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ENG4820|HistoryoftheEnglishLanguage

Week: EarlyModernEnglish,Continued

I FROMLASTWEEK
I.A TheGreatVowelShift,WhateverThatWas

Around1350,somepeoplestartpronouncingthewordtidewithoutthefinal<e>,so[thid].
Around1450,noonepronouncesthefinal<e>anymore,butpeoplearestartingtopronouncethe
vowelasifit'sadiphthong:[thIjd]

ThinkbacktotheEekspeakGame,onlythistimeyoureachildborninLondonaround1450

Youuseyourgeneticallyendowedabilitytostatisticallymodelthespeechyouheararoundyou,and
younoticethataboutthreequartersofthetime,youhear[thid],otherwisesometimes[thIjd].

o Howdoyouconstructyourabstractmentalrepresentationofthisword?
Isit/tid/or/tIjd/?
o Definitely/tid/,witharulethrownintorealizethevowelas/Ij/everyonceinawhile.

Ifyou'reachildborninthesameplacein1475,youhear[thid]roughlyhalfthetime,[thIjd]theother
half.Whatabstractmentalrepresentationdoyouconstruct?Flipacoin,andthrowinaruletogetyou
theothervariant.

Nowit's1500,andyou'rehearing[thIjd]about75%ofthetime.Yourabstractmentalrepresentation
willbe/tIjd/,witharulethrownintorealizethevowelas/i/everynowandthen.

By1555,onlyoldpeoplesay[thid].TheGreatVowelShifthasbegun.

Overthenexttwocenturies,thefirstpartofthatdiphtong,/I/,getslowerandlowerandthenmore
central,first//then/e/then//then//

ENG4820|Week11|Page1of17
Inlanguageafterlanguage,vowelinventoriestendto
remainsymmetrical.Ifaphonemeshiftsoutofits
placeintheinventory,aneighboringphonemetends
toshiftintoreplaceit,creatinganothergapwhichis
thenfilledbyathirdshift


Thisviewonlymakessensefromadistanceofthreehundredyearsandwithdecadesofacademicresearch.
Tothepeopleonthegroundatthetime,itwouldsimplyhaveseemedthatthereweremanydifferent
pronunciationsinplay.Themajorshiftsstarthappeningaroundthetimethatpeoplearestartingtothink
andwriteaboutwhatastandardEnglishshouldlookandsoundlike,butthismassivereorganizationofthe
Englishphonemeinventorymostlyescapestheirattention.

Wherewedofindclues:

Booksaboutpronunciation.SeeHarts1569Orthographybelow
Rhymingpatterns.Ifwenoticepoetsandsongwritersconsistentlyrhymingpairsofwordsthatnow
sounddifferenttous,wecanbuildacasethattheyinfactsoundedthesameduringtheperiodin
whichtheyappear.ExamplesfromMillwardsWorkbookp.184f.:

Notthatwethinkusworthysuchaguest []
Butthatyourworthwilldignifyourfeast (BenJonson,1616)

Tocrossthisnarrowsea []
Andfeartolaunchaway (IsaacWatts,1707)

LetnotAmbitionmocktheirusefultoil [j]
NorGrandeurhearwithadisdainfulsmile (ThomasGray,1751)

ENG4820|Week5|Page2of17
TheirgreatLordsgloriousname;tonone [ ]
Ofthosewhosespaciousbosomsspreadathrone (RichardCranshaw,1652)

Notallthetressesthatfairheadcanboast [ ]
ShalldrawsuchenvyastheLockyoulost (AlexanderPope,1712)

Thesoul,uneasyandconfinedfromhome [ ]
Restsandexpatiatesinalifetocome (AlexanderPope,1733)

HowShakespeareProbablySounded

http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/media/mp3/reasons.html

DoesthissoundIrishtoyou?Orlikeapirate(Arrr!)?IrishdialectsofEnglish,forreasonsnoonereally
understands,havebeenveryconservativeovertime,holdingontovowelandconsonantpronunciations
thathavesincebeenlostinalmosteveryotherdialect.HeresasamplefromapopularBBCsitcomwith
anIrishcast,FatherTed:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iBCp9Oqu4A

Poins:Come,yourreason,Jack,yourreason.
Falstaff:What,uponcompulsion?Zounds,andIwereatthestrappadooralltheracksintheworld,
Iwouldnottellyouuponcompulsion.Giveyouareasononcompulsion?Ifreasonswereas
plentifulasblackberries,Iwouldgivenomanareasonuponcompulsion,I.
(HenryIV,PartOne,2.4.24642)

I.B GrammaticalVerbs

ThementallexiconofaspeakerofEnglish(oranylanguage)hasthreemaincompartmentsinit.

Anexclamatorycompartment,usedonlyforstoringwordslikeOuch!Shit!Woah!
Apurelylexicalcompartmentwithwordsforobjects,people,characteristics,ideas,etc:car,brother,
Snoopy,good,love,perplexing.
Theresanothercompartmentwithwordsusedingrammar:the,of,it,a,you,not,thelittlewordswe
indicatewhenweplaycharades.

Weknowofthesecompartmentsbecausesomepeoplewithbraininjuriesloseaccesstoone
compartmentbutnottheothertwo,ortwocompartmentsbutnottheotherone.

Alllanguageshavegrammaticalwordsofonekindoranother,butEnglishisunlikemanylanguages
evenmanyIndoEuropeancousinsinthatithasaspecializedsetofverbsthatfunctionasgrammatical
words:be,can,could,do,have,may,might,must,shall,should,will,wouldandforsomeolderspeakers
dare.Theseareoftencalledhelpingverbsorauxiliaryverbs(fromLatinauxiliahelp).

Weknowtheseverbsbelongtoaseparateclass,distinctfrompurelylexicalverbslikedrive,tell,eat,or
recommend.Weknowthisbecausetheybehaveinverydistinctways.

ThedifferencesarescalaranddevelopedovermorethanathousandyearsfromOldtoEarlyModern
English

ENG4820|Week5|Page3of17
(1)Orderwithrespecttoadverbs:

Grammaticalverbsdontgenerallyappearafteradverbs,thoughthistendencyhasbeenfadingfast
evenwithinmyadultlife.

a.Iusuallytakethebustowork.

b.?Iusuallycantakethebustowork.

c.Icanusuallytakethebustowork.

d.*Itakeusuallythebustowork.

(2)SentenceInitialInversion

a.*Takeyouthebustowork?

b.Canyoutakethebustowork?

(3)Phonologicalreduction:

a.Ican[khn]/*[kn]vegetablesforaliving.

b.Ican*[khn]/[kn]takethebustowork.(Nonemphatic)

(4)Regularaffixesdontappear

a.Tomcantakethebustowork.

b.*Tomcanstakethebustowork.

(5) Lossofindependentmeanings:OEancestorsofMEandModEauxiliaries

OldEnglish Today

beon/wesan'tobe,exist' be

habban'tohave' have

magantobeeffective,toprevail may

onginnan'toattempt,endeavor' (be)gin

sculantoowe shall

willantowant,desire will

ENG4820|Week5|Page4of17
I.C GrammaticalVerbsandModality

Modalityisarelativelyabstractnotionthataddressesaspeakersattitudeaboutwhattheyaresaying
inotherwords,whetherthepropositiontheyaremakingwiththeirwordsisobligatory,necessary,or
permittedbyabilityorrule.

Example Modality

a.Passengersmustremainseatedatalltimes. OBLIGATION

b.Driversshouldexerciseextremecautionwhendrivingatnight. NECESSITY

c.Customerscanchoosefrommanyexcitingoptions. ABILITY

d.Thedefendantmayapproach PERMISSION

Theseareexamplesofwhatwecallrootmodality,inotherwordssomethingbasictotherootmeaningsof
theunderlinedverbs.

WhatdevelopsinthecourseofthelateMiddleEnglishperiodandintothemoderneraisanotherlayerof
modality,calledextrinsicorepistemicmodality.Itencompassesmoreslipperynotionssuchasprobability,
believability,desirability,orreality.

Example

a.Youmustbejoking.

b.Rogershouldbehomeanyminutenow.

c.Tequilacanreallygiveyouarottenhangover.

d.Rogermayhavecoloncancer.

I.D.TheRiseoftheAuxiliaryVerb:DoSupportinQuestionsandNegation

TodaysEnglishmakesuseofthegrammaticalverbdoinsentencesformedaroundnegation,questions,
ornegativecommands.Wecallthisdosupport.TakeallthefollowingvariationsonIspeakFrench.

IdontspeakFrench Negativedeclarative(Neg.decl.)

DontIspeakFrench? Negativequestion(Neg.quest.)

DoIspeakFrench? Affirmativequestion(Aff.quest.)

WhatdoIspeak? Affirmativequestion(Aff.quest.)

DontspeakFrench! Negativeimperative(Neg.imp.)

(Wealsohaveanoptionalstructurewithdothatweusetoexpressemphasisortocontradictanegative:I
dospeakFrench.)

ENG4820|Week5|Page5of17
Theobligatoryuseofdohasonlybeenobligatoryforaboutthelastthreehundredyears.Thatsrecent
enoughforustohaveliveculturalmemoriesofthetimebefore(settingJediMasterYodaasideforthe
moment):Whatsayyou?Howgoesit?Fearnot.Theyknownotwhattheydo.

Theriseofdosupportfromthelatemedievaltotheearlymodernerawasgradualand,fromthepointof
viewofsomeoneonthegroundatthetime,maybeevenmessy.

(9) a.Negativedeclaratives(Neg.decl.)

withdosupport: ChristdydnotprayeforIamesandIohan&fortheother

without: Whatisthat,Ipraieyou,forIknowenotmyneownereligion?

b.Negativequestions(Neg.quest.)

withdosupport: Whydowenotspedevshastelytocomevntothatrest...?

without: Omercyfulllorde...whyshewedthounotvengeaunce...?

c.Affirmativequestions(Aff.quest.)

withdosupport: Howdotheyspendetheafternoone,Iprayyou?

without: WhatmeanethheebywinkynglikeaGooseintheraine...?

d.Negativeimperatives(Neg.Imp.)

withdosupport: Lokeye,donotlye;andthowdolye,Ishalitknowewele

without: Douteyenatyeshallhavealyourewylle

Thedosupportpatternpropagatesthroughthelanguageatadifferentpaceineachofthese
environments,eventuallytakingoverbythe18thcentury,thoughnotcompletelyinthenegative
declarative.

1.000

0.900

0.800

0.700
Aff.decl.
0.600 Neg.decl
Neg.quest.
0.500 Aff.Quest
Neg.Imp.
0.400

0.300

0.200

0.100

0.000
1710
1390-1400

1400-1425

1425-1475

1475-1500

1500-1525

1525-1535

1535-1550

1550-1575

1575-1600

1600-1625

1625-1650

1650-1700

Years


TABLE1|DATAQUOTEDFROMELLEGRD[1953]BYOGURA[1993:54])
ENG4820|Week5|Page6of17

II THISWEEK:GETTINGOURHEADSINTHERIGHTPLACE
II.A Dr.GettyRidesHisLittleHorseintotheModernEra

Wereenteringtheageofspelling,punctuation,andgrammar,inthesensethatwordappliestothinking
principallyabouthowpeopleshouldspeakandwrite,nothowtheyactuallydo.

Thephilosophybehindthismovementisillustratedinthewordytitlesoftheera:

JeremiahWharton1654:TheEnglishgrammar,or,Theinstitutionofletters,syllables,andwordsin
theEnglishtongueconteiningallrulesanddirectionsnecessarytobeeknownforthejudicious
reading,rightspeaking,andwritingthereof:veryusefulforallthatdesiretobeeexpertinthe
foresaidproperties,moreespeciallyprofitableforscholarsimmediatelybeforetheirentranceintothe
rudimentsoftheLatinetongue
JosephAickin,1693:TheEnglishgrammar:or,theEnglishtonguereducedtogrammaticalrules
containingthefourpartsofgrammar:viz.orthographie,etymology,syntax,prosodyorpoetry.Being
theeasiestquickestandmostauthentickmethodofteachingit,byrulesandpictures:adaptedtothe
capacitiesofchildren,youthandthoseofriperyears;inlearningwhereoftheEnglishscholarmay
nowattaintheperfectionofhismothertongue,withouttheassistanceofLatine;composedforthe
useofallEnglishschools.ByJosephAickinM.A.andlatelyoneofthemastersoftheFreeSchoolof
LondonDery.LicensedMaythe24.1692

ThesetextsareatthebeginningofwhatIamgoingtorefertoastheEnglishGrammarIndustry.Because
itreallyisanindustryanorganizedhumanactivityfromwhichmanythousandsofpeopleinthe
Englishspeakingworldearntheirlivingacademicresearchers,authors,editors,publishers,
booksellers,and(intheclosestanalogytoanassemblylineworker)teachers.

Ifyouhadto,youcouldattachadollarfiguretotheresourcesusedinanygivenyeartocodify,publicize,
enforceandreinforceuniformityinEnglishusageaswellastherevenuefromtheseactivitiesintheform
ofbooksales,salaries,consultantfees,andtuition.

HeresWhereIStand

Thisindustryearnsitsplacetotheextentitservesanumberofstrictlypractical,utilitarianaims:

Allowingpeoplefromdifferentpointsinthethevastgeolinguisticpoliticoeconomiccultural
universethatistheEnglishspeakingworldtocommunicatewitheachotheraseasilyaspossible.
ProvidingacommonlanguageforcommerceanddiplomacybetweenEnglishspeaking
populationsandeveryoneelseontheplanet.
ProvidingacommonandevenneutrallanguageforcommerceanddiplomacyamongnonEnglish
speakinggroups.Somehotexamples:Globaltourism,DiplomacybetweenIsraelandArabic
speakingcountries,betweenIndiaandPakistan,withinIndia(whichhashundredsoflanguages,
fourteenofthemwithofficialstatus).
Counteractingtheforcesoflinguisticchangeinwrittenlanguage,therebykeepinghistoricaltexts
writteninEnglishmoreaccessibletopresentdayEnglishspeakersthantheymightotherwisebe.
Providingimportantcognitivestimulationforschoolagedchildren.Sinceitisdifferentfromwhat
prettymucheveryoneactuallyspeaks,learninghowtoread,write,andspeakastandardizedform
ofEnglishdevelopscrucialskillsrelatedtoabstractionandanalyticalthinkingaswellas
awarenessofandproficiencyinformfunctionmapping.Thisisespeciallytrueforstudentswho
speaksociallyconfineddialectsorlanguagesotherthanEnglish.
ENG4820|Week5|Page7of17
Theindustryoverstepsitsboundswhenitgetsintothefollowingareasorstandsbysilentlyasothersdo,
usuallyasawaytomasksocialbias:

Elitism:Assertingorattemptingtoproveanyinherentsuperiority(aesthetic,philosophical,racial)
ofastandardizedformofEnglishoverandaboveitsstrictlypractical,utilitarianadvantages
DeliberateArchaism:Promotingorattemptingtoenforceusageofhistoricalnormslongafterthey
havedroppedoutofcommonusage.Examples:IshallasafuturetensemarkerinAmerican
English,archaicLatinatepluralformslikecactivs.cactuses
Artificiality:Promotingorattemptingtoenforcetheuseofpatternsmadeupbygrammarians
fromthesixteenthtothetwentiethcenturieswhotriedtomakeEnglishmorelikeLatin:
penalizingsentencesendingwithapreposition,Itsme,toboldlygo(thecounterpartoftogoin
Latinwouldhavebeenitur,whichcouldntbesplitbecauseitwasasingleword)
PurismforitsownSake:LynnTruss,Eats,ShootsandLeaves:AZeroToleranceApproachto
Punctuationvs.DavidCrystal,TheFightforEnglish:HowLanguagePunditsAte,Shot,andLeft.

ForOurPurposes:

Theindustryfocussesonwhatpeoplehaveconsciousaccesstowhich,asIveshownyouoverandover,
isaninfinitessimallysmallpieceofwhatactuallygoesonbetweenapersonsearswhentheyengagein
language.Alongthatline,puristsandprescriptiviststendtofocusmostlyonwhattheydontlike,which
saysmoreaboutthemthanitdoesaboutanythingthatsreallygoingon.

ThegreatestupheavalsinthehistoryofEnglishfromtheGreatVowelshiftandthelossofovertcase
markingtotheshiftsinvowelinventoriesandlevelingofirregularverbformsunderwaytodayalmost
nevergetwrittenabout.Thisisbecausetheytendtounfoldoverdecadesorcenturies,butalsobecause
peoplearetoobusydisapprovingofotherthingstotakenotice.

Withoutabroadview,thestudyoflanguagedegeneratesintoobsessivearcaneryandtriviahounding.
Justmoreinformationinaworldalreadydrowninginit.Butknowledge,understanding,insight,and
perspectiveareincriticallyshortsupply.

Grammar,spelling,andpunctuationjustarentthatinteresting:

Moreinterestingthanthespellingandgrammarrulesthatariseduringthisperiodarethe
workingsofthemindsthatcreatedthem.
Moreinterestingthantherarified,refinedlanguageoftheperiodarethefleetingglimpsesof
marginalized,nonstandardspeechweseerecordedfromtimetotime.
Moreinterestingthanwhatpeoplethoughtabouttheirlanguageiswhatwecanobserveinitusing
computationalandstatisticalmethodstheydidnothave.

ButattheBegnningoftheStory,theEquationisaLittleDifferent:

WhattheGrammarIndustrygavepeople:

Certaintyinatimeofchaos
Culturallegitimacyfroma(mostlyimagined)connectiontoRomeandGreece
Practicalmeansofsocialadvancement
Concretesymbolsofnationalunityandcommonality

ENG4820|Week5|Page8of17
II.B.EVENTSONTHEGROUND

II.B.1 TheRenaissance:

RediscoveryofthehumanisticculturesofRomeandGreecefromca.700BCEtoca.300CE
NeglectedandsupressedintheMiddleAgesbutreintroducedandrekindledinnosmallpartby
theMuslimandJewishpresenceinEuropefromca.750toca.1450
Rekindledideasoflogic,rationalorder,andcriticalinquiry
Classicallanguagestudy:GreekandRomanthoughtonrhetoricanddiscourse
AreasofknowledgeinwhichneitherEnglishnorFrenchhadathoroughlydevelopedvocabulary.
EnglishspeakersoftheRenaissancerevivedoldGreekandLatinwordsandcobbledtogethernew
onesfromGreekandLatinroots.ThesewordstookupresidencenexttothemoregenericLatin
andGreekloansbroughtoverbytheNormansinthe11ththrough13thcenturies.

Area Word Origin


Astronomy telescope Greektelsfarskopeinlook
orbit Latinorbssphereiturgo
lunar Latinlunamoon
Medicine physical Greekphysikhavingtodowithnature
infect Latininin+factusdone
biceps Latinbitwo+cepsheaded
Mathematics formula Latinformulalittleform
theorem Greektheoreintolookat
calculate Latincalculuslittlepebble
Physics react Latinrebackactusdone
tangent Latintangenstouching
accelerate Latinadtocelerswift

II.B.2 WhattheRenaissanceDid

ThiswasthethirdmajorwaveofimportedwordstowashoverEnglishsincethesettlementofEnglandin
the5thcentury,andeventhoughthelanguageanditsspeakerswere,onthewhole,veryreceptive.

ButtherateandscopeofimportationintheRenaissancewenttoofarforsomepeople;theissuebecame
apointofheatedpublicdisagreement(knownastheInkhornControversy)fromabout1550toabout
1650:

ThomasElyot,1531(authorofTheBokeNamedtheGovernorfromWeek10):

IamconstraindtovsurvealatinewordcallingitMaturitie:whichwordthoughitbestrangeand
darke/yetbydeclaringthevertueinafewmowordes/thenameonesbroughtincustome/shall
beasfaciletovndersandeasotherwordeslatecommenoutofItalyandFrance/andmade
denizinsamongevsAndthisIdonowremembreforthenecessaryaugmentationofourlangage
(Source:Crystalp.61)

ThomasWilson,1553

Amongallotherlessonsthisshouldfirstbelearned,thatweeneveraffectanystraungeynkehorne
termes,buttospeakeasiscommonlyreceived:neitherseekingtobeoverfine,noryetliving
overcarelesse,usingourspeecheasmostmendoe,andorderingourwittesasthefewesthave
done.SomeseeksofaroutlandishEnglish,theytheyforgetaltogethertheirmotherslanguage.And

ENG4820|Week5|Page9of17
Idareswearethis,ifsomeoftheirmotherswerealive,theiwerenotabletotellwhattheysay
(Source:Crystalp.61)

AlexanderGil,LogonomicaAnglica,1621(TranslatedfromLatin)

Suchisthestupidityoftheuneducatedmassesthattheyadmiremostwhattheyleastcomprehend
forsinceeveryonewishestoappearasasmattereroftonguesandtovaunthisproficiencyin
Latin,French(oranyotherlanguage),sodailywildbeastsofwordsaretamed,andhorridevil
soundingmagpiesandowlsofunpropitiousbirtharetaughttohazardourwords.Thustodaywe
are,forthemostpart,EnglishmennotspeakingEnglihsandnotunderstoodbyearswehave
exiledthatwhichwaslegitimateourbirthrightpleasantinexpression,andackowledgedbyour
forefathers.Ocruelcountry!
(Source:Lererp.148)

Wordsthatsurvived Wordsthatdidnt
dismiss,disagree,disabuse disadorn,disaccustom
commit,transmit,admit demit
impede expede
dullard,drunkard stinkard/
conclusion endsay
condition ifsay
schoolfellows condisciples
(Source:Crystalp.61)

Shakespeare(15641616)wasaplayerintheInkhorndebatesandcontributedtobothsides

Wordsthatsurvived Wordsthatdidnt
accommodation,assassination, abruption,appertainments,persistive,
dislocate,eventful,premeditated, protractive,soilure,vastidity
submerged
Barefaced,countless,laughable,lack
lustre,fancyfree
(Source:Crystalp.61)

CrashingintoEnglishatjustthesametimearetwoforcesthatopenthegatesevenwider:

WordsenteringEnglishfromEuropeancoloniesaswellasexpandedcontinentaltrade

bazaar,caravan(Persian,viaIndia)
coffee,kiosk,yoghurt,horde(Turkish)
curry,pariah,pajamas(Tamil)
guru,thug(Hindi)
anchovy,aprioct,armada,cannibal,canoe,mosquito,negro,potato,tobacco
(SpanishandPortugese)
balcony,ballot,carnival,design,fuse,lottery,opera,sonnet,stanza,violin,volcano(Italian)

II.B.3TheProtestantReformation

LongfesteringreactionconcentratedinNorthernEuropetoconspicuouscorruptionandabuseof
powerbytheChurch
AtfirstviolentlysuppressedinEnglandbyHenryVIII,thenembracedwhenitgavehimawayto
defythePopeanddivorcehiswife,CatherineofAragon,inordertomarryhisloverAnneBoleyn,
whomhelaterhadbeheaded.
ENG4820|Week5|Page10of17
Protestanttheologyvaluesprivate,individualreligiousdevotionandBiblestudy,whichfueledan
entireindustryoftranslation,authoring,andpublishingforEnglishreadingaudiences.

II.B.4WhattheProtestantReformationDid:BibleTranslation

PriortotheReformation,mostBiblesinEuropewereinLatinandwereguardedratherjealouslybythe
clergy.Soonafterthecommercializationoftheprintingpress,consumerdemandandgatheringanti
clericalsentimentledtoablossomingofBibletranslationsandprintededitionsinGerman,French,
English,andotherlocallanguages.

TheLatinBiblesoftheMiddleAgesweretranslationsoftranslationsandcopiesofcopies:

Hebrewscriptures:Hebrew>KoinGreek>Latin
Christianscriptures:Greek>Latin

TheProtestanttranslatorswentbacktotheoriginalHebrewandGreektexts,thoughtoalargeextent
theycribbedfromtheavailableLatintextsandfromeachother.

TheKingJamesBiblewastheresultofapetitiontoKingJamesin1603by750progressiveclergymenin
theChurchofEnglandforanewtranslation;Jamesagreed,andthetranslationwasauthoredbymore
thanfiftyclergymenandscholarsworkinginadeliberativecommitteestructure.

TheKingJamesversion(betterknownastheAuthorizedVersioninitstime)wasacarefulbalancingact
betweenearthy,folksystyleanddeliberatelyarchaic,decorouslanguage.

Distinguishesbetweenthesubjectpronounyeandthecorrespondingobjectpronounyou:Ye
cannotserveGodandMammon.ThereforeIsayuntoyou
Possessivehisinsteadofits:Ifthesalthaslotshisflavor
Consistentthirdpersonsingulareth,asouthernformwhichwasbeingdisplacedbyanorthern
import,s.
Oldernounandverbformswhichwerealreadyontheirwayout:holpeninsteadofhelped,
spakeinsteadofspoke,kineinsteadofcows,brethreninsteadofbrothers

Nonetheless,theKingJames/Authorizedversionismorerecognizeablymoderninitsuseofspellingand
punctuation,havingfallenmostlyinlinewiththeevolvingnormsofitstime.

ENG4820|Week5|Page11of17
ExodusChapter10
John Wycliffe 1384 William Tyndale 1534 Authorized Version 1611
1: And the Lord seide to Moises, 1:The Lorde sayde vnto Moses: goo vnto 1: And the LORD said unto Moses, Go
Entre thou to Farao, for Y haue Pharao, neuerthelesse I haue hardened in unto Pharaoh: for I have
maad hard the herte of hym, and of his harte and the hertes of his hardened his heart, and the heart
hise seruauntis, that Y do these servauntes, that I mighte shewe these of his servants, that I might shew
signes of me in hym; my sygnes amongest the these my signs before him:
2: and that thou telle in the eeris 2: and that thou tell in the 2: And that thou mayest tell in the
of thi sone and of `thi sones audience of thy sonne and of thy ears of thy son, and of thy son's
sones, how ofte Y al to-brak sonnes sonne, the pagiantes which I son, what things I have wrought in
Egipcians, and dide signes in hem; haue played in Egipte ad the Egypt, and my signs which I have
and that ye wyte that Y am the miracles which I haue done amonge done among them; that ye may know
Lord. them: that ye may knowe how that I how that I am the LORD.
am the Lorde.
3: Therfore Moises and Aaron 3: Than Moses ad Aaron went in vnto 3: And Moses and Aaron came in unto
entriden to Farao, and seiden to Pharao and sayde vnto him: thus Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus
hym, The Lord God of Ebrews seith sayth the Lorde God of the Hebrues: saith the LORD God of the Hebrews,
these thingis, How long `nylt thou how longe shall it be, or thou wilt How long wilt thou refuse to humble
be maad suget to me? Delyuere thou submyt thy selfe vnto me? Let my thyself before me? let my people
my puple, that it make sacrifice to people goo that they maye serue me. go, that they may serve me.
me; ellis sotheli if thou
ayenstondist,
4: and nylt delyuere it, lo! Y 4: Yf thou wilt not let my people 4: Else, if thou refuse to let my
schal brynge in to morewe a locuste goo: beholde, tomorow will I brynge people go, behold, to morrow will I
in to thi coostis, greshoppers in to thy lande, bring the locusts into thy coast:
5: which schal hile the hiyere part 5: and they shall couer the face of 5: And they shall cover the face of
of erthe, nether ony thing therof the erth that it can not be sene, the earth, that one cannot be able
schal appere, but that, that was ad they shall eate the residue to see the earth: and they shall
`residue to the hail schal be etun; which remayneth vnto you and eat the residue of that which is
for it schal gnawe alle the trees escaped the hayle and they shall escaped, which remaineth unto you
that buriounnen in feeldis; eate all youre grene trees vpon the from the hail, and shall eat every
felde, tree which groweth for you out of
the field:

MatthewChapter5
John Wycliffe 1384 William Tyndale 1534 Authorized Version 1611
11 Ye schulen be blessid, whanne 11 Blessed are ye when men reuyle 11: Blessed are ye, when men shall
men schulen curse you, and you and persecute you and shall revile you, and persecute you, and
schulen pursue you, and shulen falsly say all manner of yvell shall say all manner of evil against
ENG4820|Week5|Page12of17
seie al yuel ayens you liynge, saynges agaynst you for my sake. you falsely, for my sake.
for me.
12 Ioie ye, and be ye glad, for 12 Reioyce and be glad for greate is 12: Rejoice, and be exceeding glad:
youre meede is plenteuouse in youre rewarde in heven. + For so for great is your reward in heaven:
heuenes; for so thei han pursued persecuted they ye Prophetes which for so persecuted they the prophets
also profetis that weren bifor you. were before youre dayes. which were before you.
13 Ye ben salt of the erthe; that 13 ye are ye salt of the erthe: but 13: Ye are the salt of the earth:
if the salt vanysche awey, and yf ye salt have lost hir saltnes but if the salt have lost his
whereynne schal it be saltid? To what can be salted ther with? It is savour, wherewith shall it be
no thing it is worth ouere, no thence forthe good for nothynge but salted? it is thenceforth good for
but that it be cast out, and be to be cast oute and to be troade nothing, but to be cast out, and to
defoulid of men. vnder fote of men. be trodden under foot of men.
14 Ye ben liyt of the world; a 14 Ye are ye light of the worlde. A 14: Ye are the light of the world. A
citee set on an hil may not be cite yt is set on an hill cannot be city that is set on an hill cannot
hid; hid be hid.
15 ne me teendith not a lanterne, 15 nether do men lyght a cadell and 15: Neither do men light a candle,
and puttith it vndur a busschel, but put it vnder a busshell but on a and put it under a bushel, but on a
on a candilstike, that it yyue liyt candelstick and it lighteth all that candlestick; and it giveth light
to alle that ben in the hous. are in the house. unto all that are in the house.
16 So schyne youre liyt befor 16 Let youre light so shyne before 16: Let your light so shine before
men, that thei se youre goode men yt they maye se youre good men, that they may see your good
werkis, and glorifie youre fadir workes and glorify youre father works, and glorify your Father which
that is in heuenes. which is in heven. is in heaven.
17 Nil ye deme, that Y cam to 17 Thinke not yt I am come to destroye 17: Think not that I am come to
vndo the lawe, or the profetis; Y the lawe or the Prophets: no I am nott destroy the law, or the prophets: I
cam not to vndo the lawe, but to come to destroye them but to fulfyll am not come to destroy, but to
fulfille. them. fulfill.

Sources:
Wycliffe:http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/wycliffe/Exo.txt
Tyndale:http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/tyndale/exo.txt
AuthorizedVersion:http://etext.virginia.edu/kjv.browse.html

ENG4820|Week5|Page13of17
III TheNittyGritty

Oneofthefirstattemptsataphonemicalphabet

JohnHart,1569
(Source:Lererp.155)


MorePhonologicalandMorphologicalChange
ENG4820|Week5|Page14of17

Oneofthefirstattemptsatanauthoritativedictionaryofnewloanwords(Cawdrey):

(Source:Crystalp.72)

ENG4820|Week5|Page15of17


Variousotherinterestingbits(Millwardworkbookp.193):

1540:Dothanyofboththeseexamplesprovethat?
1581:Ifearmesomewillblushethatreadeththis,ifhebebitten
1617:Theyaresoproud,socensorious,thatitisnolivingwiththem.
1659:PresumingontheQueenherprivatepractice?
1726:Wemustnotletthishourpass,withoutpresentingustohim.

ENG4820|Week5|Page16of17
(Source:Crystalp.70)

ENG4820|Week5|Page17of17