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Unit 1

Grammar reference

Present perfect simple

We use the simple present perfect:

1 for an action that happened in the past at an
unknown or unstated time.
2 with the expressions:
This / It / He, etc. is the best, most interesting, etc ...
or: This / It, etc. is the first / second, etc. time ...
3 with the words / expressions: today, this week /
month / year, etc., this morning / evening, etc.
when these periods of time are not yet over.
1 We often use the following words and expressions
with the present perfect simple: ever, never, just, yet,
already, so far, before, recently, up to now.
2 We use the present perfect simple instead of the
present perfect continuous with verbs such as
have, know, like, etc.
have gone to, have been to, have been in
Jenny has gone to Spain. (= She is in Spain now.)
Jenny has been to Spain. (= She has visited
Spain and now she has come back.)
Jenny has been in Spain for two years. (= She went
to Spain two years ago and she is still there.)

Past perfect continuous

We use the past perfect continuous for:

1 an action that had been happening (had been
in progress) before another action or a specific
time in the past, with emphasis on duration.
2 an action that had been happening in the past for
some time and its results were visible in the past.

Future simple

We use the future simple:

1 for an action that will happen in the future. The
action has not been planned or organised. Also,
to make a prediction about the future.
2 for a decision made at the time of speaking.
be going to:

We use be going to:

1 for an action that we intend or have planned to
do in the future.
2 when there is evidence that something will
definitely happen very soon.

Future continuous

We use the future continuous:

1 for an action that will be happening (will be in
progress) at a specific time in the future.
2 for something that will happen in the future because
it has been arranged or is part of a routine.
3 to ask about someones plans in a polite way,
usually when we want something.

We can also use the present simple and the present

continuous to talk about the future.
We do not use a future tense after the
following words and expressions: after,
before, if, unless, until / till, when, as soon
as, as long as, by the time, while, etc.
but: When as a question word can be followed by will.

Future perfect simple

We use the future perfect simple for an action

which will have finished before another action or a
specific time in the future.
We usually use the words by, before, by the time, by
then with this tense.
I will have done the housework by the time the
children come back from school.
Will everyone have left the office by eight oclock?

1 by / before +noun
He will have returned by / before the 25th.
by the time / before + verb
We will have had dinner by the time / before
they arrive.
2 Until / till can only be used in negative
We will have finished by six oclock.
[not: ... until / till six ...]
but: We wont have finished until / till six oclock.

Future perfect continuous

We use the future perfect continuous to emphasise the

duration of an action that started in the past, continues
in the present and will continue up to a specific time in
the future. We usually use by, by then, by the time.
By the time we reach Paris we will have been
travelling for four hours.



punishment /pnmnt/

athletics /letks/

child /tald/

support /spt/

boxing /bks/

childhood /taldhd/

supportive /sptv/

court /kt/

childish /tald/

cycling /sakl/

compete /kmpit/

Phrasal verbs

fencing /fens/

competition /kmptn/

glove /glv/

competitive /kmpettv/

goggles /gglz/

continual /kntnjul/

gymnastics /dmnstks/

continuation /kntnjuen/

hurdles /hdlz/

continue /kntnju/

pool /pul/

employ /mpl/

racquet /rkt/

employed /mpld/

relay race /rle res/

employee /mpli/

ring /r/

employer /mplr/

stadium /stedim/

employment /mplmnt/

tennis /tens/

explain /ksplen/

tracksuit /trksut/

explanation /eksplnen/

weightlifting /wetlft/

explanatory /ksplntri/

windsurfing /wndsf/

friend /frend/

wrestling /resl/

friendly /frendli/
friendship /frendp/
punish /pn/

give away /gv we/

give back /gv bk/
give out /gv at/
give up /gv p/

Confusable words
beat /bit/
win /wn/
outdoor /atdr/
outdoors /atdz/
throw at /r t/
throw to /r tu/

Other useful words

facilities /fslti/
fee /fi/
membership /membp/
noticeboard /ntsbd/