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Brookhart, S. M. (in press). Formative assessment in teacher education. In D. J. Clandinin & J.

Husu
(Eds.) International handbook of research on teacher education. London: Sage.

Brookhart, S. M., Guskey, T. R., Bowers, A. J., McMillan, J. H., Smith, J. K., Smith, L. F., Stevens, M. T.,
& Welsh, M. E. (2016). A century of grading research: Meaning and value in the most common
educational measure. Review of Educational Research. doi: 10.3102/0034654316672069
Brookhart, S. M. (2016). Section discussion: Building assessments that work in classrooms. In G.T.L.
Brown & L. Harris (Eds.) Handbook of human and social conditions of assessment (pp. 351-366).
London: Routledge.
Brookhart, S. M. (2015). Graded achievement, tested achievement, and validity, Educational Assessment,
20(4), 268-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10627197.2015.1093928
Brookhart, S. M. (2015). Commentary: Assessment of historical thinking in practice. In K. Ercikan & P.
Seixas (Eds.), New directions in assessing historical thinking (pp. 183-192). New York: Routledge.
Brookhart, S. M., & Chen, F. (2015). The quality and effectiveness of descriptive rubrics. Educational
Review, 67(3), 343-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2014.929565
Brookhart, S. M., & Nitko, A. J. (2015). Educational assessment of students (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson
Education.
Brookhart, S. M. (2014). Review of the Machinist TestForm AR-C. In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger, & J.
L. Jonson (Eds.). The nineteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 393-396). Lincoln, NE: The
Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). The public understanding of assessment in educational reform in the United
States. Oxford Review of Education, 39, 52-71.
Moss, C. M., Brookhart, S. M., & Long, B. A. (2013). Administrators roles in helping teachers use
formative assessment information. Applied Measurement in Education, 26, 205-218..
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). Classroom assessment in the context of motivation theory and research. In J. H.
McMillan (Ed.), SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment (pp. 35-54). Thousand
Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). Grading. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), SAGE handbook of research on classroom
assessment (pp. 257-271). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). The use of teacher judgment for summative assessment in the United States.
Assessment in Education, 20, 69-90.
Brookhart, S. M. (2013). Comprehensive assessment systems in service of learning: Getting the balance
right. In R. W. Lissitz (Ed.), Informing the practice of teaching using formative and interim
assessment: A systems approach (pp. 165-184). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Brookhart, S. M. (2012). Teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment. In Webber, C.F., &
Lupart, J. L., Eds. Leading student assessment: Trends and opportunities (pp. 225-239).
Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Brookhart, S. M. (2011, November). Book review: From testing to productive student learning:
Implementing formative assessment in Confucian-heritage settings, by David Carless. Teachers
College Record. Available http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=16603

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Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Educational assessment knowledge and skills for teachers. Educational
Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(1), 3-12.
Brookhart, S. M., & Nitko, A. J. (2011). Strategies for constructing assessments of higher order thinking
skills. In G. Schraw & D. R. Robinson (Eds.), Assessment of higher order thinking skills (pp. 327359). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010). Review of the Wechsler Fundamentals: Academic Skills tests. In R. A. Spies, J.
F. Carlson, & K. F. Geisinger (Eds.). The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 690695). Lincoln, NE: The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010). Review of the C1 and C2 Correctional Officer Tests. In R. A. Spies, J. F. Carlson,
& K. F. Geisinger (Eds.). The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 76-78). Lincoln,
NE: The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010). Review of C-BDQ Background Data Questionnaire. In R. A. Spies, J. F. Carlson,
& K. F. Geisinger (Eds.). The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 75-76). Lincoln,
NE: The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M., Moss, C. M., & Long, B. A. (2010). Teacher inquiry into formative assessment practices
in remedial reading classrooms. Assessment in Education, 17(1), 41-58.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010). Mixing it up: Combining sources of classroom achievement information for
formative and summative purposes. In H. L. Andrade & G. J. Cizek (Eds.), Handbook of formative
assessment (pp.279-296). New York: Routledge.
Brookhart, S. M. (2010, April). Review of Hugging the middle: How teachers teach in an era of testing and
accountability by Larry Cuban. Education Review. Available:
http://edrev.asu.edu/reviews/rev906.pdf
Nitko, A. J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Educational assessment of students (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson
Education.
Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Accountability policies and measures: What we know and what we need.
Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Brookhart, S. M., Moss, C. M., & Long, B. A. (2009). Promoting student ownership of learning through
high-impact formative assessment practices. Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Evaluation, 6(12), 5267. Available: http://survey.ate.wmich.edu/jmde/index.php/jmde_1/article/view/234/229
Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Grading (2nd ed.). New York: Merrill Pearson Education.
Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Assessment, gender and in/equity. In C. Wyatt-Smith & J. Cumming (Eds.),
Educational assessment in the 21st century. Springer.
Brookhart, S. M., & Nitko, A. J. (2008). Assessment and grading in classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Merrill Prentice Hall.
McElligott, J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Legal issues of grading in the era of high stakes accountability. In
T. Guskey, (Ed.), Practical solutions for serious problems in standards-based grading (pp. 57-74).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Brookhart, S. M. (2008). Portfolio assessment. In T. Good (Ed.), 21st century education (Vol. 1, pp.443450). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Assessment and examinations. In L. J. Saha & A. G. Dworkin, (Eds.),
International handbook of research on teachers and teaching (pp. 703-718). New York: Springer.
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Gronlund, N. E., & Brookhart, S. M. (2009). Gronlunds writing instructional objectives (8th ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Brookhart, S. M. (2007). Expanding views about formative classroom assessment: A review of the
literature. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative classroom assessment: Theory into practice (pp.4362). New York: Teachers College Press.
Nitko, A. J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2007). Educational assessment of students (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Brookhart, S. M., Walsh, J. M., & Zientarski, W. A. (2006). The dynamics of motivation and effort for
classroom assessments in middle school science and social studies. Applied Measurement in
Education, 19(2), 151-184.
Brookhart, S. M. (2005). Review of the Content Analysis Battery. In R. A. Spies & B. Plake (Eds.). The
sixteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 275-276). Lincoln, NE: The Buros Institute of
Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2005). Review of the Personal Characteristics Inventory. In R. A. Spies & B. Plake
(Eds.). The sixteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 756-758). Lincoln, NE: The Buros
Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2005). The quality of local district assessments used in Nebraskas School-based
Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS). Educational Measurement: Issues and
Practice, 24(2), 14-21.
Kush. J. C., Watkins, M. W., & Brookhart, S. M. (2005). The temporal-interactive influence of reading
achievement and reading attitude. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11, 29-44.
Brookhart, S. M. (2004). Assessment theory for college classrooms. In M. Svinicki & M. Achacoso (Eds.).
Evaluating student learning: New strategies. A volume of New Directions in Teaching and
Learning, 100, p. 5-14. Jossey-Bass.
Brookhart, S. M., Andolina, M., Zuza, M., & Furman, R. (2004). Minute math: an action research study of
student self-assessment. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 57, 213-227.
Brookhart, S. M. (2004). Classroom assessment: Tensions and intersections in theory and practice.
Teachers College Record, 106, 431-460.
Brookhart, S. M. (2004). Grading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Brookhart, S. M. (2003). Developing measurement theory for classroom assessment purposes and uses.
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 22, 5-12.
Brookhart, S. M. & Bronowicz, D. L. (2003). I don't like writing. It makes my fingers hurt: Students talk
about their classroom assessments. Assessment in Education, 10, 221-242.
Brookhart, S. M. & Durkin, D. T. (2003). Classroom assessment, student motivation, and achievement in
high school social studies classes. Applied Measurement in Education, 16, 27-54.
Brookhart, S. M. (2002). What will teachers know about assessment, and how will that improve
instruction? In R. W. Lissitz & W. D. Schafer (Eds.) Assessments in educational reform: Both
means and ends (pp. 2-17). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Brookhart, S. M. (2001). Successful students' formative and summative use of assessment information.
Assessment in Education, 8, 153-169.

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Brookhart, S. M. (2001). Review of the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency, Forms K, L, & M. In J. C.
Impara & B. S. Plake (Eds.) The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 1269-1272).
Lincoln, NE: The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (2001). Classroom assessment and research: An update on uses, approaches, and
research findings, Thomas A. Angelo (Ed.) [Book review]. Teachers College Record , 103, 5-7.
Brookhart, S. M. (2000). Classroom assessment and research: An update on uses, approaches,and
research findings, Thomas A. Angelo (Ed.) [Book review]. Teachers College Record website:
http://www.tcrecord.org/PrintIdKwParam.asp?@IdNumber=10528
Schommer, M. , Mau, W., Brookhart, S., & Hutter, R. (2000). Understanding middle students' beliefs about
knowledge and learning using a multidimensional paradigm. Journal of Educational Research, 94,
120-127.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). So that more can play the game well A review of The new rules of
measurement: What every psychologist and educator should know by Susan E. Embretson and
Scott L. Hershberger. Issues in Education, 5, 295-305.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Forum on education and academics: Measuring the marigolds. National Forum,
79(4), 3-4.
Brookhart, S. M., & DeVoge, J. G. (1999). Testing a theory about the role of classroom assessment in
student motivation and achievement. Applied Measurement in Education, 12, 409-425.
Loadman, W. E., Freeman, D. J., Brookhart, S. M., Rahman, M. A., & McCague, G. J. (1999).
Development of a national survey of teacher education program graduates. Journal of Educational
Research, 93, 76-89.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). ERIC Tracks: Assessing student learning in college classrooms. The National
Teaching & Learning Forum, 8(5), 9-11.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy.
ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report (Vol. 27, No. 1). Washington, DC: The George Washington
University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Teaching about communicating assessment results and grading. Educational
Measurement: Issues and Practice, 18(1), 5-13.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Response to Delandshere and Petroskys Assessment of complex
performances: Limitations of key measurement assumptions. Educational Researcher, 28(3), 2528.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Forum on education and academics: Educational research: In time and space.
National Forum, 79(2), 3-4.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Review of Educative Assessment by Grant Wiggins. Education Review [online
journal, available http:// coe.asu.edu/edrev/ reviews/rev50.htm]
Freeman, D. J., Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1999). Realities of teaching in racially/ethnically
diverse schools: Feedback from entry-level teachers. Urban Education, 34(1). 89-114.
Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Review of Action research: A handbook for practitioners by Ernest T. Stringer.
American Journal of Evaluation, 20(1), 155-156.
Brookhart, S. M. (1998). Forum on education and academics: Winnow and cultivate. National Forum,
78(4), 3-5.

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Brookhart, S. M. (1998). Forum on education and academics: Why grade inflation is not a problem with
a just say no solution. National Forum, 78(2), 3-5.
Brookhart, S. M. (1998). Review of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Forms K, L, &M. In J. C. Impara & B. S.
Plake (Eds.) The thirteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 539-542). Lincoln, NE: The
Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (1998). Determinants of student effort on schoolwork and school-based achievement.
Journal of Educational Research, 91, 201-208.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). Forum on education and academics: Classroom assessment: Pervasive, pivotal,
and primary. National Forum, 77(4), 3, 5, 8.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). The validity and reliability of information from a student annotation form for work
samples in portfolios. Journal of Research Methodology, 10, 15-36.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). Effects of the classroom assessment environment on mathematics and science
achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 90, 323-330.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). Forum on education and academics: Looking under the hood. National Forum,
77(2), 3,5.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). A field-based intruduction to urban education at the middle school. Mid-Western
Educational Researcher, 10(2), 2-8.
Brookhart, S. M. (1997). A theoretical framework for the role of classroom assessment in motivating
student effort and achievement. Applied Measurement in Education, 10(2), 161-180.
Brookhart, S. M., Casile, W. J., & McCown, R. R. (1997). Enhancing the possibility of success by
measuring the probability of failure in an educational program. Evaluation and Program Planning,
20(1), 17-25.
Henderson, J. E., & Brookhart, S. M. (1996). Leader authenticity: Key to organizational climate, health,
and perceived leader effectiveness. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), 87-103.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1996). Characteristics of male elementary teachers in the United
States, at teacher education program entry and exit. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(2),
197-210.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1995). Perspectives on teacher assessment goals and their
associated methods. In S. W. Soled (Ed.) Assessment, testing, and evaluation in teacher
education (pp. 9-39). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Brookhart, S. M. (1995). Review of the Content Mastery Examination for Educators. In J. C. Conoley & J.
C. Impara (Eds.) The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 232-234). Lincoln, NE: The
Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Brookhart, S. M. (1995). Review of the Content Mastery Examination for Educators. Accession number
AN-12031406, Mental Measurements Yearbook Database (Search Label MMYD), BRS
Information Technologies.
Brookhart, S. M. (1995). Book review: Assessing student performance: Exploring the purpose and limits
of testing by Grant P. Wiggins. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 14(2), 29-30.
Brookhart, S. M. (1995). Review of the Rokeach Value Survey. In J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (Eds.) The
twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 878-879). Lincoln, NE: The Buros Institute of Mental
Measurements.
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Brookhart, S. M. (1994). Review of the Rokeach Value Survey. Accession number AN-12121038, Mental
Measurements Yearbook Database (Search Label MMYD), BRS Information Technologies.
Brookhart, S. M. (1994). Teachers' grading: Practice and theory. Applied Measurement in Education, 7,
279-301.
Brookhart, S. M., Loadman, W. E., & Miller, T. E. (1994). Relations between self-confidence and
educational beliefs before and after teacher education. College Student Journal, 28(1), 57-66.
Brookhart, S. M. (1993). Teachers' grading practices: Meaning and values. Journal of Educational
Measurement, 30, 123-142.
Brookhart, S. M. (1993). Assessing student achievement with term papers and written reports.
Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12(1), 40-47.
Brookhart, S. M., & Rusnak, T. G. (1993). A pedagogy of enrichment, not poverty: Successful lessons of
exemplary urban teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 17-26.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1992). School-university collaboration: Why it's multicultural
education. In Karwin, T. J. (Ed.), Beyond the handshakes: An examination of university-school
collaboration (pp. 49-76). Long Beach: California State University.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1992). School-university collaboration: Across cultures. Teaching
Education, 4(2), 53-68.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1992). School-university collaboration and perceived professional
rewards. Journal of Research in Education, 2(1), 68-76.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1992). Teacher assessment and validity: What do we want to know?
Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 5, 347-357.
Brookhart, S. M., and Freeman, D. J. (1992). Characteristics of entering teacher candidates.Review of
Educational Research, 62(1), 37-60.
Brookhart, S. M. (1992). Entering teacher candidates' conceptions of good teaching. Mid-Western
Educational Researcher, 5(1), 7-10, 19.
Loadman, W. E., Brookhart, S. M., & Wongwanich, S. (1991). Contrasting three measurement techniques
for scale development. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 4(3), 10-14.
Brookhart, S. M. (1991). Letter: Grading practices and validity. Educational Measurement: Issues and
Practice, 10(1), 35-36.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1990). School-university collaboration: Different workplace cultures.
Contemporary Education, 61(3), 125-128.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1990). Empirical evidence that school-university collaboration is
multicultural education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 6(2), 149-163.
Loadman, W. E., Brookhart, S. M., & Freeman, D. J. (1990). Developing a National Database for
preservice teacher education follow-up studies. In H. S. Schwartz (Ed.), Collaboration: Building
Common Agendas (Teacher Education Monograph No. 10, pp. 189-198.) Washington, DC: ERIC
Clearinghouse on Teacher Education.
Brookhart, S. M., & Loadman, W. E. (1989). Work perceptions of university and public school educators.
Higher Education Abstracts, 25(1), 124-125.

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