Theoretical Fundamentals and Implementation
of Novel Self-Adaptive Distance Protection
Resistant to Power Swings

© All Rights Reserved

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Theoretical Fundamentals and Implementation
of Novel Self-Adaptive Distance Protection
Resistant to Power Swings

© All Rights Reserved

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of Novel Self-Adaptive Distance Protection

Resistant to Power Swings

Xiangning Lin, Senior Member, IEEE, Zhengtian Li, Shuohao Ke, and Yan Gao

AbstractTo deal with the maloperation of distance protection

in the case of power swings, the criterion of concentric circle was

widely used. This criterion is implemented based on the time difference that the apparent impedance locus passes through boundaries of these two impedance circles. In many cases (e.g., a very fast

power swing), it will fail to block. Actually, with regard to different

moving loci, the time difference staying within the gap between two

circles and the corresponding time staying within the internal operating circle have an inherent relationship. In this paper, the aforementioned relationship is deliberately assumed and demonstrated.

The worst condition for the correct action of this criterion is presumed and proven, leading to the invention of novel distance protection which can operate rapidly during power swings. The necessary issues on the implementation of the proposed criterion are

discussed. Based on the result of the discussion, complete self-adaptive distance protection is put forward. On the basis of the aforementioned analysis, the availability and the feasibility of this novel

scheme are verified with the results of EMTDC simulations.

Index TermsDistance protection, power swing, power systems,

self-adaptive, swing locus.

I. INTRODUCTION

the design of protective relays[1]. A variety of protection

criteria that have ideal performance in theory but lack implementary means during the past time now are promising to be

implemented due to available reliable software and hardware

platforms. Correspondingly, the related work has been attached

with importance. However, other potential measures that can

Manuscript received August 21, 2009; revised November 19, 2009. First

published April 05, 2010; current version published June 23, 2010. This work

was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China

(50837002), in part by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-07-0325), in part by the National High Technology Research

and Development Program of China (2008AA05Z214), in part by the Major

State Basic Research Development Program (2009CB219700), and in part by

the State Grid Key Programs (SGKJJSKF (2008) 469 and the one approved in

2009). Paper no. TPWRD-00631-2009.

X. Lin is with the Electric Power Security and High Efficiency Lab,

Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074,

China and with the College of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, Hubei Province, China

(e-mail: linxiangning@hotmail.com).

Z. Li, S. Ke, and Y. Gao are with Electric Power Security and High Efficiency

Lab, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074,

China (e-mail: tianlz9806115@163.com; clint0774@sina.com; yaogao@mail.

hust.edu).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2043450

improve the performance of protection have been ignored inappropriately. For example, some theories are not consummate

enough during the period of analog-based protection. Once they

can be properly improved with the strong abilities of memorizing and calculating the microprocessor, their performances

are promising to attain or even exceed the level of state-ofthe-art protections. We are about to conduct some work on improving the operation performance of the distance protection

during power swings, for which no satisfactory solution is available until recently.

There are many causes resulting in the power swing [2].

When the swing center is located on the line being protected,

the swing locus will pass through the fast operation zone of

the distance protection, and the time of it staying within the

operation zone may be long. One existing and popular solution

in China is to block the fast protection for a period of time

when the power swing occurs. The supplementary criteria are

used to unblock the protection with a certain time delay after a

fault occurs during power swings. The existing practical criteria

,

,

, and

in China are dR/dt

so on [3]. Furthermore, many new algorithms to detect the

power swing and allow distance protection to operate relatively

fast dealing with the fault occurring during power swings are

proposed [4][9].

It should be admitted that the aforementioned criteria have

their disadvantages in some cases. For instance, the value of

dR/dt should be zero in theory when a fault occurs. However,

it could be a large number at the inception of the fault due

to transient, while it is small during some stages of power

swings (e.g., when the phase difference between two sources is

close to 180 ). In this sense, the discrimination between faults

and power swings becomes difficult. Therefore, a certain time

delay is inevitable for the protection to operate although the

unblocking condition is satisfied. As the criterion

uses as the restraint quantity, the time delay may be long in

some fault conditions. Meanwhile, a three-phase short-circuit

fault cannot be identified by this criterion. Lacking profound

analysis of the power swing process, no strict theoretical fundamental exists on how to set the operation threshold and the time

delay, together with the coordination of the operation threshold

and the time delay of the aforementioned criteria. These key

parameters are always adjusted according to tests and field conditions, which may lead to improper settings. Therefore, how to

ensure the operation reliability of the distance protection during

power swings is still a problem that deserves to be studied.

During the age of analog quantity-based protection, the criterion of concentric-circle was widely used [10]. That is, a

power swing blocking relay is arranged to encircle the measuring unit (e.g., the Zone I relay, as shown in Fig. 1). The principle of this method will be deliberated in the following section.

Due to its drawbacks due to resolution of the time interval limited by the hardware, this criterion is abandoned by some protection manufacturers. Actually, by means of the studies on the

changing laws of impedance during power swings, this drawback is not difficult to be overcome, and the rationally modified

criterion will have better sensitivity and selectivity than most

existing criteria.

The power swing is always estimated by means of the observation of the changing laws of the apparent impedance on the

(R, X) plane, as shown in Fig. 1.

Set the concentric circles on the (R, X) plane. The internal

distance relay, whose diameter is

circle is the zone I of

generally 0.8 times the impedance of the line. The external circle

,

has the same center as the small one, and its diameter is

corresponding to the zone II offset impedance circle. Set the radius of the external circle as and the radius of the small one

as . When the system operates normally, the phase difference

between the equivalent sources at two ends is small and invariable, and the coordinates of the apparent impedance always locate stably on a position far from these two concentric circles.

This phase difference increases gradually when a power swing

occurs. Correspondingly, the apparent impedance begins to approach the two concentric circles on the plane (R, X). The Zone

I protection may maloperate only when the swing locus passes

across the gap between the external circle and the internal circle

in a very short time and enter the internal circle in that this scenario is considered as an occurrence of fault. As for the simplicity of the analysis, the swing locus is regarded as a circle or

a beeline. First of all, the condition of beeline is investigated.

Set the real line ABCD in Fig. 1 to be a moving trace of the apparent impedance passing through the center of the two circles

during a power swing. It intersects with the two circles at A,

is an arbitrary

B, C, D, respectively. The dashed line

swing locus which does not pass through the center. It intersects with the two circles at

, and intersects with

. The apparent

the vertical halving line of BC, called EF, at

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ities, we assume the locus of the apparent impedance to be the

dashed line in Fig. 1.

at

during power

The phase difference increases to

swings, and the moving locus intersects with the external

circle. At this time, the impedance relay corresponding to the

external circle is at the critical operation point. At , the phase

difference continues augmenting to , and it intersects with the

internal circle. The Zone I distance relay operates at this time.

Afterwards, keeps on augmenting, and the zone I distance

protection keeps operating during this period of time. At

, the angle increases to , and the operation of the internal

circle resets. After that, the operation of the external circle

resets when the phase difference reaches . Then, keeps on

augmenting to 360 , and a swing cycle is finished.

According to the aforementioned analysis, the time interval

of the apparent impedance locus crossing the external circle and

, and the time

the internal circle successively is

. Hence, in

of it staying in the internal circle is

a certain swing cycle, when the moving locus of the apparent

impedance approaches the two concentric circles in any direction, only three possibilities exist, as follows.

and

do not start the timer.

1) Both

2)

is equal to zero but

is unequal to zero.

and

are unequal to zero.

3) Both

Obviously, condition 1 and 2 will not lead the protection to

is not equal to zero

maloperation. Generally, as long as

(when condition 3 is satisfied), the distance protection (especially the fast zone) always possibly maloperates.

will not be zero when the power swing center locates

within the protected line. The criterion of concentric-circle

is realized by the analog-based protections on the basis of the

aforementioned fact. Generally speaking, this scheme has the

following shortcomings: as the low precision of the time relay

is shorter than the minof analog-based protections, when

imum resolvability of the time relay due to very fast swing, the

blocking may be disabled and the protection is mistakenly unblocked and then maloperates. On the other hand, if the developing speed of the fault is slow during the power swing,

will be larger than the setting, leading the fault to being mistakenly identified as a swing, and the protection will be wongfully

blocked. Hence, the application of the swing blocking measures

based on this criterion cannot be regarded as a successful application in China.

and

have the determinative relationship in an

In fact,

individual swing cycle. During the process of swing, if a continuous sampling can be realized (i.e., the sampling cycle is an inalways has a certain value and

will

finitesimal number,

not be infinite when the swing locus passes through the center

always has a maximum. If

of the circle). Therefore,

can be

this maximum can be found, a protection delay

added according to the latest value of

, making it avoid this

short-time swing state leading to the maloperation of the protection. If so, during any process of power swings, the protection

can be reliably blocked. On the other hand, when an internal

fault occurs during power swings, in most cases, the protection

can trip with appropriate speed and with satisfactory selectivity.

The analysis is provided as follows.

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at the time exactly before an internal fault occurs, the apparent

impedance will generally pass through the gap between the two

concentric circles and fall into the internal circle, leading to a very

(inmostcases,

0).Inthisscenario,theadditional

small

time delay is very short, and this is the condition of most occurring

faults. Hence, this criterion will allow the protection to trip rapidly

under the condition of internal faults during power swings. If an

external fault occurs, the apparent impedance will not fall into the

internal circle (i.e., the operating zone). Therefore, this criterion

has natural selectivity. Only under the following extreme conditions will the time delay of the protection be prolonged. That is,

an internal fault occurs under the condition of a slow power swing

and, at this time, the moving locus of the apparent impedance just

may be a

falls into the internal circle critically. In this case,

significant number, leading to a large calculated

, so the

corresponding additional time delay may be long. However, by

means of correct coordination with every existing swing blocking

criterion, this problem is not hard to solve. The solution rests in

that this criterion is taken as the main criterion, and the existing

and

are taken as the supplecriteria of

ments. When the operation condition of the external circle is not

satisfied, the protections affected by power swings are always not

blocked. In this case, the unnecessary blocking of the protection is

avoided. Only when the operation condition of the external circle

is satisfied, will all of the protections affected by power swings be

and

, together

blocked for security. Then,

with the criterion proposed before, are enabled simultaneously.

An OR logic is used as the unblocking condition of protections.

is small, the proposed criterion can unblock the protecIf

is large as long as the operation conditions

tion rapidly; if

of the else criteria are satisfied, the protection will be unblocked

as soon as possible as well. Of course, the settings of the aforementioned three protections must ensure that under any possible

system power swing scenario, the protections cannot be allowed

to trip by mistake. It can be seen from the aforementioned analysis

that the ability of coordination and supplementing other existing

criteria is a significant advantage of this criterion.

Therefore, the following work rests with the affirmation

achieving the

and validation of the condition of

maximum.

III. CONDITION OF THE MAXIMUM VALUE

OF

AND ITS VALIDATION

As the theoretical fundamental of the following analysis of

applications, a proposition needs to be testified: the swing locus

incises the two concentric circles on (R, X) plane, leading three

line segments to occur within two concentric circles, as indicated in Fig. 1. We assume that the length of the line segment

(arc or beeline) in the internal circle is , and the length of the

line segments (arc or beeline) between two circles, which should

be two line segments, is . Correspondingly, the time interval

of the apparent impedance across the two circles successively

, and the time staying in the internal circle is

is

. Then, we have the following assumption:

(1)

= 1.

The demonstration of (1) is presented as below, which is divided into two scenarios.

The first scenario is that the locus is an arbitrary beeline

passing through the two concentric circles.

The aforementioned condition is that the ratio of the magnitudes of the electromotive forces (emfs) of the two side systems

is 1. The vector illustrations of all impedances in the system are

shown in Fig. 2, observed from the position where the protection

is installed. In this figure, the impedance angle of the system is

assumed to be equal to the impedance angle of the line. The apparent impedance can be expressed as

(2)

where

is the total impedance connected between two

equivalent sources, is the phase-angle difference between two

sources. And is the ratio of the system equivalent impedance

of the system at end , accounting for the total impedance

connected between two equivalent sources.

According to the knowledge of geometry, the swing locus

always vertically halves the vector line of the system total

, and the projection of the apparent impedance

impedance

, while the

on the swing locus line is

projection on the line of the system total impedance is

. Assume that the locus line intersects with

the circle at A, B, C, and D successively at , , , and

respectively, the corresponding phase differences are , ,

, and . Then, it intersects with the line of the system total

when

. The lengths of line segments

impedance at

and

can be calculated as follows:

(3)

(4)

Hence

(5)

and

superposes

. Therefore,

is halved by

, and we have

(6)

In most cases, is close to 180 when the swing locus approaches the circles, hence

(7)

According to (7), we have

(8)

(9)

Apparently,

is an isoceles triangle.

, then

(10)

and

(11)

Substituting it into (9), we then have

(12)

and

(13)

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systems are connected with such a weak link. The simplification resulting from the second scenario is a little bit deviated

from the practical electromechanical transient process. During

the time between the swing occurrence and the fastest swing

appearance, the relative movement of the phase differences of

the two systems is generally an accelerating process, while the

relative movement of the phase differences will enter a decelerating process if the system can eventually restore to stable.

However, because of the existence of inertia, their evolution is

doomed to be smooth whether it is a process of destabilization

or recovery, especially when the swing gradually subsides. As

for the evolution of a power swing, the time of the swing locus

passing through the first-half circle (including the gap between

two circles) will be longer than it passing through the last half

circle (according to the basic knowledge of physics, during

the period of accelerating movement in the case of passing

through the same distance, the time required by the last half

tenor will be shorter than that required by the first-half one).

In this case, the criterion has higher security because

is set according to

of the first-half circle. The operation

of the criterion in the regressive process of the power swing

should be focused on. In most cases, the regressive of the swing

is realized by a variety of safety automatic devices and correct

manual interventions, which means that the adjusting process

will be smooth and change slowly. In an individual swing cycle

(compared with the whole swing process, this is a relatively

short period of time), treating the phase difference relative

movement as a uniform speed movement will not lead to a great

error. On the other hand, even when the rare operation mode

and the system swing rapid cessation phenomena occurs, it will

also be handled properly, which will be discussed in Section IV.

The second scenario: The locus is a circle.

According to [10], in fact, the circle is the measuring locus of

, the center of the circle is

According to

(16)

(14)

And the radius is

We have

(15)

Thus, the first scenario is validated.

Now let us simply discuss the rationality of the aforementioned simplification. Equation (7) means that the swing locus

passes through the concentric circles only when is in the

vicinity of 180 . And the application of (14) indicates that

during every swing cycle, the swing is regarded as an invariable

speed moving process. As for the first scenario resulting from

(7), if the system can be equalized to two infinite systems via

a single and very long transmission line, which is an unusual

condition, the scenario of the swing locus falling into the

circles when just exceeds 90 possibly occurs. At this time,

the aforementioned simplification will definitely bring large

error. However, by virtue of the usual knowledge of power

system operation, it is very irrational that the two very strong

(17)

and

are the electromotive forces (emfs)s of the equivalent sources on the two sides. Generally, even under the condition of power swings, the discrepancy of the magnitudes of them

. Therefore,

.

is not large although

From (16) and (17), the center of that circle is far from the origin

of the impedance plane, and the radius is very long. In general

is much smaller than R, it is acceptable to

conditions, since

approximately regard the moving locus of

as a circle. Due

to the properties of the center and the radius of the circle, the

locus is still capable of being treated as a beeline when analyzing its operation behavior near zone I impedance circle. In

1376

the demonstration on the first scenario.

can be evaluated by the

To summarize, the value of

ratio of the corresponding line segments or lengths of arcs when

the swing locus incises the concentric circles. Hence, the search

can be converted to the following

of the maximum of

problem:

An arbitrary beeline or circle is utilized to incise the concentric circles. Let the length of the line segment (beeline or arc) in

the internal circle be , and the length of the line segment between two circles (beeline or arc) be . Then, we should make

it clear which kind of locus (beeline or circles) should be utito

lized and how to incise the concentric circles to allow

achieve the maximum.

will

The following assumption will be validated, that is,

achieve the maximum if the swing locus is a beeline and it passes

through the center of the concentric circles.

For the convenience of the validation, the aforementioned

problem can be represented as proposition 1 as follows:

always comes to existence when

a beeline or a circle is used to incise the concentric circles. The

corresponding verification can refer to the Appendix.

In the case of the aforementioned proposition being tenable,

,

for the adaptive swing identification criterion formed by

the scenario that the swing locus can be regarded a beeline

passing through the center of the concentric circles is the

strictest validation condition for the criterion.

IV. ISSUES ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CRITERION

In event of the implementation of the proposed criterion,

it should be investigated that in every operation mode of the

will increase when

system, whether the maximum of

the aforementioned unwanted power swing occurs, and if it

does, what value it will reach.

As indicated by (2), the moving locus of the apparent

impedance can be assumed to be a beeline passing through the

(set it to be

) and being

end point of vector

vertical to it. Generally, the radius of the concentric circles is set

and

, respectively. Assume that the

as

locus passing through the center of the concentric circles ,

from the origin.

and

consist of a beeline,

that is,

and the swing locus is determined by this beeline. A circle

has the uniform characteristic in all directions although this

beeline can pass through the center of the concentric circles in

different directions. For the sake of simplification, the resistive

components of the lines and the system are ignored in the

discussion, and the relay characteristic can be revised and as

shown in Fig. 3.

and

are both located on the X axis, and the locus

Now

line is in parallel with axis R. Since the beeline can intersect with

and

are the identical

axis X at only one point, therefore,

one. In this case, the system impedances on the two sides are

and

, respectively, and the impedance of the line is

,

then

Fig. 3. Apparent impedance locus during power swings when ignoring the resistances of all components in the system.

of the concentric circles. Assume that the moving locus intersects with the external circle at A when the phase difference between the sources at two ends achieves at , and the moving

locus intersects with the internal circle at B when the phase difference increases to at , leading to the operation of zone I

distance protection. Further, we assume that the locus intersects

with the internal circle at C when the phase difference increases

to at . In this case, the operation criterion of zone I distance

relay resets. Thereinto, and are symmetrical with respect

are

to 180 . If so, the lengths of line segments

the real parts of the apparent impedances when the phase difference between two systems increases to , , and , respectively. Seen from the figure, they are the radius of the external

is the time

circle or the internal one. In this case,

interval between the operation time of the criterion of the external circle and that of the criterion of the internal circle, and

is the operation time within the internal circle.

It has been proven in Section III that when the swing locus is

a beeline passing through the center, we have

(19)

In fact, (19) comes into existence only when is close to

180 . The locus will possibly fall into the operation circle in

the event of , far from 180 if the system impedances on the

two sides are very small. Therefore, when implementing this

changing with respect to

criterion, the maximum of

the system impedance should be reviewed. According to (18),

we have

(20)

and

(21)

Furthermore, we have

(22)

(18)

where

(23)

Fig. 4. Variation of

1t =1t

As

with

08

: X

=X

, we have

(24)

Actually,

Hence, only when

.

, we have

(25)

Set

, Then

is comparable to

(26)

As the end point of the locus reaches the center of the circle,

we have

(27)

and

(28)

Then, the range of x is

.

It is very difficult to evaluate the monotony of (26) using the

analytic method. Knowing the definition area, the observation

can be made by virtue of the illustrative method. According to

) can be obtained, as

(26), the changing curve of (x,

shown in Fig. 4.

increases monotonously with the

It can be seen that

increase of . That is, the smaller the impedances on the two

sides (the larger the system capacity) is, the larger the multiple

will be, but the maximum of it cannot exceed 6. Hence, if mulwith a limited coefficient a little greater than 6, the

tiplying

maloperation of the distance protection when the swing locus

passes through the internal circle can be reliably avoided.

An additional reliable coefficient of 1.5 can be used in view

that the inconsistent impedance angles of all the components

in the system leading to the actual swing locus are uneven.

In addition, the process of power swings is not a movement

in uniform speed. In view of the aforementioned factors, the

restrained coefficient is increased to 9. Therefore, the corresponding self-adaptive criterion is described as follows.

and

During the initialization, we reset the counters of

, and set

and

to the full scale

and

,

1377

value (such as 9999).

When the fault occurs, all of the fast protections detect the

fault according to the existing operation logics. The fault will

be cleared if it satisfies the criterion of the protection.

A one-cycle discrete Fourier algorithm, in which the time

window is one power-frequency cycle that is 20 ms for a 50-Hz

power frequency, is used to calculate the apparent impedance

of every single-phase impedance relay when the data window is

fulfilled with the fault dada. If hardware speed is fast enough,

all of the calculations can be finished in one sampling interval,

and the locus of the impedance can be tracked continuously.

Then, the locus of apparent impedance is monitored. If this

locus does not enter the external circle, the two counters will

not count.

As designed and described before, the protection will be

cannot reach the full scale. In this

blocked all the time if

case, if the locus only passes through the external circle, only

counts. Under the condition of normal power swings, the

locus will go out of the external circle even if

is far from

its full scale. Then, these two timers reset presently, and the

protection is blocked correctly all of the time. If the locus passes

through the external circle and the internal circle at the same

to stoptime, at the time it enters the internal circle, leading

. Then,

ping counting, and assigning the latest value to

with the restraint coefficient 9, and assign

we multiply

. Under the condition of normal power swings and

it to

general system parameters, if the sampling rate is high enough

is 0.5 ms in this paper),

will

(the sampling cycle

always be nonzero, and the time the swing locus staying within

. Only a

the internal circle will not always exceed

special condition should be considered particularly, that is,

when the systems on the two sides are both small systems, the

protected line is very short, and an ultra-high speed (the swing

cycle is shorter than 0.08 s) swing occurs. In this case,

may be smaller than one

and it is wrongly perceived as not

and

as being set as

counting, which will lead

zero. In this case, the time-delay element becomes invalidated.

can be forced to

In order to overcome this problem,

be

when

does not count. Then, this value is recorded

, and the corresponding time

to be the minimum of

. Certainly, if the time of the swing locus staying

delay is

between the two circles is less than , the time of it staying

within the internal circle is definitely less than

. With this

ms), under any

small inherent time delay (4.5 ms for

system swing condition, the security of the protection can be

ensured. In order to further improve the security, the minimum

, that is, min

, can be increased properly

of

). In the following simulation tests, the min

(e.g., 2 or 3

is set to

.

In practical applications, the sensitivity of the fault pickup

element during the swing should be increased to some extent.

After catching the starting time, the DFT algorithm should not

be enabled until the data window is completely filled with the

postfault data. If this event is caused by a disturbance, the locus

of the apparent impedance still satisfies the rules of swing. However, under most internal fault conditions, that is, the apparent

impedance is initially out of the external circle when a fault oc-

1378

into somewhere within the internal circle. If the discrete Fourier

transform (DFT) algorithm is utilized, the operation time of the

24.5 ms. Compared with the

protection is up to

condition of a fault occurring during the normal operation state,

the operating speed of the protection in this case is competitive.

Only two cases may lead to the unnecessary time delay. One

is slowly evolving faults, leading to the relatively long time of

the apparent impedance staying in the internal circle; the other

undesirable condition rests with the locus of the swing passing

through the external circle but only being tangent to the internal

circle. Assume that an internal fault occurring at the time the

will

locus is about to depart the external circle. In this case,

and correspondingly

and

attain to the maximum.

will be long if the line impedance is far greater than the

system impedance and the swing cycle is very long. However,

as stated before, an advantage of this criterion rests with the

ability of coordinating with other criteria. The protection will

be unblocked as well even if only one of the criteria, such as

and

operates. It should also be pointed

out that this criterion will never unblock incorrectly when external faults occur, and this selectivity is not possessed by other

criteria.

In a word, only under the extreme condition, the performance

of this criterion is a little deficient to other criteria. However, by

virtue of the logic cooperation, the superiority of this criterion

can be highlighted completely. Moreover, it should be pointed

out that the security of the existing schemes will not be reduced

even combined with the proposed scheme and, in most cases,

the sensitivity of the protection for the faults in power swings

can be increased.

For the purpose of clear description and summarization, the

proposed scheme is illustrated in Fig. 5.

V. SIMULATION VALIDATION

A. Description of the Simulation Model

By virtue of PSCAD/EMTDC, the simulation model of a typical 500-kV transmission system is set up. The model system

consists of an 800-MVA generator supplying power to an infinite bus. The generator is connected to the infinite bus through a

transformer and a 500-kV, 340-km double-circuit transmission

line as illustrated in Fig. 6 [11]. The distance relay is installed

at point R3. A disturbance is evoked by a three-phase fault occurring at F1 on circuit 1, which is cleared after a time delay of

300 ms by means of opening the breaker CB1 to disconnect the

faulty line. This disturbance will cause the generator to accelerate or decelerate, resulting in a power swing. The parameters

of each circuit of the transmission line are indicated in Fig. 6.

Fig. 7 shows the Aphase current during a full power

swing. Fig. 8 presents the apparent impedance locus passing

through the concentric circle during the shortest cycle of a power

swing. The simulation results show in the whole swing process,

the protection is always kept stable.

It should be pointed out that the time cost from the beginning

of the swing to the fastest swing is 1.2 s, and the time cost from

the fastest swing to the ceasing of it is 1.8 s. Indeed, the power

swing fades very fast (generally speaking, the complete ceasing

to more than 10 s). It means that in every swing cycle, the time

that the locus passes through the later semicircle is remarkably

more slowly than the actual condition.

Changing the system impedance, the length of the line, the

maximal and the minimal swing cycle, hundreds of simulation

cases have been performed. Under the scenarios of the pure

1379

Fig. 11. Phase-angle variation of the apparent impedance in nine cycles of the

postfault period.

Fig. 8. Apparent impedance locus passing through the concentric circle during

the minimal cycle of a power swing.

during a full power swing.

Fig. 10. Magnitude variation of the apparent impedance in nine cycles of the

postfault period.

power swing, the distance protection is all kept stable and the

security of the criterion is validated.

The sensitivity of the criterion is validated as well as presented below.

A variety of faults is applied on circuit 2 during the following

power swing. All faults on circuit 2 are applied when the phaseangle difference between the two side systems is close to 180 .

An extensive series of fault scenarios is carried out on the model

system.

First of all, typical cases are investigated. Assume a threephase short-circuit fault occurring on the line, of which 20% is

the line length to the relay. The occurrence of time the fault is

2.22 s. Fig. 9 shows the waveform of A phase current.

According to the proposed criterion, within ten cycles

after the fault starts, the magnitude and phase of the apparent

impedance changing with time and the locus of the apparent

impedance on the impedance plane are shown in Figs. 1012.

As indicated in these figures, the magnitude of the apparent

impedance is located around 20.2 with a fluctuation of 1.0 ,

and the phase of the apparent impedance fluctuates around 84

Fig. 12. Variation of the apparent impedance in the R-X phase plane between

the pickup and the tripping of the protection.

with a scope of 3 . In fact, at the rated power frequency, the measured impedance from the fault point to the relay accounts for

. This

20% of the total impedance of the line, that is,

is because no frequency tracking is adopted in the simulation,

and the sampling rate is at a fixed 0.5 ms. Under the condition of

frequency deviation, the one-cycle power-frequency component

cannot be included in the data window of 20 ms, which results

in the fluctuation of a measured value. Actually, the frequency

tracking and the fixed cycle sampling have been successfully

applied in protection devices. It is not difficult to overcome the

aforementioned shortcomings in the real applications. For the

magnitude of the impedance tending to be higher than the actual value, it can also be explained in terms of frequency. After a

three-phase short circuit occurs, the system is separated into two

irrelevant parts by the fault point. The angular frequency of

where the protection equipped is no

the apparent reactance

. It is determined by the current frequency

longer equal to

of the source on side . Since the frequency of the source on

is increasing, the frequency of the system on this side is

side

more than 50 Hz, and the corresponding calculated value of the

reactance also tends to be higher. It indicates the importance of

frequency measuring. If the present exact frequency is known,

the calculated results can be converted to the value under the

rated power frequency condition. When compared with the settings, the scenarios of fail-to-trip or overreach can be avoided.

Since the fault point is far from the operation boundary, by virtue

of the self-adaptive criterion, the apparent impedance will enter

the internal circle immediately. After the time delay of 9.5 ms

(without including the data in a cycle required by the one-cycle

Fourier algorithm), the protection operates correctly.

The asymmetric fault conditions are further investigated. By

changing the three-phase fault to a single-phase grounded one,

other conditions are kept. The moving locus of the apparent

1380

Fig. 13. Variation of the apparent impedance in the R-X phase plane after a

three-phase fault occurring at the 70% line length near side .

impedance after the fault starts can also be obtained. According to the measuring results, the magnitude of the apparent

impedance fluctuates around 20.8 with a scope of 2.8 , and

the phase of the apparent impedance fluctuates around 82 with

a scope of 7 Compared with the three-phase fault, the error of

the apparent impedance in the direction of R axis increases, and

the measuring of phase also has an error of 3 . The stability of

the measuring result becomes worse. Obviously, in the scenario

of asymmetric faults, the polarized current of the single-phase

relay includes zero-sequence components, and the frequency of

the swing currents of sound phases is different from the faulty

phasethe cause leading to the error is more complicated

and more difficult to analyze. However, when the impedance

of the faulty circuit is located far away from the operation

boundary, the small magnitude fluctuation will not affect the

correct operation of the protection. The protection still operates

correctly with an additional time delay of 9.5 ms at this time.

Ulteriorly, we investigate the operation behavior of the criterion

when the fault point is near the operation boundary. Assume a

three-phase short circuit occurs at 70% of the line. The moving

locus of the apparent impedance after the fault starts is shown

in Fig. 13.

The operation boundary circle is actually set according to the

impedance in the condition of rated power frequency. Therefore, during the transient stage, as the technique of frequency

tracking is not utilized, several points of the apparent impedance

have fallen within the boundary circle, leading to wobble. The

additional time delay is just 10.5 ms although the time delay is

inevitable in this condition. If the operation boundary circle can

be adjusted dynamically according to the frequency on this side,

this wobble phenomenon can be completely avoided.

Furthermore, the case of the fault occurring at 90% of the

line length to the relay is studied. The locus of the apparent

impedance is shown in Fig. 14. Obviously, as the frequency of

this side tends to be higher and the operation boundary circle is

not enlarged correspondingly, the protection will not be prone to

maloperate due to external faults. However, when the frequency

decreases, the operating security problem of the distance protection on this side should be taken into account. Therefore, it

is necessary to measure the frequency correctly and adjust the

operation boundary circle correspondingly.

By virtue of changing the parameters of the system and the

power swing, the selectivity and sensitivity of this criterion for

Fig. 14. Variation of the apparent impedance in the R-X phase plane after a

three-phase fault occurring at 90% of the line length near side .

the faults during power swings have been validated. Part of the

results are presented in Table I. Except for a few high resistance

grounded faults making the criterion fail to trip because of their

apparent impedances falling out of the operation circle, the identification results of majority of the results are satisfying. Among

them, the operating times of the scenarios in which the protection can trip are all less than 30 ms.

VI. CONCLUSION

Different from the conventional criterion of concentric-circle, which is designed to measure the time interval

when the swing locus passes across the gap between two circles

to block the distance protection, this time interval is utilized to

design distance protection which can keep high security during

power swings and trip relatively fast for a variety of internal

faults during power swings. In this paper, a phenomenon is first

discovered where the ratio of the time of the swing locus staying

in the internal circle and the time of it passing through the concentric circles is a limited number and a maximum always

exists when it passes across concentric circles. According to the

time of it passing across the gap between two circles multiplied

by this maximum, the additional time delay can be accordingly

set to ensure the security of the protection. Comparatively, for

the scenario of internal faults occurring during power swings,

the time of the impedance locus passing through the gap between two circles is zero in theory, which makes the additional

time delay zero and allows the protection to trip rapidly. The

main contribution of this paper rests with the demonstration

and quantification of the aforementioned maximum ratio. The

conditions of the existence of the aforementioned maximum

are clarified and proven in this paper, which provides the mathematical fundamentals for the implementation of the criterion.

Discussions are made under every possible system operating

state and power swing mode to determine the appropriate

maximum. Based on the aforementioned discovery, a novel fast

self-adaptive distance protection is proposed. EMTDC-based

simulation tests demonstrate: This criterion has sufficient

security under any system swing conditions. When an internal

fault occurs during swings, as long as the fault resistance is not

very large, allowing the apparent impedance to fall inside the

operation circle, it has the highest sensitivity among all of the

existing criteria. In addition, the shortcoming of this criterion

can be remedied with coordination of other criteria.

1381

TABLE I

OPERATION BEHAVIOR OF THE PROPOSED CRITERION IN THE CASE OF A VARIETY OF FAULT SCENARIOS

APPENDIX

In the following, we will verify such a proposition as follows:

(29)

where , , , and are defined in Sections II and III.

The verification is classified into two parts.

The first scenario: the swing locus is a beeline.

of

In Fig. 1, the beeline ABCD passes through the center

the concentric circles, and

also passes through the

concentric circles but without passing the center. We need to

.

prove

is the diameter of the internal circle, and

is the

string of the internal circle, we have

(30)

For the triangle

,

, therefore

and

(31)

Combined with (30), the verification is finished.

The second scenario: the swing locus is a circle. In this case,

the verification can be carried out in terms of three aspects.

Case 1) The locus of the circle passes the center of the concentric circles, as shown in the upward part of Fig. 15.

, the radius is ,

As seen, the center of the locus circle is

and it passes the center of the concentric circles . Since every

direction of a circle is of the same nature, whether the concentric

circles have an excursion angle or not, and regardless of the direction the locus circle intersects with the concentric circles, the

will

connecting line between the two centers of the circles

halves the three circles in two parts symmetrically. By virtue of

Fig. 15. Equivalent transform of the apparent impedance locus in the condition

of line impedance angle unequal to 90 .

superposes axis X, then the

discussion can be carried out, as shown in the downward part of

Fig. 15. For the purpose of clear illustration, the semicircle of

the locus circle is shown. In this case, the locus circle intersects

with the concentric circles at A and B, respectively.

In this case, proposition 1 is validated if

can be proven.

1382

event of

if

and

are two arcs of a circle

and

are the corresponding strings.

and

Case 2) The peak point of the locus circle locates above the

center of the concentric circles . The center of this circle

is

, and the radius is still . It intersects with the concentric circles at B and C, respectively, as the real line in Fig. 16.

needs to be validated as follows.

According to the aforementioned deduction, we have

.

Then, we only need to prove

be , then the length of

Let the length of

Let

,

,

,

and

, we have

.

is

.

for

(39)

Fig. 16. Apparent impedance locus not passing through the center of the concentric circle.

For

and

, we have

As

and

,

The proposition can be transformed to

(40)

(32)

Combining (39) with (40), we have

,

Due to

(41)

We have

(33)

In order to allow

following equation should be satisfied:

to be validated, the

(42)

(34)

That is

Let

, only the following assumption is needed to

prove for the purpose of final verification of the proposition due

:

to

increases monotonously when

.

can be given by

The derivative of

(35)

Set

(36)

(37)

Therefore,

, then

(38)

Therefore,

increases monotonously. The validation is finished.

From the aforementioned validation, the following deduction

can be made

(43)

As

and

are the radiuses of the external circle and the

internal circle, respectively, (43) is naturally satisfied and the

verification is completed.

is located below

Case 3) the peak point of locus circle

the center of the concentric circles . The center of this circle

, and the radius is still . It intersects with the concenis

tric circles at , , respectively, as the dashed line in Fig. 16.

needs to be validated as follows.

According to the aforementioned deduction

comes into existence, and only

needs to be validated.

Let the length of

be , then the length of

. Let

,

,

, for

and

, we have

is

,

(44)

For

and

, we have

(45)

(46)

1383

swing detection on transmission systems, in Proc. 59th Annu. Conf.

Protective Relay Engineers, 2006, pp. 159168.

[9] J. Blumschein, Y. Yelgin, and M. Kereit, Proper detection and treatment of power swing to reduce the risk of blackouts, in Proc. 3rd Int.

Conf. Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, 2008,

pp. 24402446.

[10] S. Zhu, Principles and Applications of Protective Relaying of HighVoltage Grid (in Chinese). Beijing, China: China Power Press, 1995.

[11] L. Zou, Q. Zhao, and X. Lin et al., Improved phase selector for unbalanced faults during power swings using morphological technique,

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 18471855, Oct. 2006.

Xiangning Lin (SM08) received the M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees in electrical engineering from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST),

Wuhan, China, respectively.

Currently, he is a Professor with HUST and with Three Gorges University,

Yichang, China. His research interests are modern signal processing and its

applications

REFERENCES

[1] A. P. Apostolov, Distance relays operation during the August 2003

north American blackout and methods for improvement, in Proc.

IEEE Russia Power Tech., 2005, pp. 436445.

[2] H. Khoradshadi-Zadeh, Evaluation and performance comparison of

power swing detection algorithms, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc.

General Meeting, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 18421848.

[3] Z. Shengshi, G. Qun, Zheng, and Li, New swing-blocking methods

for digital distance protection, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General

Meeting, Jun. 2004, vol. 1, pp. 587592.

[4] H. Khoradshadi-Zadeh, Evaluation and performance comparison of

power swing detection algorithms, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc.

General Meet., Jun. 2005, vol. 2, pp. 16451651.

[5] M. J. Reddy and D. K. Mohanta, Adaptive-neuro-fuzzy inference

system approach for transmission line fault classification and location

incorporating effects of power swings, Proc. Inst. Eng. Technol. Gen,

Transm. Distrib, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 235244, 2008.

[6] S. M. Brahma, Distance relay with out-of-step blocking function

using wavelet transform, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 3, pp.

13601366, Jul. 2007.

[7] Q.-Q. Xu, J. Suonan, and Y.-Z. Ge, Real-time measurement of mean

frequency in two-machine system during power swings, IEEE Trans.

Power Del., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 10181023, Jul. 2004.

Zhengtian Li received the B.Sc. degree from Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

in 2002, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electrical power

engineering.

His research interests include digital protection relaying, power system

control.

pursuing the Ph.D degree at the College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

His research interests are power system analysis, application of wireless

sensor networks in power systems, electric power information technology, and

ultrawideband systems.

Yan Gao received the B.Sc. degree from Huazhong University of Science and

Technology (HUST), Wuhan, China, in 2004, where she is currently pursuing

the Ph.D. degree in electrical power engineering.

Her research interests include digital protection relaying, control, and numerical methods in fields.

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