You are on page 1of 97

CAD package for electromagnetic and thermal analysis using finite elements

Flux

by CEDRAT

Brushless SPM motor tutorial


2D technical example

Flux is a registered trademark.

Flux software :
Flux tutorials :

COPYRIGHT CEDRAT/INPG/CNRS/EDF
COPYRIGHT CEDRAT

This tutorial was edited on 10 December 2012


Ref.: KF 2 05 -E- 111 - EN - 12/12

CEDRAT
15 Chemin de Malacher - Inovalle
38246 Meylan Cedex
FRANCE
Phone: +33 (0)4 76 90 50 45
Fax: +33 (0)4 56 38 08 30
Email: cedrat@cedrat.com
Web: http://www.cedrat.com

Foreword
*(Please read before starting this document)

Description of
the example

The goal of this technical example is to demonstrate the ability and


advantage of Flux for the simulation of brushless motor computation
problems. This document contains the general steps and all the data needed
to describe the different simulations.

Required
knowledge

Before proceeding with this technical example, the user must have a
foundational knowledge of all the functionalities of Flux software.
To obtain this knowledge, first, the user should go through the basic
example Geometry and mesh tutorial - First steps in using Flux . This
document explains, in detail, all the actions necessary to build the geometry
and mesh of a project in the Flux study domain.

Support files
included...

To view the completed phases of the example project, the user will find the
.py files, including the geometry, physics and post processing descriptions.
The .py files corresponding to the different study cases in this example are
available in the folder: \DocExamples\Examples2D\BrushlessSPMMotor\
Supplied files are command files written in Pyflux language. The user can
launch them in order to automatically recover the Flux projects for each
case.
**(.py files are launched by accessing Project/Command file from the Flux
drop down menu.)
Supplied files

Contents

Flux file obtained after


launching the .py file

CASE1/Geomesh.py
CASE1/buildPhys.py
CASE1/solving.py
CASE1/postprocessing.py

Geometry and mesh


physics
Solving process
Post processing

Geomesh.FLU
BuiltPhys.FLU
Solved.FLU
Postprocessed.FLU

CASE2/TESTCASE_INI.FLU
CASE2/buildPhys.py
CASE2/solving.py
CASE2/postprocessing.py

Initial Flux project


physics
Solving process
Post processing

CASE2/BuiltPhys.FLU
CASE2/Solved.FLU
CASE2/Postprocessed.FLU

CASE3/TESTCASE_INI.FLU
CASE3/buildPhys.py
CASE3/solving.py
CASE3/postprocessing.py

Initial Flux project


physics
Solving process
Post processing

CASE3/BuiltPhys.FLU
CASE3/Solved.FLU
CASE3/Postprocessed.FLU

Note : some directories may contain a main.py enabling the launch of the command files

Flux

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1. General information .................................................................................................................1
1.1.

1.2.
1.3.

Overview .......................................................................................................................................3
1.1.1. Description of the device ................................................................................................4
1.1.2. Studied cases .................................................................................................................5
Strategy to build the Flux project ..................................................................................................7
About the Overlay (motor template)..............................................................................................9
1.3.1. Motor Template: presentation.......................................................................................10
1.3.2. Motor Template: the library...........................................................................................11
1.3.3. Motor Template: principle of description in FLUX ........................................................12
1.3.4. Motor Object: Speed importation..................................................................................13

2. Geometry and mesh description of the motor........................................................................15


2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.1.3.

Load the BPM overlay ..................................................................................................16


Create a brushless permanent motor using the overlay...............................................17
Mesh the device............................................................................................................19

3. Case 1: back electromotive force computation ......................................................................21


3.1.

3.2.

3.3.

Case 1: define the physics..........................................................................................................23


3.1.1. Define the physical application .....................................................................................24
3.1.2. Create materials ...........................................................................................................25
3.1.3. Create mechanical sets ................................................................................................26
3.1.4. Create a circuit..............................................................................................................27
3.1.5. Modify a circuit..............................................................................................................28
3.1.6. Modify face regions.......................................................................................................29
3.1.7. Modify face region and orient material for face region .................................................30
3.1.8. Modify face region ........................................................................................................31
Case 1: solve the project ............................................................................................................33
3.2.1. Create a scenario .........................................................................................................34
3.2.2. Solve the project ...........................................................................................................35
Case 1: results post-processing..................................................................................................37
3.3.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on face regions at a
selected time step.........................................................................................................38
3.3.2. Plot a 2D curve of the voltage through coil conductors versus angle ..........................40
3.3.3. Compute the FFT of the voltage through a stranded coil. ............................................41

4. Case 2: constant speed computation ....................................................................................43


4.1.

4.2.

4.3.

4.4.
4.5.

Case 2: define the physics..........................................................................................................45


4.1.1. Delete a circuit and import another circuit ....................................................................46
4.1.2. Create I/O parameters ..................................................................................................49
4.1.3. Modify a circuit..............................................................................................................50
4.1.4. Modify a material ..........................................................................................................52
4.1.5. Modify face regions and orient material for face region ...............................................53
4.1.6. Modify mechanical set ..................................................................................................54
4.1.7. Assign coil conductor to face region.............................................................................55
Case 2: solve the project ............................................................................................................57
4.2.1. Create a scenario .........................................................................................................58
4.2.2. Solve the project ...........................................................................................................59
Case 2: result post processing....................................................................................................61
4.3.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on face regions .............62
4.3.2. Compute mechanical torque and mechanical power ...................................................63
4.3.3. Compute stator current and joule losses ......................................................................64
4.3.4. Compute the Bertotti iron loss ......................................................................................65
4.3.5. Compute LS iron loss ...................................................................................................66
4.3.6. Create a sensor and display a curve of loss in magnets..............................................67
4.3.7. Compute efficiency .......................................................................................................69
Case 3: PWM with SPEED. ........................................................................................................71
Case 3: define the physics..........................................................................................................73
4.5.1. Create I/O parameters ..................................................................................................74
4.5.2. Modify and creates a circuit. .........................................................................................75

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE A

General information

4.6.

4.7.

Annexe

PAGE B

Flux

4.5.3. Modify the circuit components and current source .......................................................76


Case 3: solve the project.............................................................................................................77
4.6.1. Create a scenario..........................................................................................................78
4.6.2. Solve the project ...........................................................................................................79
Case 3: result post processing....................................................................................................81
4.7.1. Examples of results: three-phase current.....................................................................82
4.7.2. Examples of result: Bertotti iron loss ............................................................................83
4.7.3. Compute new results and efficiency .............................................................................84

85

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

1.

General information

General information

Introduction

The goal of this technical paper is to demonstrate the ability and advantage of
Flux in the simulation of brushless motor computation problems.
This chapter presents the studied device, (a brushless DC with surface
permanent magnet motor used in pump applications) and explains the
strategies used for geometry construction and mesh generation.

Contents

This chapter contains the following topics:


Topic
Overview
Strategy to build the Flux project
About the Overlay (motor template)

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
3
7
9

PAGE 1

General information

PAGE 2

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

1.1.

General information

Overview

Introduction

This section is an overview of the sample problem. It contains a brief


description of the device and of the studied cases.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Description of the device
Studied cases

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
4
5

PAGE 3

General information

Flux

1.1.1. Description of the device

Studied device

The studied device, a brushless DC motor with surface permanent magnet


presented in the figure below, includes the following elements:
a fixed part (stator) including yoke, slots, and windings
an air gap
a movable part (rotor) with surfaced magnets
A section of the model of the studied device is presented in the figure below.

Motor ratings

This motor is designed for


Rated bus voltage: 24 V
Rated torque : 2 N.m
Rated speed: 1000 rpm
Rated power : 248 W
Mechanical loses = 7.5 W

Motor main
characteristics

This motor has the following main characteristics


24 stator slots
3 phase wye connected
2 pole pairs
NdFeBr magnet
Lamination type : Tabbed value
Outer diameter: 48 mm
Stack length: 50.308 mm

PAGE 4

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

General information

1.1.2. Studied cases

Studied cases

Two cases are studied in this technical paper:


Case 1: study to compute the back electromotive force
Case 2: study to compute the motor performances at constant speed
Case 3: study to compute the motor performances at constant speed after
import of speed results

Case 1

The back electromotive force EMF is computed with the speed of 1000 rpm
and external circuit connections. It corresponds to the motor being in
generator mode at no load.

Case 2

The motor is driven with a 3 phase square current and running at constant
speed.
The simulated motor performances are used to compute :
Shaft torque and electrical power consumption
Field airgap and his spectrum analysis
Core and magnet loses
Current in C1 coil component
Current in S1 switch component

Case 3

A pre calculation of the synchronous machine was performed with the


SPEED software. From this calculation, a better estimation of the wave form
current was determined. Now, in Flux 2D, the machine will be supplied with
these new values of current. Constant speed operation of the motor stays at
1000 rpm.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 5

General information

PAGE 6

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

1.2.

General information

Strategy to build the Flux project

Introduction

An outline of the strategy employed to model the geometry and mesh


description of the motor is presented in the table below.
Stage
1
2

Theoretical
aspect

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Description
Description of the motor
Load an overlay
geometry using an overlay
Modify the overlay
Meshing of the device
Mesh

The basic knowledge necessary to describe a motor is provided by utilizing an


overlay and is presented in the following section.

PAGE 7

General information

PAGE 8

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

1.3.

General information

About the Overlay (motor template)

Introduction

This section deals with the BPM (Brushless Permanent Magnet) Motor
Template and answers the following three questions:
What is possible to model with FLUX? (presentation of the object editor,
available library)
How to describe the problem in FLUX? (use the object editor)
What are the possible links with Speed?

Contents

This section covers the following topics:


Motor Template: presentation
Motor Template: the library
Motor Template: principle of description in FLUX
Motor Object: Speed importation

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 9

General information

Flux

1.3.1. Motor Template: presentation

Presentation

The complete description of a motor in FLUX can be somewhat long and


involved.
To describe a motor utilizing the standard Flux interface, the user must:
prepare the tools of geometric description (parameters, coordinate
systems)
create the points and lines of the rotor and stator (slots, air-gap, )
build the faces
mesh the device
create the regions and assign to faces

These different stages must be repeated for each type of motor that is being
modeled.
Now it is possible for FLUX to simplify this process, by providing a library
of predefined motor templates.
With this new description mode, the stages of model construction are
simplified. The user chooses a type of motor and winding from the library and
interactively enters the parameters of the motor.

Motor object:
definition

A BPM Motor template is an object from the specific library:


BPM (Brushless Permanent Magnet) Motor
This covers information related to geometry and mesh. There is no
information about physics.

PAGE 10

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

General information

1.3.2. Motor Template: the library

Introduction

The library of Motor objects is a library of motors with permanent magnets


(without brushes).
The models are standard models. This library corresponds to the one provided
in the Speed software.

List of models

The different models in the library are not detailed in the on line help because
their documentation is included in the software. An interactive image is
displayed in the object editor. The editor displays a direct visualization of the
parameters entered by the user.
The list of models provided for the rotor and stator is presented in the table
below.
Rotor
BreadLoaf
FullRing
InsCP
InsRel
IPM
LSIPM
Spoke
SurfPII
SurfRad

Example

An example of motor template is presented in the figures below.


Rotor IPM
(4 poles)

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Stator
Flared
HW
PIIRound
PIISlot
PIISquare
Round
Square

Stator HW
(12 slots)

Whole motor

PAGE 11

General information

Flux

1.3.3. Motor Template: principle of description in FLUX

General
operation

Principle

The template editor provided in FLUX is an assistant to the creation of the


model which is part of the overall construction process of a finite element
project. The motor template editor simplifies the stage of the geometry
construction and the mesh building as shown in the table below.
Stage
1
2

Standard description
Geometry building
Mesh construction

Assisted description
Direct construction of a
meshed motor

3
4
5

Physical properties description


Solving process

Identical

Results post-processing

The user builds the motor directly in FLUX using the template editor and the
BPM motor Object library.
The general principle of operation is given in the table below.

Stage

The user provides


Geometric characteristics:
general:
units /
of stator :
shape / dimension /number of slots /
of rotor :
shape / dimension / number of poles /
Choices for FE modeling:
taking periodicities into account
influence of eccentricities
A coefficient to adjust the mesh density
(value comprised between 0.5 and 1)
Winding characteristics:
Distribution of the phases in the slots:
standard winding or particular
winding

to continue

PAGE 12

FLUX carries out


Geometry building:
creation of parameters, coordinate
systems, transformations
creation of points, lines, faces
Grouping of the faces in regions
creation of regions : shaft, rotor, stator,
magnet, air-gap, air
assigning of the regions to faces

Mesh construction:
automatic mesh and
linked mesh to faces
Grouping of the faces in regions (continued)
Creation of regions corresponding to the
coils (grouping by phase)
Assigning of the regions to faces

The user continues the description of the finite element project in the usual
way: description of the physical properties, creation of the mechanical
assemblies, description of the electric circuit and importing it into FLUX,
solving and post-processing of the results.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

General information

1.3.4. Motor Object: Speed importation

Introduction

The Flux/Speed link is created by the introduction in FLUX of a Brushless


PM object from the Speed library.

Speed
Importation

The user can import a motor described with Speed (Speed file) into FLUX.
The Speed/Flux compatibility makes this possible. All the information
concerning the geometric characteristics and the winding characteristics are
preserved (dimensional parameters*, number of poles, of phases ).
*The name of the parameters are the same in Speed and Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 13

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

PAGE 14

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

2.

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

Introduction

This chapter contains the geometry and mesh description of the motor
presented in a manner less detailed than the 2D generic tutorial chapters. The
user must have good understanding of all functionalities of the Flux
preprocessor.

New Flux
project

The new Flux project is saved under the name GEOMESH.FLU.

Contents

This chapter contains the following topics:


Topic
Load the BPM overlay
Create a brushless permanent motor using the overlay
Mesh the device

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
15
17
19

PAGE 15

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

Flux

2.1.1. Load the BPM overlay

Goal

First, the geometry and mesh is carried out using an overlay.

Action

Load the BRUSHLESS_PERMANENT_MAGNET_MOTORS_V3.PFO


overlay.

PAGE 16

Extensions Overlay Load a certified overlay

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

2.1.2. Create a brushless permanent motor using the overlay

Goal

The geometry of the motor is described using an overlay.

Data (1)

The general characteristics of the motor are presented in the tables below.
General description
Length unit

Mesh density

Millimeter

0.5

Infinite box
Inner radius
Outer radius
110
140

Airgap description

Data (2)

Air gap

Eccentricities and
periodicities

Use periodicities

Rotating air gap

0.503

without eccentricity

yes

Two layers
airgap

The characteristics of the rotor are presented in the tables below.


Rotor description
Magnet shape description : Rotor SurfRad
Shaft radius
9.003

General description
Thickness of
Magnet pole
magnet
arc
6.987
150

Number of magnet block


per pole
1

Embedded magnet type


Not embedded

General description
Number of poles

Rotor external radius

Rotor shift angle

25.154

0.0
Continued on next page

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 17

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

Data (3)

Flux

The characteristics of the stator are presented in the tables below.


Stator description
Slot shape description : Stator Square
Slot
Depth
14

Stator
tooth
width
3.4

General description
Slot
Slot
Radial
opening
Opening
depth
angle
1.5
1.0
20

FILSO

FILSB

1.0

General description
Number of
slots
24

LamShape
circle

Stator outer
radius
48

Stator
configuration
normal

Stator angle
0.0

Winding description

Result

PAGE 18

Winding

Number
of phases

Classical
winding type

Classical
winding

Concentric per
pole winding

Throw

Number of
coils per
pole per
phase

Coils position
in slot in case
of two layers

superimposed

The following motor is created with:


Part of the geometry
Part of the physics
Ready to be meshed

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Geometry and mesh description of the motor

2.1.3. Mesh the device

Mesh the device

Action

Mesh Mesh lines


Mesh Mesh faces

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Leave overlay context without closing it

PAGE 19

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

PAGE 20

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

3.

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Case 1

The back electromotive force EMF is computed with the speed of 1000 rpm
and external circuit connections over 1 electric cycle. It corresponds to the
motor being in generator mode at no load.

Starting Flux
project

The starting project is the Flux project GEOMESH.FLU. This project


contains:
the geometry description of the device
the mesh

Project name

The new Flux project is saved under the name of CASE1.FLU.

Contents

This chapter contains the following topics:


Topic
Case 1: define the physics
Case 1: solve the project
Case 1: results post-processing

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
23
33
37

PAGE 21

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

PAGE 22

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

3.1.

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Case 1: define the physics

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Define the physical application
Create materials
Create mechanical set
Create a circuit
Modify a circuit
Modify face regions
Modify face region and orient material for face region
Modify face region

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

PAGE 23

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.1.1. Define the physical application

Goal

First, the physical application is defined. The required physical application is


Transient Magnetic 2D application.

Data

The characteristics of the application are presented in the table below.


Transient Magnetic 2D application
Definition

PAGE 24

2D domain type

Depth of the
domain

2D plane

50.308

Transient initialization
With zero initial solution (variables
set to 0)

Application Define Magnetic Transient Magnetic 2D

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.1.2. Create materials

Goal

Two materials are created in order to define the physics.

Data

The characteristics of the material are presented in the table below (see
curve_bh.xls).
Isotropic spline saturation
Name

Field value (A.m-1)

Flux density value (T)


0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,65
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
1
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2
2,05
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5

STEEL

0
9,83
19,66
29,5
39,3
49,1
58,3
62,3
66,18
70,2
74,77
80
86,3
104,2
130,5
175,9
282,5
613
1751
3820
7401
12600
20400
31500
44000
70500
1,50E+05
2,30E+05
3,10E+05
4,00E+05

B(H) linear magnet described by the Br module


Name
MAGNET

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Remanent flux density (T)


1.12

Relative permeability
1.1

Physics Material New

PAGE 25

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.1.3. Create mechanical sets

Goal

Two mechanical sets are created to describe the physics of the motor. It will
define which is fixed and which part is mobile (in rotation or in translation).

Data (1)

The characteristics of the MS_ROTOR mechanical set are presented in the


table below:
axis

Name

Type of
mechanic
al set

Rotation axis

Coordinate
system

MS_ROTOR

Rotation
around
one axis

Rotation around
on axis parallel to
Oz

XY1

Pivot point
coordinates
first
second
0

Kinematics
Type of
kinematics
Imposed speed

Data (2)

General
Velocity (RPM)
Position at t = 0s
1000
0.0

Physics Mechanical set New

The characteristics of the MS_STATOR mechanical set are presented in the


table below:
Name
MS_STATOR

PAGE 26

Type of mechanical set


fixed

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.1.4. Create a circuit

Goal

The goal is to define a circuit for this project

Data

The circuit to be created is as follows :

Note : the coil and inductances are corresponding to the stator coil. The
resistances are representative of the load of the generator. In order to compute
the back EMF, the values of resistances are designated large values.

Physics Circuit Circuit editor context

Do not forget to rename the components

Note

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Project Return to standard geometry context

PAGE 27

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.1.5. Modify a circuit


Goal

The circuit is modified in order to describe the physics.

Data (1)

The characteristics of the stranded coil conductors are described in the table
below.
Stranded coil conductors
Name
C1
C2
C3

Data (2)

Resistance formula
0.076

Physics Electrical Components Standard Coil


Conductor Edit

The characteristics of the inductors are described in the table below.


Inductors
Name
L1
L2
L3

Data (3)

Inductance (Henry)
36e-6 H

The characteristics of the resistors are described in the table below.


Resistors
Name
R1
R2
R3

PAGE 28

Resistance (Ohm)
1e4

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.1.6. Modify face regions

Goal

Fourth face regions are modified in order to describe the physics.

Data

The characteristics of the face regions are described in the table below.

Name
PHASE_POS_1
PHASE_NEG_1
PHASE_POS_2
PHASE_NEG_3

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Type
Coil
conductor
region
Coil
conductor
region
Coil
conductor
region
Coil
conductor
region

Component

Turn
number

Orientati
on

Mechanical
Set

C1

10

Positive

MS_Stator

C1

10

Negative

MS_Stator

C2

20

Positive

MS_Stator

C3

20

Negative

MS_Stator

Physics Face region Edit

PAGE 29

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.1.7. Modify face region and orient material for face region

Goal

Face regions are edited and modified in order to describe the physics.

Data (1)

The characteristics of the face regions used to describe the materials are
presented in the table below:

Name
MAGNET_1_POLE_1
STATOR
ROTOR

Data (2)

Face region
Type t
Magnetic non
conducting region
Magnetic non
conducting region
Magnetic non
conducting region

material

Mechanical set

MAGNET

MS_ROTOR

STEEL

MS_STATOR

STEEL

MS_ROTOR

The characteristics of the magnet orientation are presented in the table below
Orient material for face region

Name
MAGNET1_1_POLE_
1

Oriented
type
Positive
Radial

Coordinat
e system

X
coordinate

XY1

Y
coordinate
0

Note: You can check magnet orientation with the command: Physics Display
Arrow and Magnet and remove the arrows with the command: Physics Delete
arrows

PAGE 30

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.1.8. Modify face region

Goal

The eleven regions are modified on order to model the physics.

Data

The characteristics of the face regions used to describe the three are presented
in the table below:
Name
PHASE_POS_1
PHASE_NEG_1
PHASE_POS_2
PHASE_NEG_3
ROTATING_AIRGAP
ROTOR_AIR
SHAFT
WEDGE
PRESLOT
STATOR_AIR
INFINITE

Type
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region
Air or vacuum region

Mechanical set
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_ROTOR
MS_ROTOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR
MS_STATOR

Check physics and save case 1.

Action

Physics Check Physics

Save Case1

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 31

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

PAGE 32

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

3.2.

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Case 1: solve the project

Introduction

This part describes how CASE1 is solved.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Create a scenario
Solve the project

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
34
35

PAGE 33

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.2.1. Create a scenario

Goal

A solving scenario is created in order to solve CASE1.

Data

The characteristics of the scenario used to solve CASE1 are presented in the
table below:
Solving scenario
Name
BACK_EMF

Type
Control by time
Solving scenario

Mechanical set
MS_ROTOR

Note (1)

Control by time
Interval
Higher
Lower limit
Method
limit
step
0
0.0305
value

Step value
0.00025

Solving Solving scenario New

Voltage values are incorrect for the two first time step. You must display your
results on little more than one period.
How to choose the step value?
When selecting the step value, some items must be considered:
Electrical view point: it is important to check that you have enough points
over a cycle. Usually 40 points over a cycle is enough. In this case, it can be
interesting to look at higher harmonics through a FFT, so more than 40
points over a cycle is required.
Mechanical view point: it is important to check that the mobile part has not
moved too much between two consecutive time steps.
In our case, the rotation velocity is 1000 RPM or 1000 * 360 / 60 = 6000
/s. The slot pitch is 360 / 24 = 15 . We advice to take an angular step
submultiple of the slot pitch. If we take ten points by slot pitch the angular
step is 1.5. As a result, the time step must be equal to (1.5/6000) = 0.00025 s.
With this time step, the points number equal 121 points, superior to 40 points.
In conclusion, the choice of the step value is often a compromise between the
duration of computation (time computation is reduced if the number of steps
is reduced) and the accuracy of the computation (the computation is more
accurate if there are more steps).

PAGE 34

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.2.2. Solve the project

Goal

CASE1 project is solved using a solving scenario.

Action

Solve the project with the BACK_EMF scenario and save it under a new
project name: CASE1_SOLVED.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 35

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

PAGE 36

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

3.3.

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Case 1: results post-processing

Introduction

This section explains how to analyze the principal results of CASE1.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
See Page
Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on 38
face regions
Plot a 2D curve of the voltage through coil conductors
40
Compute the FFT of the voltage through a stranded coil.
41

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 37

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.3.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on


face regions at a selected time step

Goal

The magnitude of the magnetic flux density is computed on the selected face
regions and displayed via the isovalue plot of color shadings.

Action

Select the time step

Data

The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below:


Isovalues on face region
Face region
MAGNET1_1_POLE_1
PHASE_NEG_1
PHASE_NEG_3
PHASE_POS_1
PHASE_POS_2
PRESLOT
ROTATING_AIRGAP
ROTOR
ROTOR_AIR
SHAFT
STATOR
STATOR_AIR
WEDGE

Formula

Graphic Isovalues New


Note: you can also use the Select all region command with the selection by relation
and then remove the Infinite region (on which flux lines cannot be displayed).
Continued on next page

PAGE 38

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

The results appear as below.

Result

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

View Full device

PAGE 39

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

Flux

3.3.2. Plot a 2D curve of the voltage through coil conductors versus


angle
Goal

Voltage passing through coil conductors depending on the rotor position and
angular position of the rotor are computed.

Data

The characteristics of the 2D curve are presented in the table below.


2D curve (parameter (I/O))
Name
BACK_EMF

I/O
parameter

Limit
Min

Limit
Max

TIME

0.0005

0.0305

TIME

0.0005

0.0305

Formula
U(C1)
U(C2)
U(C3)
AngPos(MS_ROTOR)

Curve 2D Curve I/O parameter New 2D Curve I/O


parameter

Result

The following curve shows the voltage through stranded coils versus angular
position of the rotor.

Note (1)

Voltage values are incorrect for the two first time step. You must solve your
problem on little more than one period.

PAGE 40

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 1: back electromotive force computation

3.3.3. Compute the FFT of the voltage through a stranded coil.

The characteristics of the 2D curve are presented in the table below.

Data

Part of the
period
Full period

Extrapolated 2D curve (I/O parameter) Spectrum analysis


(FFT)
Curve to be
DC
Number of
2D Curve
analyzed
component
harmonics
BACK_EMF_
U(C1)
No
15
SPECTRUM

Curve 2D curve (I/O Parameter) Spectrum Analysis (FFT)

Results

Technical note

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

During one electrical cycle, magnet and 12 stator slots are facing each other.
As a result, on the FFT analysis we can see harmonics 11 and 13 appears.

PAGE 41

Case 2: constant speed computation

PAGE 42

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

4.

Case 2: constant speed computation

Case 2: constant speed computation

Case 2

The motor is driven with a 3-phase bridge circuit (the freewheeling diodes are
neglected). Constant speed operation of the motor at 1000 rpm with inverter
drives is simulated to yield motor torque ripples. The inverter switching
scheme is rotor position dependant.

Starting Flux
project

The starting project is the Flux project CASE1_SOLVED.FLU. This project


contains:
the geometry description of the device
the mesh
the initial physical description of the motor
the case1 solved

New project

All the CASE1_SOLVED results are deleted. The Flux project is then saved
under the name of CASE2.FLU.

Contents

Solving Delete all project results

This chapter contains the following topics:


Topic
Case 2: define the physics
Case 2: solve the project
Case 2: result post processing

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
45
57
61

PAGE 43

Case 2: constant speed computation

PAGE 44

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

4.1.

Case 2: constant speed computation

Case 2: define the physics

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Delete a circuit and import another circuit
Create I/O parameters
Modify a circuit
Modify a material
Modify face regions and orient material for face region
Modify mechanical set
Assign coil conductor to face region

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
46
49
50
52
53
54
55

PAGE 45

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.1.1. Delete a circuit and import another circuit

Delete the existing circuit and delete the stranded coil conductors.

Action (1)

Physics circuit delete electrical circuit

Import the .xir circuit named square_wave_circuit.xcir.

Action (2)

Physics circuit import circuit from a xcir file square_wave_circuit

Result

The following circuit is integrated in the project and the circuits components
appear in the Data tree.

Technical note

The strategy is that each phase has to be ON for one third (60) of the period
In our case, the mechanical period is 180 degrees because this is two pair
poles electrical machine (refer to the switches definition).

Note

For a three-phase motor, squarewave drive generally means that two phases
are conducting at any time. There is basically one current from the supply and
it commutates from one pair of phases to the next pair every 60. The current
is controlled or regulated by chopping or PWM.
Continued on next page

PAGE 46

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

Figure 1 Current waveforms with an ideal squarewave drive


of 120 for a BRUSHLESS rotating machine

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 47

Case 2: constant speed computation

Note

PAGE 48

Flux

Because of the no load voltage calculation in the first part, voltage is on


between 0 and 180 electric degree, we know that the first phase must be
feed between 30 electric and 150 electric. The pole pair number is two. As a
result the first switch must be ON when the angular mechanical position of
rotor is 15. The first phase must be on during 120 electrical degree, or 60
mechanical degree. Finally, the switch is OFF when the rotor reaches 75
mechanical degree. Current turn OFF on the 150 electrical degree.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.1.2. Create I/O parameters

Goal

One I/O parameters will be created to define the physics and others to define
the electrical circuit.

Data (1)

The characteristics of the I/O parameter defined by a scenario are described in


the table below.
I/O parameters controlled via a scenario
Name
SPEED

Reference value
1000

The characteristics of the I/O parameters defined by a formula are described


in the table below.

Data (2)

I/O parameters defined by a formula


Name
IMAX0
IMAX
FREQUENCY
OMEGA
POS

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Expression
Max(I(C1),I(C2))
Max(IMAX0,I(C3))
(POLES/2)*SPEED/60
2*Pi()*FREQUENCY
Modulo(AngPos(MS_RO
TOR),180)

ISP

14

HBA

VALIM
TETA0

24
0

comment
Maximum current value (A)
Electrical frequency (Hz)
Electrical angular pulsation (rd/s)
Angular position of the rotor
(DEGREE)
peak value of the quasi square wave
reference current waveform (A)
The adjustment parameter for
hysteresis-band current regulation
Feed voltage (V)
Rotor angular position at t = 0 s

Parameter / Quantity I/O parameter new New

PAGE 49

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.1.3. Modify a circuit

Goal

The circuit is modified in order to describe the physics.

Data (1)

The characteristics of the stranded coil conductors are described in the table
below.
Stranded coil conductors
Name
C1
C2
C3

Data (2)

Resistance formula
0.076

The characteristics of the solid conductor is described in the table below.


Solid conductors
Symetries and
periodicities
In series

Name
SC_1

Data (3)

The characteristics of the inductors are described in the table below.


Inductors
Name
L1
L2
L3

Data (4)

Inductance formula
3.1e-5 H

The characteristic of the resistor is described in the table below.


Resistor
Name
R_1

Data (5)

Resistance formula
1e3

The characteristics the power supply is described in the table below.


Voltage source
Name
V1

Voltage formula
VALIM*VALID (IMAX,0,ISP*(1+1/HBA))
Continued on next page

PAGE 50

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Data (6)

Case 2: constant speed computation

To simulate the voltage drop in the diodes, series voltage sources will be
used. Their characteristics are described in the table below.
Voltage source
Name
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6
V7

Data (7)

Voltage formula
0.6 V
0.6 V
0.6 V
0.6 V
0.6 V
0.6 V

The characteristics of the switches are described in the table below.


Switch
Name
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Model
On state
resistance
1e-4
1e-4
1e-4
1e-4
1e-4
1e-4

Turn on command
Off state
resistance
1e4
1e4
1e4
1e4
1e4
1e4

Switch command

Expression
Valid(POS, 15, 75)
Valid(POS, 45, 105)
Valid(POS, 75, 135)
Valid(POS,105,165)
Valid(POS,0,15)+Valid(POS,135,180)
Valid(POS,0,45)+Valid(POS,165,180)

PAGE 51

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.1.4. Modify a material

Goal

MAGNET material is modified in order to describe the physics. Electrical


properties are added to the material so that eddy current effects can be taken
into account.

Data

The characteristics of the material are described in the table below.


J(E) magnet with electrical properties
Name
MAGNET

PAGE 52

Isotropic resistivity
1.4e-6

Physics Material Edit

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.1.5. Modify face regions and orient material for face region

Goal

Two face regions are modified to describe the physics.

Data (1)

The characteristics of the face regions are described in the table below.
Face region
t Solid

Data (2)

Name

Type

Material

conducto
r

MAGNET1
_1_POLE1

Solid
conductor
region

MAGNET

SC_1

Mechan
ical set

Orienta
tion

Type

MS_RO
TOR

positive

Circuit

Physics Face Region Edit

The characteristics of the material orientation for face regions are described in
the table below.
Orient material for face region

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Name

Oriented
type

Coordinate
system

X
coordinate

Y
coordinate

MAGNET1_1_PO
LE1

Positive
Radial

ROTOR_COORD

PAGE 53

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.1.6. Modify mechanical set

Goal

Rotor mechanical set is modified in order to describe the physics.

Data

The characteristics of the mechanical set are described in the table below.
Mechanical set

PAGE 54

Name

Type of
mechanical set

MS_RO
TOR

Rotation
around one axis

Type of
kinematics
Imposed
speed

General
Velocity
(rpm)

Position at t = 0s

SPEED

TETA0

Physics Mechanical set Edit

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.1.7. Assign coil conductor to face region

Goal

The coil conductor components are assigned to face regions to describe the
physics.

Action

The coil conductor components are assigned to face regions from the menu
Physics/assign coil conductor to region/face region.

Data

The characteristics of the face region are described in the table below.

Name
PHASE_NEG_1
PHASE_NEG_3
PHASE_POS_1
PHASE_POS_2

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Face region
T
Type
Component
Coil conductor
region
Coil conductor
region
Coil conductor
region
Coil conductor
region

Turn
number

Orientation

C1

10

Negative

C3

20

Negative

C1

10

Positive

C2

20

Positive

Physics Assign coil conductor to region Assign coil conductor to


face region

PAGE 55

Case 2: constant speed computation

PAGE 56

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

4.2.

Case 2: constant speed computation

Case 2: solve the project

Introduction

This part describes how CASE2 is solved.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Create a scenario
Solve the project

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
58
59

PAGE 57

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.2.1. Create a scenario

Goal

A solving scenario is created in order to solve CASE2.

Data

The characteristics of the scenario used to solve CASE2 are presented in the
table below:
Solving scenario
Name
CST_SPEED

Type
Control by time
Solving scenario

Mechanical set
MS_ROTOR

PAGE 58

Lower limit
0

Control by time
Interval
Higher
Method
limit
step
0.03
value

Step value
0.00025

Solving Solving scenario New

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.2.2. Solve the project

Goal

CASE2 project is solved using a solving scenario.

Data

The characteristics of the solving process are presented in the table below:
Solve
Solving scenario
CST_SPEED

Solve saved
project as
New Project

Project name
CASE2_SOLVED

Solve the project with the CST_SPEED scenario and save it under a new
project name: CASE2_SOLVED.

Action

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Solving Solve

PAGE 59

Case 2: constant speed computation

PAGE 60

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

4.3.

Case 2: constant speed computation

Case 2: result post processing

Introduction

This section explains how to analyze the principal results of CASE 2.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on
face regions
Compute mechanical torque and mechanical power
Compute stator current and joule losses
Compute the Bertotti iron loss
Compute LS iron loss
Create a sensor and display a curve of loss in magnets
Compute efficiency

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
62
63
64
65
66
67
69

PAGE 61

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.3.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on


face regions

Goal

The magnitude of the magnetic flux density is computed on the selected face
regions and displayed via the isovalue plot of color shadings.

Data

The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below:


Isovalues on face region
Face region
2_NO_VACUUM

The following chart shows the magnetic flux density on the selected
face regions.

Result

PAGE 62

Formula
B

Graphic Isovalues Display Isovalues

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.3.2. Compute mechanical torque and mechanical power

Goal

Two 2D curves are created in order to compute the mechanical torque and the
mechanical power. Next taking in count the machine losses, electrical power
can be computed (see parts 4.3.6).

Data

The characteristics of the 2D curve are presented in the table below:


2D curve (I/O parameter)
Name
PMEC

I/O parameter
TIME

Limit
min.
0.0

Limit
max.

Formula

0.03

TorqueElecMag(MS_ROTOR)
TorqueElecMag(MS_ROTOR)*
AngSpeed(MS_ROTOR)*Pi()/1
80

Curve 2D Curve I/O parameter New 2D Curve I/O


parameter

Result

The output mechanical power is 206 W (average value).

Note

For mechanical values, Flux gives the values for the whole motor, even if
only a part is represented

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 63

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.3.3. Compute stator current and joule losses

Goal

Two 2D curves are created in order to compute the RMS current and the joule
losses in the stranded coil conductor C1.

Data

The characteristics of the 2D curve are presented in the table below:


2D curve (I/O parameter)

Name

I/O
parameter

Limit
min.

Limit
max.

CURRENT_
AND_PJS

TIME

0.0

0.030

Formula
I(C1)
PjouleCC(C1)

Curve 2D Curve (I/O) parameter New 2D Curve (I/O Parameter)

Result

The RMS value is 10.33 A For one line the joules losses are 7.59 W. The total
value is 3.*7.59 = 22.77 W (Note : The coil resistance is 0.076 )
Continued on next page

PAGE 64

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.3.4. Compute the Bertotti iron loss

Goal

Iron loss is computed from Bertotti coefficients.

Reminder

Bertotti coefficient can be found thanks to a specific FAQ available with this
document. The folder containing Flux files of this tutorial also contains a
zipped file with :
An FAQ entitled How to determine iron loss coefficients
An Excel sheet for iron loss coefficient determination
A paper describing the method used

Data

The characteristics of the Bertotti iron loss computation are presented in the
table below:

Hysteresis
loss coeff;

Classical
loss
coeff

82.66

2.e6

Sheet iron
Loss in
excess
coeff
1.46

Bertotti iron loss


t
Thickness
of steel
iron

Fill
factor

.64e-3

.97

regions
STATOR
ROTOR

Time evolution
Limit
max.
Limit min.
0.001

Computation Iron losses computation Bertotti iron losses

Technical note

The average value for the modeled part (1/4 of the motor) is 1.034 W.
The total core loss for the whole motor is 4.13 W.

Result (2)

The following curve of Bertotti iron loss in function of time appears

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

0.0305

PAGE 65

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

4.3.5. Compute LS iron loss

Goal

LS Iron loss is computed on face regions.

Data

The characteristics of the LS iron loss computation are presented in the table
below:
LS iron loss on region

Sheet iron

Regions

Limit min.

Limit
max.

M27035A

ROTOR
STATOR

0.001

0.0305

Computation Iron losses computation LS iron loss on regions

Result

The following results appear.

Technical note
(1)

The average value for the modeled part (1/4 of the motor) is 0.808 W.
The total core loss for the whole motor is 3.23 W.

Technical Note
(2)

From the LS Iron Loss curve, we can notice that some loss values are
negative. This occurs when the magnetic field decreases, thus, the motor
gives back the power to the system, resulting in negative values by
convention.

PAGE 66

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.3.6. Create a sensor and display a curve of loss in magnets

Goal

Eddy current loss is computed for magnet that has conductive material
properties.

Data

The characteristics of the sensor are presented in the table below:


Predefined sensor: Losses by Joule Effect
Name
MAGNET_LOSS

Comment
Eddy currents loss in
pole 1 magnets

Advanced Sensor New

Advanced Sensor Evaluate sensors

Face region
MAGNET1_1_POLE_1

The characteristics of the curve are presented in the table below:

Action 2

2D curve I/O parameter


Name
LOSS_JOULE_EFFECT

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

AnG Pos
parameter
Limit
Limit
min.
max.
0.001
0.0305

Formula
MAGNET_LOSS

Curve 2D Curve I/O parameter New 2D Curve I/O


parameter

PAGE 67

Case 2: constant speed computation

Flux

Result

The average value over the period for one magnet is: 0.289 W. for the
modeled part (1/4 motor). The average result for the whole motor is 1.16
W.

Note

PAGE 68

This curve represents the eddy current losses of one magnet only. To
determine the value for the whole motor, we must multiply by the number of
periodicities.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 2: constant speed computation

4.3.7. Compute efficiency

Goal

The efficiency of the motor can be calculated using the above results.

Data

The characteristics of the efficiency computation are presented in the table


below:
Physical quantities
Output mechanical power
Joule losses
Mechanical losses
Core loss (average between
Bertotti an LS)
Losses in magnets
Input electrical power
Pmec
Efficiency :
Pmec Losses

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

values
206 - 7.5 - 3.6 = 195 W
22.7 W
7.5 W
3.68 W
1.16 W
195 + 22.7 + 7.5 + 1,16 + 3.68 = 241 W

80 %

PAGE 69

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

PAGE 70

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

5.

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Case 3

A pre calculation of the synchronous machine was performed with the


SPEED software. From this calculation, a better estimation of the wave form
current was determined. Now, in Flux 2D, the machine will be supplied with
these new values of current. Constant speed operation of the motor stays at
1000 rpm.

Starting Flux
project

The starting project is the Flux project CASE2_SOLVED.FLU. This project


includes :
the geometry description of the device
the mesh
the initial physical description of the motor
the case2 solved

New project

All the CASE2_SOLVED results are deleted. The Flux project is then saved
under the name of CASE3.FLU.

Contents

This chapter contains the following topics:


Topic

Case 3: define the physics


Case 3: result post processing

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
73
81

PAGE 71

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

PAGE 72

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

5.1.

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Case 3: define the physics

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic

Create I/O parameters


Modify and creates a circuit.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
74
75

PAGE 73

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

5.1.1. Create I/O parameters

Import tabbed value from the three phase current calculated by SPEED :

Introduction

Action (1)

Parameter / Quantity I/O parameter New tabulated I/O parameter


by importation of a 2D table

The texts files with tabbed current values are contained in the directory
project CASE3 (Iphase1.txt, Iphase2.txt, Iphase3.txt).
Parameter/Quantity
New tabulated I/O parameter by importation of 2D Table
Name of the I/O
parameter
IA_TIME
IB_TIME
IC_TIME

PAGE 74

Abscissa
Variation
parameter
TIME
TIME
TIME

Name of the values couple file to


import
Iphase1.txt
Iphase2.txt
Iphase3.txt

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

5.1.2. Modify and creates a circuit.

Delete the electrical circuit.

Action (1)

Import the .xcir circuit named pwmsquare_wave_circuit.xci.

Action (2)

Result

Physics/circuit/delete electrical circuit

Physics circuit import circuit from a xcir file


pwmsquare_wave_circuit.xcir

The following circuit is integrated in the project and the circuits components appear
in the Data tree.
R2

SC_1

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

I1

C1

L1

I2

C2

L2

I3

C3

L3

R1

Project Return to standard geometry context

PAGE 75

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

5.1.3. Modify the circuit components and current source

Redefine the link between face regions and electric components for the
following face regions :

Data (1)

Name
MAGNET_1_POLE_1
PHASE_NEG_1
PHASE_NEG_3
PHASE_POS_1
PHASE_POS_2

Solid conductor
SC_1

Coil conductor
C1
C3
C1
C2

You have to delete the parameter {IMAX, IMAX0, HBA, ISP, VALIM,
POS}

Data (2)

Current source
I1
I2
I3

Value
IA_TIME
IB_TIME
IC_TIME

You have to assign {, IB_TIME, IC_TIME} tabbed parameters to current


supply {I1, I2, I3} from the menu :

Technical note

PAGE 76

Physics/Electrical components/ Current source / Edit

Switches are not necessary because source currents are tabbed values
provided by the SPEED software.
Except the currents sources, characteristics values of resistors, stranded coils
and inductors are identical to the case 2.

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

5.2.

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Case 3: solve the project

Introduction

This part describes how CASE3 is solved.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic

Create a scenario
Solve the project

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
78
79

PAGE 77

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

5.2.1. Create a scenario

Goal

A solving scenario is created in order to solve CASE3.

Data

The characteristics of the scenario used to solve CASE3 are presented in the
table below:
Solving scenario
Name
PWM

Type
Control of transient state
Solving scenario

Mechanical set
PWM

PAGE 78

Lower limit
0

Control by time
Interval
Higher
Method
limit
step
0.0305
value

Step value
0.00025

Solving Solving scenario New

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

5.2.2. Solve the project

Goal

CASE3 project is solved using a solving scenario.

Data

The characteristics of the solving process are presented in the table below:
Solve
Solving scenario
PWM

Action

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Solve saved
project as
New Project

Project name
CASE3_SOLVED

Solve the project with the PWM scenario and save it under a new project
name: CASE3_SOLVED.

PAGE 79

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

PAGE 80

Flux

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

5.3.

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Case 3: result post processing

Introduction

This section explains how to analyze the principal results of CASE 3.

Contents

This section contains the following topics:


Topic
Examples of results: three-phase current
Examples of result: Bertotti iron loss
Compute new results and efficiency

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

See Page
82
83
84

PAGE 81

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

5.3.1. Examples of results: three-phase current

Goal

Three curves are created in order to compute the RMS current in the stator
winding.

Data

The characteristics of the 2D curve are presented in the table below:


2D curve (I/O parameter)

Name

I/O
parameter

Limit
min.

Limit
max.

Formula

STATOR_C
URRENT

TIME

0.0

0.03

{ I(C1); I(C2) ; I(C3) }

Curve 2D Curve (I/O) parameter New 2D Curve (I/O Parameter)

Result

The RMS value is 10.54 A

PAGE 82

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

5.3.2. Examples of result: Bertotti iron loss

Goal

Iron loss is computed from Bertotti coefficients.

Data

The characteristics of the Bertotti iron loss computation are presented in the
table below:

Sheet iron
Classical
Loss in
loss
excess
coeff
coeff

Hysteresis
loss coeff;
82.66

2.e6

1.46

Bertotti iron loss


t
Thickness
of steel
iron

Fill
factor

.64e-3

.97

regions
STATOR
ROTOR

Time evolution
Limit
max.
Limit min.
0.001

Computation Iron loss computation Bertotti iron losses

Technical note

The average value for the modeled part (1/4 of the motor) is 0.973 W.
The total core loss for the whole motor is 3.89 W.

Result (2)

The following curve of Bertotti iron loss in function of time appears

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

0.0305

PAGE 83

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

5.3.3. Compute new results and efficiency

Goal

Using the same method see during the case two, the new results are the
following.
The efficiency of the motor can be calculated using the above results.

Data

The characteristics of the efficiency computation are presented in the table


below:
Physical quantities
Output mechanical power
Mechanical torque
Iron losses
Mechanical losses
RMS current
Joules stator losses
Core loss (average between
Bertotti an LS on one period :
[0.001 ; 0.0305] )
Magnet Losses
Input electrical power
Pmec
Efficiency :
Pmec Losses

PAGE 84

values

228 -7.5 - 3.49


2.18 N.m
3.49 W
7.5 W
10.54 A
25 W
3.47 W
4*0.15 = 0.63 W
217 + 25 + 7.5 + 0.63 +3.49 = 253.62 W
86 %

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Annexe
Speed datasheet

PC-BDC 9.0 (9.0.4.92.E 101006) 24-Oct-2011 6:58:17 AM


e:\tan_work\speed\pc-bdc\tutorial_v11\brushless_tutorial_v11_b_mod.bd4
Magsoft Corporation
PC-BDC main title
PC-BDC sub-title
1 Dimensions:----------------------------------------------------------------RotType
Stator..
StatorOD
SYoke
Rad3
TWS
TGD
filSB
Rotor..
MOH
RotorOD
LM
RYoke
DHub
MEdge
wMag
Lstk

SurfRad

Embed

96.0000
8.3460
48.0000
3.4000
1.0000
1.0000

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

LamShape
ASD
Rad2
SD
SOang
filSO

0.0000
50.3080
6.9870
9.1640
36.3340
6.9870
30.6256
50.3080

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Nmbp
Rad1
BetaM

Not
Circle
14.0000
39.6540
14.0000
20.0000
0.0000

Poles

mm
mm
mm
m
mm

1
25.1540 mm
150.0000 e

wNeck
LM_min

4.7425 mm
6.9870 mm

Lrotor

50.3080 mm

Slots
SP
S_Slot
SO
SWIT
Stf

24
6.0000
Flared
1.5000 mm
1.5000 mm
0.9700

Skew
Gap
pupa
RadSH

0.0000
0.5000 mm
0.8333
9.0030 mm

Lstator

57.7950 mm

2 Magnet Data:---------------------------------------------------------------Magnet
Br
CBr
kg/m
BrT
Shim
BrTEff

NeIGT 30H
1.1200 T
-0.1000 %/C
1.1960 T
0.0000 mm
1.1960 T

Hc
CHc

810.0000 kA/m
-0.0600 %/C

MuRec
DMag

HcT
Bracing
MuRecEff

783.2700 kA/m
0.0000
1.1000

XLM
LMnet
LM+Shim

1.1000
7400.0000
1.0000
6.9870 mm
6.9870 mm

3 Control Data:--------------------------------------------------------------RPM
Freq1

1000.0000 rpm
33.3333 Hz

Vs
wm

24.0000 V
104.7198 rad/s

Control of switching frequency..


f0
128.0000 kHz
CFR
3840.0000
ISChop
SwFreq
2.6000 kHz
MaxSwFrq

12
64.0000 kHz

Current control..
ISP
14.0042 A
HBA_act
ISP/8

8.0000
12.5000

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

HBA
HB%

Drive
Sw_Ctl

FixfChop
tIntStep

ChopType

Square
C120_Q1

ISChop12
0.6510 us

Soft

PAGE 85

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

Phase-shift; dwell..
Th0
0.0000 e

Dwell

Drive circuit parameters..


DCSource
Fixed DC
Vs
Vq
0.0000 V
Rq
R_s
0.0000 ohm
Rac
Methods and program control..
EMFCalc
BLV
eCalc
ISP_Act
14.0042 A
Tol_Act
CalcVer
cv9
Cycles

0.0000 e

24.0000 V
0.0000 ohm
0.0000 Rac

Auto
ISP/8
0

Vd
t_q
Lac

dq0
ISLA_Act
NCycles

0.6000 V
0.0000 us
0.0000 mH

false
1/64
2

4 Winding Data:--------------------------------------------------------------Connex
WdgType
TC
Tph
Layers
MLT
EndFill
WireSpec
NSH
SFg
Aslot
GPAslot
TwjWid
PhsWid
ATwj
XET
Nse
T_Wdg
T_c
Rph20

Wye
ConcEqual
10
40.0000
1.0000
261.2288
0.5000
AWGTable
7
0.4258
67.6671
69.1671
2.0000
2.0000
0.0000
1.2000
49.1942
75.0000
75.0000
0.0625

Inductances...
Lph
0.2662
SalientP
false
LSlot
0.1011
MSlot
0.0000
PCSlot
1.9992
Lg
0.1409
LL_d
0.6504
Lgg
1.5410
Lsigma
0.1402
ohm/ph

NPhases

3
Throw

mm

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

C
C
ohm

mH
mH
mH
mH
mH
mH
mH

CPP
1.0000
PPATHS
1
CSidesPh
8
LgthOEnd
101.4327 mm
LaxPack
91.3168 mm
Gauge
21: 0.7239mm
WireDia
0.7239 mm
SFn
0.8146
ASlotLL
53.6804 mm
TopStick
false
TwjLeg
3.5000 mm
PhsLeg
3.5000 mm
APhs
0.0000 mm
ETCalc
BDC 6.5
X_R
1.0000
Rph0
0.0760 ohm
Rph
0.0760 ohm/ph
RLL20
0.1251 ohm

Mph
DiffSat
LDiff
MDiff
XLdiff
Mg
LL_q
Mgg
Msigma

-0.0564
XLdiff
0.0148
0.0067
1.0000
-0.0564
0.6400
-0.6164
0.0067

mH
mH
mH
mH
mH
mH
mH

SPP
Z
Ext
Liner

5
2.0000
240.0000
0.0000 mm
0.4000 mm

InsThick
MaxSFn
ACond

0.0332 mm
0.8146
2.8810 mm

TwjThk
PhsThk

0.0000 mm
0.0000 mm

Rext
Ax1
R_LL
TFRho

0.0000 ohm
52.5000 m
0.1521 ohm
1.2162

XL
XL
Lendt
XLendt
XDiff
Lext
L_LL
Lext
Xsigma

1.0000
1.0000
0.0242
1.0000
0.0017
0.0000
0.6452
0.0000
0.0280

mH
ohm
mH
mH
mH

Winding Factors and other parameters :---------------------------------------kw1


0.9659
Xm0
0.5461 ohm/ph CalcLg
LgMeth1
ks1
1.0000
kp1
0.9659
kd1
1.0000
ksg
0.9075
fz
1.1488
PSSlot
S-Closed
Saliency
Auto
CalcLdLq
Auto
muPlug
1.0000
i1_Ang
-13.2337 A
i2_Ang
13.2337 A
i3_Ang
0.0000 A
5 Magnetic Circuit Design:---------------------------------------------------T_Mag
BrT
kA/m
PAGE 86

75.0000 C
1.1960 T

T_r
BgOC

75.0000 C
0.8129 T

XBrT
Hca

1.1300
865.2184

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

BgAvOC
Bg1OC
BmOC
HmOC
BHmag
Bst
XTw
kTSpec
kT
krpm
kSat
SatnTol
Xks
EffWst
XBgap
Btpk_OC
Bypk_OC
eTmax
eLLpk
Eq1
IBk
kA/m
ILR
kA/m
IC180
kA/m
Xrm
Amhp
At/Wb
Pm0
apEnd
u_LKG
Fringing
SlotMod
Bd

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

0.6773
0.9979
1.1148
-58.7126
65.4548
1.6279
0.0000
ILpk
0.1645
1.0000
0.0000
0.0000
3.4000
1.0000
1.6667
1.6970
0.1160
17.4078
7.2976
302.2640

T
T
T
kA/m
kJ/m
T

Nm/A

PhiG
PhiM1
Bm/BrT
Hm/HcT
BHmagMGO
Bsy
XSYoke
kESpec
kE
XSatn

mm
T
T
V
V
V
A

1.3596
1.2754
0.9321
-0.0750
8.2253
1.6575
0.0000
eLLpk
0.1662

mWb
mWb

MGO
T

BgA/BgOC
Bg1/BgOC
XBtpk
PC
BHmax
Bry
XRYoke

Vs/Rad krpmNL

1.0000

ks
EffLst
X_EMF
Btpk_Ld
Bypk_Ld

0.0000
11.5083 mm
1.0000
1.6153 T
1.6136 T

ERecAv
Eq1tfw
Bk

17.2273 V
7.2438 V
0.0000 T

Fixed

XTTarc
ukCL
k_rpf
Btpk_LdS
Bypk_LdS
Bslot
ERecRMS
Bt1
Hk

1.0000
0.0000
1.0000
1.6153
1.6136
0.0062
17.2322
1.9748
-865.2184

BmLR

1.6192 T

HmLR

272.2651 A

BmC180

0.3363 T

HmC180

0.5000
713.2046 mm

Carter
Aghp

1.0087
836.4650 mm
0.9000
0.0000
0.8550
0.6000
2.6000
0.0235 T

1.3787

CalcSatn

157.8050 A

0.1411 Wb/At Xrl


1.0000
Pend
0.0000
f_Lkg
ON
XFringe
Yes
XSlotMod
0.0000 T
BdRMSw

0.8331
1.2275
1.0000
15.1101
32.5090 MGO
1.4746 T
0.0000

Lge
Rghp
prl
Lme
if_Lkg
XBetaM

T
T
T
V
T

306.1732
-621.9629
0.5043 mm
4.7981E+05
2.5050
6.9870 mm
1.1696
1.0000

7 Dynamic design (time-stepping simulation):---------------------------------OpMode


Tshaft
WCu
WTotal
A/mm
IWpk
ILpk
IQchpk
IQcmpk
IDchpk
IDcmpk
IDC_W
IDC_P
Tgap
Tloop
WRac

Motoring
2.0095 Nm
25.1734 W
36.3913 W
14.0277
14.0277
14.0570
14.0570
14.0535
13.3824
10.3185
10.3486
2.1166
2.1165
0.0000

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Nm
Nm
W

Vs
Pshaft
WFe
TempRise

24.0000
210.4321
3.7179
55.0000

V
W
W
C

RPM
Eff
WWF
Jrms

IWav
ILav
IQchav
IQcmav
IDchav
IDcmav
WConv
WSwitch
Tei

8.6049
8.6049
3.5144
4.2216
0.7821
0.0749
1.5426
0.0000
2.1165

A
A
A
A
A
A
W
W
Nm

IWrms
ILrms
IQchrm
IQcmrm
IDchrm
IDcmrm
EffDCSh
Pelec
Trel

W_Rs

0.0000 W

V_Rs

1000.0000 rpm
85.2561 %
7.5000 W
3.6462
10.5046
10.5046
6.7184
7.3747
3.1488
0.8154
84.7266
246.8235
1.3905E-04

A
A
A
A
A
A
%
W
Nm

0.0000 V

8 Steady-State Thermal Model:------------------------------------------------TempCalc


DegCW
W/mC
TempRise
T_f

Fixed
0.0000 C/W
55.0000 C
75.0000 C

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

HTCcyl

Ambient
10.0000 W/mC HTCend

20.0000 C
0.0000

T_c
T_y

75.0000 C
75.0000 C

75.0000 C
0.7919

T_r
HeatFlux

PAGE 87

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

Flux

kW/m
SlotPeri
33.4666 mm
W/mC
SSArea
1683.6385 mm
FSArea
45955.2173 mm

Liner

0.4000 mm

ct_Liner

0.2000

C_motor

1.6348 kJ/C

ThRSlot

0.0495 C/W

9 Miscellaneous:-------------------------------------------------------------Weights...
wt_Cu
0.8029 kg
wt_Tot
2.7109 kg
wt_FeS
1.3117 kg
Inertia components...
RotJ
2.0987E-04 kg-m
m
RotJFe
6.1933E-05 kg-m
sigma
1.5348 psi
Wf0
30.0000 W
Fringing
ON
Ecc
0.0000
TRFrms
10.2275 kg
CForce
1.7864 kg
NLams
98
CalcCogg
Cog1
CanStyle

wt_Fe
wt_Shaft
wt_FeR

1.6130 kg
0.1462 kg
0.3013 kg

wt_Mag
wt_Frame
wt_RSS

0.2950 kg
0.3953 kg
0.8138 kg

RotJSS

2.4418E-04 kg-m

RotJSh

RotJMag

1.4201E-04 kg-m

LShaft

RPM0
XFringe
UMPavg
TRFavg

2000.0000 rpm
0.6000
-4.922E-16 kg
9.2943 kg

NWFT
1.0000
NHx
21
UMPmax
1.9074E-14 kg
TRFmax
12.0094 kg
LamThk
0.5000 mm
RFei
1.0000E+06
Tcogg_pk
0.0119 Nm

pcLam
XCogg

3.0000 %
1.0000

5.9262E-06 kg75.0000 mm

None

10 Loss analysis:------------------------------------------------------------Harmonic losses in the rotor:----------------[check LossData table for


details]
WMagnet
0.0000 W
WShaft
0.0000 W
WMag_IWH
0.0000 W
WshftIWH
0.0000 W
MagSeg
NoSeg
NMC
1.0000
NMZ
1.0000
pc_Mag
2.5000 %
SigMag
1.4501E+06 S/m
TCCMag
0.0000
%/C
pc_Sh
2.5000 %
mu_Shaft 1000.0000
muShaft
0.0000
NHxS
1
NHxT
1
PhImbal
0.0000
p.u.
FPLoss
None
WMagCalc
Internal
fSP
400.0000 Hz
CalcEddy
NoEddy
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Iron loss..
WFeCalc
OC
LossFE
Mech
XFe
1.0000
DFekgS
7656.8289 kg/m St.Steel M19 24 gage
DFekgR
7656.8289 kg/m Ro.Steel M19 24 gage
DFekgSh
7656.8289 kg/m Sh.Steel M19 24 gage
wt_Teeth
0.4530 kg
wt_Yoke
0.8587 kg
wt_Troot
0.1272 kg
Specific core losses...
cFe_E50
1.1788 W/kg
cFe_H50
1.9756 W/kg
cFe_50
3.1544
W/kg
cFe_E_F
0.5239 W/kg
cFe_H_F
1.3170 W/kg
cFe_F
1.8410
W/kg
cFe_T_E
1.5107 W/kg
cFe_T_H
1.5657 W/kg
cFe_T
3.0765
W/kg
cFe_Y_E
0.6223 W/kg
cFe_Y_H
1.6285 W/kg
cFe_Y
2.2508
W/kg
Core loss analysis...
WFe_T_E
0.8766 W
WFe_T_H
0.9085 W
WFe_T
1.7851 W
WFe_Y_E
0.5344 W
WFe_Y_H
1.3985 W
WFe_Y
1.9328 W
WFeScale
AC Volt
PAGE 88

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

Flux

Case 3: PWM with SPEED.

End of Design sheet-----------------------------------------------------------

BRUSHLESS SPM MOTOR

PAGE 89