor.
Here we are using MQ6 sensor for LPG gas detection.

Fig 3.1: Circuit diagram for LPG detection alarm



: LM358 dual op-amp


: NE555 timer


: BC547 NPN transistor


: 10K ohm


: 4.7K ohm


: 220ohm


: 1K ohm


: 56K ohm


: 10K ohm potentiometer


: 100uf, 16V electrolytic

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: 0.047uf ceramic disk


: 0.01uf, ceramic disk


:47uf, 16V electrolytic


: On/Off switch


: 8ohm, 0.5-watt speaker

MQ* : MQ6 sensor

: 5V regulated supply
: 8 pin IC bases (2)


Above figure shows the smoke alarm. The basic unit employs dual op-amp
LM358(IC1), transistor T1 and timer NE555(IC2), configured in astable mode. Selection of
MQ6sensor is based on the purpose for which the alarm circuit is being designed. For the
smoke alarm circuit, you will need MQ2 sensor. Similarly, for detection of alcohol, MQ3
sensor is used, while MQ6 sensor is used for detecting LPG cooking gas.
MQ6 sensor has six pins. Heater filament, between pins H-H, is directly connected to5V and
ground. Two sets of inputs/output (I/O) pins A-a and B-B are present. Select any one set for
input to the basic unit. Arrangement of pins is shown in figure.
IC1 is wired in the non-inverting comparator mode, the reference voltage is applied to
inverting input (IN1-) and the voltage to be compared is applied to non-inverting input
(IN1+). Whenever voltage to be compared (IN+) goes above reference voltage (IN-), output
of the op-amp swings to high, and vice-versa. The alarm circuit is built around NE555. The
frequency of the astable multivibrator is dependent on the values of resistors R4 and R5, and
capacitor C2.
After connecting to 5V supply, wait for about 10 seconds for the filament to heat properly
adjust 10K potentiometer (VR1) till the alarm stop sounding.
Under normal conditions (that is, no fumes from LPG or no alcohol in breath near MQ6),
output of IC1 at pin 1 remains low. As a result, transistor T1 does not conduct, which make
pin 4 of IC 2low. It keeps timer NE555 on reset. There is no output at pin 3 of IC2 , and no
sound comes out of the speaker.

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On the other hand, when there are fumes from LPG, or there is alcohol in breath near MQ6,
output of IC1 at pin 1 goes high. As a result, transistor T1 drives into saturation and its emitter
goes high. Pin 4 of IC2 also goes into astable mode, producing pulsed wave at output at pin 3
of IC2, which is coupled to speaker LS1 through coupling capacitor C4, and an alarm is set
3.2.1 Test Points


: 0V (GND)
: 5V when switch S1 is on
: around 1.8V when no gas leakage
: 2.6V set using VR1
: low when no gas leakage and high when there is a gas leakage
: low when no gas leakage and high when there is a gas leakage


3.3.1 Resistor
Resistor is one of the Basic component found in almost all electronic circuits. The
property exhibited by a resistor is known as it name suggests, a resistor resists or
opposes the flow of current through it. the resistance of resistor is said to be linear if it obeys
ohms law it is called nonlinear resistance and consequently the resistors are known as Nonlinear resistors. It is represented by letter R.
Classification of resistors

Fixed resistors
Variable resistors

Fixed resistor
resistors whose ohmic values remain fixed at a constant value, are known as Fixed resistors
example: carbon resistors and wire wound resistors.
Variable resistors
Variable resistors are the resistors whose resistance value can be some
electrical/electronic circuits sometimes it is necessary to change the current values of current
and voltages. For example, it is often necessary to change the volume of sound and brightness
in T. V, volume of sound and tone in radios and to regulate the speed of fan. such adjustments

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can be done by using variable resistors the different types of variable resistors were
mentioned below

Tapped potentiometer

3.3.2 Capacitor
A capacitor or condenser is a two terminal positive component which

Has ability to store electric charge

Opposes instantaneous changes of voltage in the circuit in which it is connected
Blocks the passage of direct current and allows the alternating through it

A capacitor essentially consists of two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating medium

called has the property of capacitance represented by letter C
Classification of capacitor
Fixed capacitors
Variable capacitor
Fixed capacitors
Capacitors whose capacitance value cannot be varied mechanically or by any other
external means. These capacitors are usually having the fixed value with tolerance baring
from +- 1 to +- 20%. they are of various type depending on the use of dielectric between the
The different fixed capacitors are

Paper capacitors
Mica capacitors
Glass capacitors
Polyester capacitors
Polystyrene capacitors
Ceramic capacitors
Electrolytic capacitors

Variable capacitors

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The capacitors whose capacitance value can be varied are known as variable capacitors.
Based on the type of application the variable capacitors are divided into two types namely

Tuning capacitors
Trimming capacitors

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Protection from any gas leakage in cars
For safety from gas leakage in heating gas fired appliances like boilers, domestic
water heaters
Large industries which uses gas as their production
For safety from gas leakage in cooking gas fired appliances like ovens, stoves etc.


It is used in house as LPG leakage detection

It also detects alcohol so it is used as liquor tester.
The sensor has excellent sensitivity combined with a quick fast response time.
The system is highly reliable, tamper-proof and secure.
In the long run the maintenance cost is very less when Compared to the present

It is possible to get instantaneous results and with high accuracy.

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Overall system was designed and tested by introducing the small amount of LPG as
near gas sensor module. The system detects the level of gas in the air if it exceeds the safety
level it activates the alarm which includes Buzzer to alert the user at home in abnormal
condition and to take the necessary action.


With recent development in technology, improvement would be to accommodate with
GSM&GPS technology with multiple receiver MODEMS at different positions in the
geographical areas by using microcontrollers and temperature sensors. Multilingual display
can be another added variation in the project. Audio output can be introduced to make it user

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Overall system is to be designed and tested by introducing the small amount of LPG
gas near gas sensor module. The system detects the level of gas in the air if it exceeds the
safety level, this system automatically alerts the people by Buzzer and take the necessary
action of preventing the gas leakage.
In recent households, the use of LPG is taking a big roll. From the use of cylinder up
to the use of petroleum pipelines. The biggest advantage by using this technology is security.
And our project will prove to be boom for households, hostels, vehicles and industries. It is an
efficient home security system and also can be used in industries and other places to detect
gas leaks. The cost involved in developing the system is significantly low and is much less
than the cost of gas detectors commercially available in the market.

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&title=gas sensor
[5] Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd, MQ 5 sensor Datasheet
[6] P.Meenakshi Vidya, S.Abinaya, G.Geetha Rajeswari, N.Guna ,Automatic LPG detection
and hazard controlling published in April 2014.
[7] K.Padmapriya, Surekha, Preethi, Smart Gas Cylinder Using Embedded System,
published in 2014.
[8] C.Selvapriya, S.Sathyaprabha, M.Abdul rahim, LPG leakage monitoring and multilevel
alerting system, published in 2013.
[9] R.Padmapriya, E.Kamini,Automatic LPG Booking, Leakage Detection and a Real Time
LPG Measurement Monitoring System, published in 2013.
[10] V.Ramya, B.Palaniappan,Embedded system for Hazardous Gas detection and Alerting,
published in 2012.
[11] A.Mahalingam, R.T.Naayagi, N.E.Mastorakis, Design and Implementation of an
Economic Gas Leakage Detector, published in 2012.
[12] M.B.Frish, R.T.Wainner, B.D.Green, M.C.Laderer, M.G.Allen, Standoff Gas Leak
Detectors Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy, published in 2011.
[13] W. Chung, and D. Lee, "Real time muti-channel gas leak monitoring system using
CPLD chip," Sensors and Actuators B, Vol. 77, pp. 186- 189, 2001.
[14] Rajkamal, Embedded Systems: Architecture, Programming and Design, Tata

Hill Education.

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