ENG4820 | History of the English Language Week
Early Modern English, Continued
FROM LAST WEEK
The Great Vowel Shift, Whatever That Was
Around 1350, some people start pronouncing the word tide without the final <e>, so [thid]. Around 1450, no one pronounces the final <e> any more, but people are starting to pronounce the vowel as if it's a diphthong: [thIjd] Think back to the Eekspeak Game, only this time you’re a child born in London around 1450… You use your genetically endowed ability to statistically model the speech you hear around you, and you notice that about three quarters of the time, you hear [thid], otherwise sometimes [thIjd]. o How do you construct your abstract mental representation of this word? Is it /tid/ or /tIjd/? o Definitely /tid/, with a rule thrown in to realize the vowel as /Ij/ every once in a while. If you're a child born in the same place in 1475, you hear [thid] roughly half the time, [thIjd] the other half. What abstract mental representation do you construct? Flip a coin, and throw in a rule to get you the other variant. Now it's 1500, and you're hearing [thIjd] about 75% of the time. Your abstract mental representation will be /tIjd/, with a rule thrown in to realize the vowel as /i/ every now and then. By 1555, only old people say [thid]. The Great Vowel Shift has begun. Over the next two centuries, the first part of that diphtong, /I/, gets lower and lower and then more central, first /ε/ then /e/ then /æ/ then /Λ/
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In language after language, vowel inventories tend to remain symmetrical. If a phoneme shifts out of its place in the inventory, a neighboring phoneme tends to shift in to replace it, creating another gap which is then filled by a third shift …
This view only makes sense from a distance of three hundred years and with decades of academic research. To the people on the ground at the time, it would simply have seemed that there were many different pronunciations in play. The major shifts start happening around the time that people are starting to think and write about what a standard English should look and sound like, but this massive reorganization of the English phoneme inventory mostly escapes their attention. Where we do find clues: • • Books about pronunciation. See Hart’s 1569 Orthography below Rhyming patterns. If we notice poets and songwriters consistently rhyming pairs of words that now sound different to us, we can build a case that they in fact sounded the same during the period in which they appear. Examples from Millward’s Workbook p. 184f.: Not that we think us worthy such a guest But that your worth will dignify our feast To cross this narrow sea And fear to launch away [ε] [ε] [Λj] (Ben Jonson, 1616) (Isaac Watts, 1707) (Thomas Gray, 1751)
Let not Ambition mock their useful toil Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile
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Their great Lord’s glorious name; to none Of those whose spacious bosoms spread a throne Not all the tresses that fair head can boast Shall draw such envy as the Lock you lost The soul, uneasy and confined from home Rests and expatiates in a life to come How Shakespeare Probably Sounded
[ ] [ ] [ ]
(Richard Cranshaw, 1652) (Alexander Pope, 1712) (Alexander Pope, 1733)
http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Library/SLT/media/mp3/reasons.html Does this sound Irish to you? Or like a pirate (Arrr!)? Irish dialects of English, for reasons no one really understands, have been very conservative over time, holding on to vowel and consonant pronunciations that have since been lost in almost every other dialect. Here’s a sample from a popular BBC sitcom with an Irish cast, Father Ted: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iBCp9Oqu4A Poins: Come, your reason, Jack, your reason. Falstaff: What, upon compulsion? Zounds, and I were at the strappado or all the racks in the world, I would not tell you upon compulsion. Give you a reason on compulsion? If reasons were as plentiful as blackberries, I would give no man a reason upon compulsion, I. (Henry IV, Part One, 2.4.246‐42) I.B Grammatical Verbs
The mental ‘lexicon’ of a speaker of English (or any language) has three main compartments in it. • • • An exclamatory compartment, used only for storing words like Ouch! Shit! Woah! A purely lexical compartment with words for objects, people, characteristics, ideas, etc: car, brother, Snoopy, good, love, perplexing. There’s another compartment with words used in grammar: the, of, it, a, you, not, the ‘little words’ we indicate when we play charades.
We know of these compartments because some people with brain injuries lose access to one compartment but not the other two, or two compartments but not the other one. All languages have grammatical words of one kind or another, but English is unlike many languages – even many Indo‐European cousins – in that it has a specialized set of verbs that function as grammatical words: be, can, could, do, have, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would and for some older speakers dare. These are often called helping verbs or auxiliary verbs (from Latin auxilia ‘help’). We know these verbs belong to a separate class, distinct from purely lexical verbs like drive, tell, eat, or recommend. We know this because they behave in very distinct ways. The differences are scalar and developed over more than a thousand years from Old to Early Modern English
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(1) Order with respect to adverbs: Grammatical verbs don’t generally appear after adverbs, though this tendency has been fading fast even within my adult life. a. I usually take the bus to work. b. ? I usually can take the bus to work. c. √ I can usually take the bus to work. d. * I take usually the bus to work.
(2) Sentence‐Initial Inversion a. * Take you the bus to work? b. Can you take the bus to work?
(3) Phonological reduction: a. I can [khæn] / *[kən] vegetables for a living. b. I can *[khæn] / [kən] take the bus to work. (Non‐emphatic)
(4) Regular affixes don’t appear a. Tom can take the bus to work. (5) b. *Tom cans take the bus to work. Loss of independent meanings: OE ancestors of ME and ModE auxiliaries Old English beon/wesan 'to be, exist' habban 'to have' Today be have
magan ‘to be effective, to prevail’ may onginnan 'to attempt, endeavor' sculan ‘to owe’ willan ‘to want, desire’ (be)gin shall will
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Grammatical Verbs and Modality
‘Modality’ is a relatively abstract notion that addresses a speaker’s attitude about what they are saying – in other words, whether the proposition they are making with their words is obligatory, necessary, or permitted by ability or rule. Example Modality OBLIGATION NECESSITY ABILITY PERMISSION
a. Passengers must remain seated at all times.
b. Drivers should exercise extreme caution when driving at night. c. Customers can choose from many exciting options. d. The defendant may approach
These are examples of what we call root modality, in other words something basic to the root meanings of the underlined verbs. What develops in the course of the late Middle English period and into the modern era is another layer of modality, called extrinsic or epistemic modality. It encompasses more slippery notions such as probability, believability, desirability, or reality. Example I.D. The Rise of the Auxiliary Verb: DoSupport in Questions and Negation Today’s English makes use of the grammatical verb do in sentences formed around negation, questions, or negative commands. We call this dosupport. Take all the following variations on I speak French. I don’t speak French Don’t I speak French? Do I speak French? What do I speak? Negative declarative (Neg. decl.) Negative question (Neg. quest.) Affirmative question (Aff. quest.) Affirmative question (Aff. quest.) Negative imperative (Neg. imp.)
a. You must be joking.
b. Roger should be home any minute now. c. Tequila can really give you a rotten hangover. d. Roger may have colon cancer.
Don’t speak French!
(We also have an optional structure with do that we use to express emphasis or to contradict a negative: I do speak French.)
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The obligatory use of do has only been obligatory for about the last three hundred years. That’s recent enough for us to have live cultural memories of the time before (setting Jedi Master Yoda aside for the moment): What say you? How goes it? Fear not. They know not what they do. The rise of dosupport from the late medieval to the early modern era was gradual and, from the point of view of someone on the ground at the time, maybe even messy. (9) a. Negative declaratives (Neg.decl.) with do‐support: without: Christ dyd not praye for Iames and Iohan & for the other What is that, I praie you, for I knowe not myne owne religion?
b. Negative questions (Neg.quest.) with do‐support: without: Why do we not spede vs hastely to come vnto that rest...? O mercyfull lorde ... why shewed thou not vengeaunce ...?
c. Affirmative questions (Aff.quest.) with do‐support: without: How do they spende the afternoone, I pray you? What meaneth hee by winkyng like a Goose in the raine ...?
d. Negative imperatives (Neg.Imp.) with do‐support: without: Loke ye, do not lye; and thow do lye, I shal it knowe wele Doute ye nat ye shall have al youre wylle
The dosupport pattern propagates through the language at a different pace in each of these environments, eventually taking over by the 18th century, though not completely in the negative declarative.
1.000 0.900 0.800 0.700 0.600 0.500 0.400 0.300 0.200 0.100 0.000 1390-1400 1400-1425 1425-1475 1475-1500 1500-1525 1525-1535 1535-1550 1550-1575 1575-1600 1600-1625 1625-1650 1650-1700 1710 Aff.decl. Neg.decl Neg.quest. Aff.Quest Neg.Imp.
TABLE 1 | DATA QUOTED FROM ELLEGÅRD  BY OGURA [1993: 54])
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THIS WEEK: GETTING OUR HEADS IN THE RIGHT PLACE
Dr. Getty Rides His Little Horse into the Modern Era
We’re entering the age of spelling, punctuation, and ‘grammar,’ in the sense that word applies to thinking principally about how people should speak and write, not how they actually do. The philosophy behind this movement is illustrated in the wordy titles of the era: • Jeremiah Wharton 1654: The Englishgrammar, or, The institution of letters, syllables, and words in the Englishtongue conteining all rules and directions necessary to bee known for the judicious reading, rightspeaking, and writing thereof : very useful for all that desire to bee expert in the foresaid properties, more especially profitable for scholars immediately before their entrance into the rudiments of the Latinetongue Joseph Aickin, 1693: The English grammar: or, the English tongue reduced to grammatical rules containing the four parts of grammar: viz. orthographie, etymology, syntax, prosody or poetry. Being the easiest quickest and most authentick method of teaching it, by rules and pictures: adapted to the capacities of children, youth and those of riper years; in learning whereof the English scholar may now attain the perfection of his mother tongue, without the assistance of Latine; composed for the use of all English schools. By Joseph Aickin M. A. and lately one of the masters of the FreeSchool of London Dery. Licensed May the 24. 1692
These texts are at the beginning of what I am going to refer to as the English Grammar Industry. Because it really is an industry – an organized human activity from which many thousands of people in the English‐speaking world earn their living – academic researchers, authors, editors, publishers, booksellers, and (in the closest analogy to an assembly line worker) teachers. If you had to, you could attach a dollar figure to the resources used in any given year to codify, publicize, enforce and reinforce uniformity in English usage as well as the revenue from these activities in the form of book sales, salaries, consultant fees, and tuition. Here’s Where I Stand This industry earns its place to the extent it serves a number of strictly practical, utilitarian aims: • • • Allowing people from different points in the the vast geo‐linguistic‐politico‐economic‐cultural universe that is the English‐speaking world to communicate with each other as easily as possible. Providing a common language for commerce and diplomacy between English‐speaking populations and everyone else on the planet. Providing a common and even neutral language for commerce and diplomacy among non‐English‐ speaking groups. Some hot examples: Global tourism, Diplomacy between Israel and Arabic‐ speaking countries, between India and Pakistan, within India (which has hundreds of languages, fourteen of them with official status). Counteracting the forces of linguistic change in written language, thereby keeping historical texts written in English more accessible to present‐day English speakers than they might otherwise be. Providing important cognitive stimulation for school‐aged children. Since it is different from what pretty much everyone actually speaks, learning how to read, write, and speak a standardized form of English develops crucial skills related to abstraction and analytical thinking as well as awareness of and proficiency in form‐function mapping. This is especially true for students who speak socially confined dialects or languages other than English. ENG4820 | Week 5 | Page 7 of 17
The industry oversteps its bounds when it gets into the following areas or stands by silently as others do, usually as a way to mask social bias: • • • Elitism: Asserting or attempting to prove any inherent superiority (aesthetic, philosophical, racial) of a standardized form of English over and above its strictly practical, utilitarian advantages Deliberate Archaism: Promoting or attempting to enforce usage of historical norms long after they have dropped out of common usage. Examples: I shall as a future tense marker in American English, archaic Latinate plural forms like cacti vs. cactuses Artificiality: Promoting or attempting to enforce the use of patterns made up by grammarians from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries who tried to make English more like Latin: penalizing sentences ending with a preposition, It’s me, to boldly go (the counterpart of to go in Latin would have been itur, which couldn’t be split because it was a single word) Purism for its own Sake: Lynn Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves: A ZeroTolerance Approach to Punctuation vs. David Crystal, The Fight for English: How Language Pundits Ate, Shot, and Left.
For Our Purposes: The industry focusses on what people have conscious access to – which, as I’ve shown you over and over, is an infinitessimally small piece of what actually goes on between a person’s ears when they engage in language. Along that line, purists and prescriptivists tend to focus mostly on what they don’t like, which says more about them than it does about anything that’s really going on. The greatest upheavals in the history of English – from the Great Vowel shift and the loss of overt case marking to the shifts in vowel inventories and leveling of irregular verb forms underway today – almost never get written about. This is because they tend to unfold over decades or centuries, but also because people are too busy disapproving of other things to take notice. Without a broad view, the study of language degenerates into obsessive arcanery and trivia hounding. Just more information in a world already drowning in it. But knowledge, understanding, insight, and perspective are in critically short supply. Grammar, spelling, and punctuation just aren’t that interesting: • • • More interesting than the spelling and grammar rules that arise during this period are the workings of the minds that created them. More interesting than the rarified, refined language of the period are the fleeting glimpses of marginalized, non‐standard speech we see recorded from time to time. More interesting than what people thought about their language is what we can observe in it using computational and statistical methods they did not have.
But at the Begnning of the Story, the Equation is a Little Different: What the Grammar Industry gave people: • • • • Certainty in a time of chaos Cultural legitimacy from a (mostly imagined) connection to Rome and Greece Practical means of social advancement Concrete symbols of national unity and commonality
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II.B. EVENTS ON THE GROUND II.B.1 The Renaissance: • • • • • Rediscovery of the humanistic cultures of Rome and Greece from ca. 700 BCE to ca. 300 CE Neglected and supressed in the Middle Ages but reintroduced and rekindled in no small part by the Muslim and Jewish presence in Europe from ca. 750 to ca. 1450 Rekindled ideas of logic, rational order, and critical inquiry Classical language study: Greek and Roman thought on rhetoric and discourse Areas of knowledge in which neither English nor French had a thoroughly developed vocabulary. English speakers of the Renaissance revived old Greek and Latin words and cobbled together new ones from Greek and Latin roots. These words took up residence next to the more generic Latin and Greek loans brought over by the Normans in the 11th through 13th centuries. Area Astronomy Medicine Mathematics Physics II.B.2 What the Renaissance Did This was the third major wave of imported words to wash over English since the settlement of England in the 5th century, and even though the language and its speakers were, on the whole, very receptive. But the rate and scope of importation in the Renaissance went too far for some people; the issue became a point of heated public disagreement (known as the ‘Inkhorn Controversy’) from about 1550 to about 1650: Thomas Elyot, 1531 (author of The Boke Named the Governor from Week 10): I am constraind to vsurve a latine word calling it Maturitie: which word though it be strange and darke / yet by declaring the vertue in a few mo wordes / the name ones brought in custome / shall be as facile to vndersande as other wordes late commen out of Italy and France / and made denizins amonge vs … And this I do now remembre for the necessary augmentation of our langage (Source: Crystal p. 61) Thomas Wilson, 1553 Among all other lessons this should first be learned, that wee never affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but to speake as is commonly received: neither seeking to be overfine, nor yet living overcarelesse, using our speeche as most men doe, and ordering our wittes as the fewest have done. Some seek so far outlandish English, they they forget altogether their mothers language. And ENG4820 | Week 5 | Page 9 of 17 Word telescope orbit lunar physical infect biceps formula theorem calculate react tangent accelerate Origin Greek telós ‘far’ skopein ‘look’ Latin orbs ‘sphere’ itur ‘go’ Latin luna ‘moon’ Greek physiké ‘having to do with nature’ Latin in ‘in’ + factus ‘done’ Latin bi ‘two’ + ceps ‘headed’ Latin formula ‘little form’ Greek theorein ‘to look at’ Latin calculus ‘little pebble’ Latin re ‘back’ actus ‘done’ Latin tangens ‘touching’ Latin ad ‘to’ celer ‘swift’
I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were alive, thei were not able to tell what they say… (Source: Crystal p. 61) Alexander Gil, Logonomica Anglica, 1621 (Translated from Latin) Such is the stupidity of the uneducated masses that they admire most what they least comprehend … for since everyone wishes to appear as a smatterer of tongues and to vaunt his proficiency in Latin, French (or any other language), so daily wild beasts of words are tamed, and horrid evil‐ sounding magpies and owls of unpropitious birth are taught to hazard our words. Thus today we are, for the most part, Englishmen not speaking Englihs and not understood by ears … we have exiled that which was legitimate – our birthright – pleasant in expression, and ackowledged by our forefathers. O cruel country! (Source: Lerer p. 148) Words that survived dismiss, disagree, disabuse commit, transmit, admit impede dullard, drunkard conclusion condition schoolfellows Words that didn’t disadorn, disaccustom demit expede stinkard endsay ifsay condisciples
(Source: Crystal p. 61)
Shakespeare (1564‐1616) was a player in the Inkhorn debates and contributed to both sides Words that survived accommodation, assassination, dislocate, eventful, premeditated, submerged Barefaced, countless, laughable, lack‐ lustre, fancy‐free
(Source: Crystal p. 61)
Words that didn’t abruption, appertainments, persistive, protractive, soilure, vastidity
Crashing into English at just the same time are two forces that open the gates even wider: Words entering English from European colonies as well as expanded continental trade • • • • • • bazaar, caravan (Persian, via India) coffee, kiosk, yoghurt, horde (Turkish) curry, pariah, pajamas (Tamil) guru, thug (Hindi) anchovy, aprioct, armada, cannibal, canoe, mosquito, negro, potato, tobacco (Spanish and Portugese) balcony, ballot, carnival, design, fuse, lottery, opera, sonnet, stanza, violin, volcano (Italian)
II.B.3 The Protestant Reformation • • Long‐festering reaction concentrated in Northern Europe to conspicuous corruption and abuse of power by the Church At first violently suppressed in England by Henry VIII, then embraced when it gave him a way to defy the Pope and divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry his lover Anne Boleyn, whom he later had beheaded. ENG4820 | Week 5 | Page 10 of 17
Protestant theology values private, individual religious devotion and Bible study, which fueled an entire industry of translation, authoring, and publishing for English‐reading audiences.
II.B.4 What the Protestant Reformation Did: Bible Translation Prior to the Reformation, most Bibles in Europe were in Latin and were guarded rather jealously by the clergy. Soon after the commercialization of the printing press, consumer demand and gathering anti‐ clerical sentiment led to a blossoming of Bible translations and printed editions in German, French, English, and other local languages. The Latin Bibles of the Middle Ages were translations of translations and copies of copies: • • Hebrew scriptures: Hebrew > Koiné Greek > Latin Christian scriptures: Greek > Latin
The Protestant translators went back to the original Hebrew and Greek texts, though to a large extent they cribbed from the available Latin texts and from each other. The ‘King James Bible’ was the result of a petition to King James in 1603 by 750 progressive clergymen in the Church of England for a new translation; James agreed, and the translation was authored by more than fifty clergymen and scholars working in a deliberative committee structure. The King James version (better known as the Authorized Version in its time) was a careful balancing act between earthy, folksy style and deliberately archaic, decorous language. • • • • Distinguishes between the subject pronoun ye and the corresponding object pronoun you: Ye cannot serve God and Mammon. Therefore I say unto you … Possessive his instead of its: If the salt has lots his flavor Consistent third‐person singular –eth, a southern form which was being displaced by a northern import, ‐s. Older noun and verb forms which were already on their way out: holpeninstead of helped, spakeinstead of spoke, kine instead of cows, brethren instead of brothers
Nonetheless, the King James/Authorized version is more recognizeably modern in its use of spelling and punctuation, having fallen mostly in line with the evolving norms of its time.
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Exodus Chapter 10
John Wycliffe 1384 1: And the Lord seide to Moises, Entre thou to Farao, for Y haue maad hard the herte of hym, and of hise seruauntis, that Y do these signes of me in hym; 2: and that thou telle in the eeris of thi sone and of `thi sones sones, how ofte Y al to-brak Egipcians, and dide signes in hem; and that ye wyte that Y am the Lord. 3: Therfore Moises and Aaron entriden to Farao, and seiden to hym, The Lord God of Ebrews seith these thingis, How long `nylt thou be maad suget to me? Delyuere thou my puple, that it make sacrifice to me; ellis sotheli if thou ayenstondist, 4: and nylt delyuere it, lo! Y schal brynge in to morewe a locuste in to thi coostis, 5: which schal hile the hiyere part of erthe, nether ony thing therof schal appere, but that, that was `residue to the hail schal be etun; for it schal gnawe alle the trees that buriounnen in feeldis; William Tyndale 1534 1:The Lorde sayde vnto Moses: goo vnto Pharao, neuerthelesse I haue hardened his harte and the hertes of his servauntes, that I mighte shewe these my sygnes amongest the 2: and that thou tell in the audience of thy sonne and of thy sonnes sonne, the pagiantes which I haue played in Egipte ad the miracles which I haue done amonge them: that ye may knowe how that I am the Lorde. 3: Than Moses ad Aaron went in vnto Pharao and sayde vnto him: thus sayth the Lorde God of the Hebrues: how longe shall it be, or thou wilt submyt thy selfe vnto me? Let my people goo that they maye serue me. 4: Yf thou wilt not let my people goo: beholde, tomorow will I brynge greshoppers in to thy lande, 5: and they shall couer the face of the erth that it can not be sene, ad they shall eate the residue which remayneth vnto you and escaped the hayle and they shall eate all youre grene trees vpon the felde, Authorized Version 1611 1: And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him: 2: And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD. 3: And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let my people go, that they may serve me. 4: Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast: 5: And they shall cover the face of the earth, that one cannot be able to see the earth: and they shall eat the residue of that which is escaped, which remaineth unto you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which groweth for you out of the field:
Matthew Chapter 5
John Wycliffe 1384 11 Ye schulen be blessid, whanne men schulen curse you, and schulen pursue you, and shulen William Tyndale 1534 11 Blessed are ye when men reuyle you and persecute you and shall falsly say all manner of yvell Authorized Version 1611 11: Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against
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seie al yuel ayens you liynge, for me. 12 Ioie ye, and be ye glad, for youre meede is plenteuouse in heuenes; for so thei han pursued also profetis that weren bifor you. 13 Ye ben salt of the erthe; that if the salt vanysche awey, whereynne schal it be saltid? To no thing it is worth ouere, no but that it be cast out, and be defoulid of men. 14 Ye ben liyt of the world; a citee set on an hil may not be hid; 15 ne me teendith not a lanterne, and puttith it vndur a busschel, but on a candilstike, that it yyue liyt to alle that ben in the hous. 16 So schyne youre liyt befor men, that thei se youre goode werkis, and glorifie youre fadir that is in heuenes. 17 Nil ye deme, that Y cam to vndo the lawe, or the profetis; Y cam not to vndo the lawe, but to fulfille.
saynges agaynst you for my sake. 12 Reioyce and be glad for greate is youre rewarde in heven. + For so persecuted they ye Prophetes which were before youre dayes. 13 ye are ye salt of the erthe: but and yf ye salt have lost hir saltnes what can be salted ther with? It is thence forthe good for nothynge but to be cast oute and to be troade vnder fote of men. 14 Ye are ye light of the worlde. A cite yt is set on an hill cannot be hid 15 nether do men lyght a cadell and put it vnder a busshell but on a candelstick and it lighteth all that are in the house. 16 Let youre light so shyne before men yt they maye se youre good workes and glorify youre father which is in heven. 17 Thinke not yt I am come to destroye the lawe or the Prophets: no I am nott come to destroye them but to fulfyll them.
you falsely, for my sake. 12: Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. 13: Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. 14: Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. 15: Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. 16: Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven. 17: Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.
Wycliffe: http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/wycliffe/Exo.txt Tyndale: http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/tyndale/exo.txt Authorized Version: http://etext.virginia.edu/kjv.browse.html
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The Nitty Gritty
One of the first attempts at a phonemic alphabet…
John Hart, 1569
(Source: Lerer p. 155)
More Phonological and Morphological Change ENG4820 | Week 5 | Page 14 of 17
One of the first attempts at an authoritative dictionary of new loan words (Cawdrey):
(Source: Crystal p. 72) ENG4820 | Week 5 | Page 15 of 17
Various other interesting bits (Millward workbook p. 193): 1540: Doth any of both these examples prove that …? 1581: I fear me some will blushe that readeth this, if he be bitten 1617: They are so proud, so censorious, that it is no living with them. 1659: Presuming on the Queen her private practice? 1726: We must not let this hour pass, without presenting us to him. ENG4820 | Week 5| Page 16 of 17
(Source: Crystal p. 70)
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