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FAKULTI SAINS DAN SUMBER ALAM

FC30102 - PENULISAN SAINTIFIK DAN KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT
TITLE

: ABSTRACT

NAME
MATRIC NO.
LECTURERS NAME
DATE

AZWAN BIN ABDUL HAN


BS14110175
DR. MOHD. SAINI SARJADI
14 OCTOBER 2016

Table of Content
Page
1

i.

Cover page

ii.

Table of content
2

iii.

Assignment
1. Abstract
1.1 Inroduction
1.2

3
Function of Abstract

1.3

4
Parts of an Abstract

1.4

4-5
Conclusion
5

2. (a)
(b)

Mind Map
Summary

6
7-

8
iv.

References

1. What is abstract? Explain.


b.4

Introduction

An abstract is a brief summary of the most important points in a


scientific paper. Abstracts enable professionals to stay current with the
huge volume of scientific literature. Students have misconceptions about
the nature of abstracts that may be described as the table of contents
or introduction syndromes. There are several ways to tell if youve
written an abstract or not. On-line search databases typically contain only
abstracts, it is vital to write a complete but concise description of your
work to entice potential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper.
This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract
for both conference and journal papers. Writers should follow a checklist
consisting of: motivation, problem statement, approach, results, and
conclusions. Following this checklist should increase the chance of people
taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper.
It has been observed that the quantity of our scientific knowledge
increases at an exponential rate. How is it possible for scientists, students
or anyone to keep up with this increase? If a sedimentologist, for
example, were to read every paper published in a single year in the
Journal of Sedimentary Research, Sedimentology, Sedimentary Geology,
Geology, the GSA Bulletin, the AAPG Bulletin, etc. she or he would have no
time to conduct any research! Abstracts are crucial components in the
battle to keep abreast of ones field. Now that the use of on-line
publication databases is prevalent, writing a really good abstract has
become even more important than it was a decade ago. Abstracts have
always served the function of selling your work. But now, instead of
merely convincing the reader to keep reading the rest of the attached
paper, an abstract must convince the reader to leave the comfort of an
office and go hunt down a copy of the article from a library (or worse,
obtain one after a long wait through inter-library loan). In a business
context, an executive summary is often the only piece of a report read
by the people who matter; and it should be similar in content if not tone to
a journal paper abstract.

b.4

Function of Abstract
It is a highly condensed version of the paper itself. After reading the

abstract, the reader knows the main points that the authors have to make.
The reader can then evaluate the significance of the paper and then
decide whether or not she or he wishes to read the full paper. If one elects
to read the full paper, further detail is given about each of the significant
topics, but no new topics of importance are introduced. If one decides not
to read the paper, that decision is based on a knowledge of the papers
content. Although the abstract appears first in a paper, it is generally
the last part written. Only after the paper has been completed can the
authors decide what should be in the abstract and what parts are
supporting detail.

1.3

Parts of an Abstract
Motivation:
Why do we care about the problem and the results? If the problem
isnt obviously interesting it might be better to put motivation
first; but if your work is incremental progress on a problem that is
widely recognized as important, then it is probably better to put the
problem statement first to indicate which piece of the larger
problem you are breaking off to work on. This section should include
the importance of your work, the difficulty of the area, and the
impact it might have if successful.

Problem:
What problem are you trying to solve? What is the scope of your
work (a generalized approach, or for a specific situation)? Be careful
not to use too much jargon. In some cases it is appropriate to put
the problem statement before the motivation, but usually this only

works if most readers already understand why the problem is


important.

Approach:
How did you go about solving or making progress on the problem?
Did you use simulation, analytic models, prototype construction, or
analysis of field data for an actual product? What was the extentof
your work (did you look at one application program or a hundred
programs in twenty different programming languages?) What
important variables did you control, ignore, or measure?

Results:
Whats the answer? Specifically, most good computer architecture
papers conclude that something is so many percent faster, cheaper,
smaller, or otherwise better than something else. Put the result
there, in numbers. Avoid vague, hand-waving results such as very,
small, or significant. If you must be vague, you are only given
license to do so when you can talk about orders-of-magnitude
improvement. There is a tension here in that you should not provide
numbers that can be easily misinterpreted, but on the other hand
you dont have room for all the caveats.

Conclusions:
What are the implications of your answer? Is it going to change the
world (unlikely), be a significant win, be a nice hack, or simply
serve as a road sign indicating that this path is a waste of time (all
of the previous results are useful). Are your results general,
potentially generalizable, or specific to a particular case?

1.4

Conclusion

An abstract is a critical part of a scientific paper. It summarizes the


most significant points in the paper. By doing so, it enables the reader to
evaluate the nature and significance of the work and therefore decide
whether or not to read the whole paper.

(b)

2. Based on (one) journal :


Extract the info and draw a mind map

(b) Write an essay in your own words (do not copy sentences out
of the paper) that

summarizes and critiques the


journal you have read.

Journal

article

entitled

Investigation

of

Soy

Protein-Kymene

Adhesive System for Wood Composites by Kaichang Li, Svetlana


Peshkova, and Xinglian Geng. This journal investigate on the properties
and application of bioadhesive in the woo composite industries. The raw
material used in this journal is Soybeans and Veneer (Plywood). There are
many research on how to use bioadhesive such as Soybeans. It has
several advantage in using bioadhesive like cost effective, reducing
emission, ease of handling, water resistant and low press temperature.
Besides, soybean has a unique features that are well known throughout
the industry. When using soy adhesive, it gives an attractive colour of
composite

product

because

of

chemical

in

it.

Additionally,

it

is

formaldehyde free and soybeans actually has high value of abundantment


and it is one of the renewable sources. Why they use Soybeans ? The main
purpose is to replace Urea Formaldehyde, Phenol Formaldehyde and
Melamine Formaldehyde. All the synthethic adhesives have high emission
in the air when used. Materials include in this research is Phenol
Formaldehyde, sugar maple veneer, Kymene resin and soy protein (86%
protein)(14% carbohydrate). There are several methods used. Firstly,
preparation of alkaline using SPI powder. Secondly, preparation of SPIKymene wood adhesive. Thirdly, preparation of wood composite and
measurement of shear strength. Finally using water resistance of wood
composite. The result tells about the reaction time and shear strength.
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The reaction time was tested using welch-modified t-test and it found out
that this adhesive 95% of confidence level. Sheer strength was tested
using P-value and it comes out that Phenol Formaldehyde is higher than
Kymene in strength but Kymene is high of water resistance.

This is a very good journal but there are several things that can be
critique from this journal. Firstly, the researcher does not have a good
abstract because it has limited information about the research. This
makes the readers not interested to read the whole journal. Good abstract
decide whether the reader should continue reading or not. Beside that,
there is no example or picture of machine include in the journal. Every
research of bioadhesive in the wood composite industries should mention
the type of machine and show it for information. Last but not least, the
result shows did not complete. There are four type of test should
conducted for wood composite before use as construction panel. This
journal only show two test which is sheer strength and water resistance
test. It should contain texture test and density test.

References

James R. Ebert. (n.d.). What is an Abstract. Retrieved October 12, 2016,


from http://employees.oneonta.edu/ebertjr/what_is_an_abstract.htm.
Philip Koopman. (1997). How to write an Abstract. Retrieved from
https://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essay/abstract.html
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Kaichang Li, Svetlana Peshkova, & Xinglian Geng. (2014). Investigation of


Soy Protein-

Kymene

Adhesive

Journal of Bioadhesive in Wood

Systems

for

Wood

Composites.

Industries, Vol. 81, 487-491.