You are on page 1of 7

CFC Extension Grammar - Unit 12

Relative Clauses and Pronouns - Complete the sentences with a relative clause. Use the clues in brackets and choose
a relative pronoun: who, which, that, whose, where, when, why, whom. In some sentences the relative pronoun is not
needed; in those cases, write the relative pronoun in brackets. Remember to use commas where appropriate.
EXAMPLE: As far as I know, people _____who exercise lead better lives__________________. (exercise / better lives)
1

My instructor ___________________________________ designed an appropriate exercise routine for me.


(I told / back problems)

A large number of people _________________ take medication without having consulted a physician. (fall sick)

The vitamins _________________________ . (she takes/ expensive)

Joe _____________________ began a diet last month. (diagnosed / obese)

Ive just received my test results from the lab ______________________________ . (went to / last week).

Linda ______________________________________ is the manager of the new gym. (her brother / I work).

Everybody knows the _________________________________ was to meet girls. (the reason / he took / aerobics)

Relative pronouns Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun: who, which, that, whose, where, when, why, whom.
1

The doctor to ________ Carlos went to see was very thorough.

Mr. Johnson, _________ went into surgery last night, is recovering well.

Hypoglycaemia occurs ____________ the level of sugar in the blood drops suddenly.

The reason __________ Frank is not losing weight is that he is not following his diet.

Philip was the first person _________ had a heart transplant in the new hospital.

Sara had been inattentive to her eating habits _____________ she was diagnosed with high cholesterol.

There isnt much ________ can go wrong if you follow the program your doctor ordered.

The gym ________ I go has one of the best personal training programmes in the country.

Most of the patients _______ took the new drug recovered successfully.

10 Blanca is a doctor _________ research on metabolism has helped many people live healthier lives.
C

Relative pronouns to connect phrases- Combine the sentences from box 1 with a sentence from box 2 to make new
sentences. Join them with a relative pronoun.
1

2
1.

Dr. Sanchez had to see over 30 patients by himself.

a.

A balanced diet balances proteins and calories.

2.

Most artists hire personal trainers.

b.

Doctors recommend drinking 3 liters of water a

3.

Going on a diet is recommended by most doctors.

4.

One tip for losing weight is to drink 3 litres of water

c.

His assistant resigned last week.

a day.

d.

I love to exercise with a partner.

I have more fun exercising.

e.

Personal trainers help them stay in great shape.

5.

day.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Cambridge University Press & Britnico

CFC Extension Grammar - Unit 13


A. Write new sentences, using the third conditional, reacting to the information provided.
1. Mike left his parrot out of its cage in his house, but his neighbours cat snuck in through an open window
and killed it.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The smart piggy built his house out of brick, so the wolf could not blow his house down.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. A ban on hunting the now extinct Caspian tiger in the USSR in 1947 followed their greatest destruction in
the 1930s.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. In 2008, a street dog named Lucky saved the life of an abandoned newly born baby by taking him to her
refuge.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Thanks to the ratification of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, many species have been saved from
extinction.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Through its Living Amazon Initiative, the World Wildlife Fund found 1,200 new specimens living in the
Amazon from 1999 to 2009.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7. Some of the best scenes in the film Legends of the Fall were made thanks to Bart the Bear, an Alaskan
Kodiak that was raised by humans and trained to act.
____________________________________________________________________________________
8. Three fishermen caught a two and a half-metre mako shark that jumped into their boat while they were
fishing for red snapper in Freeport, Texas.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
B

Read the statements and write your opinion. Write your sentences with the words given in brackets.
1. A dog barked all night, calling for help for his owner, who had been injured in a robbery. Unfortunately,
the man died because nobody paid attention to the dog`s pleas. (if only)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. I cant believe my cat is lost. I feel terrible because I forgot to close the door and she ran off. (wish)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. According to an autopsy, the famous polar bear, Knut, died from brain damage. (if only)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Paul believes more people should follow suggestions given by the WWF to help protect our world. (wish)
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Cambridge University Press & Britnico

CFC Extension Grammar - Unit 14


A. Rewrite the sentences given as sentences using the causative have. Make sure not to change the meaning
from the original sentence.
1. The joiner did a great job making the window frames for our house last summer.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. The decorators that Tom hired will hang new curtains at his flat tomorrow.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. The mechanic is fixing Carlos car.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. A web security company has monitored the banks website for the past three months.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Every month, Silvia goes to Montalvo Spa for a haircut.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Margaret has hired a woman to clean her office every Friday.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

B. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one, using the word given. Do not
change the word given. You must use between two and five words.
1. Make sure you lock the door before leaving your house.
MUST
You ________________________________ before leaving your house.
2. Mr Scott painted Mrs Knights house last week.
HAD
Mrs Knight _____________________________ last week.
3. Franks father told him he couldnt play computer games on school nights.
ALLOW
Frank _________________________ computer games on weeknights.
4. The coach told me my knee injury doesnt look too bad, but Ill visit the doctor just in case.
HAVE
I will ________________________________ my knee.
5. Remember not to leave appliances on. This months electrical bill is three times higher than last month.
MUST
We ___________________________ electrical appliances.
6. My parents dont want me to play music loudly after 9 p.m.
SUPPOSED
I ______________________________ down my music late at night.

Cambridge University Press & Britnico

ANSWER KEY
UNIT 12

12A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

possible answers
, who I told I had back problems,
who fall sick
(which / that) she takes are expensive
, who had been diagnosed as obese,
I went to last week
, whose brother I work for,
reason he took up aerobics

13B
1

12B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

whom
who
when
why
who / that
when
that / which
where
who
whose

2
3
4

2
3
4
5

Dr. Sanchez, whose assistant resigned last week,


had to see over 30 patients by himself.
Most artists hire personal trainers, who help them
stay in great shape.
Going on a diet that balances proteins and calories
is recommended by most doctors.
One tip that doctors recommend for losing weight is
drinking 3 litres of water a day.
I have more fun exercising when I do it with a
partner. / I have more fun when I exercise with a
partner.

UNIT 13
13A

Possible answers

If Mike hadnt left his window open, his neighbours


cat wouldnt have eaten his parrot.
The wolf would have blown the smart piggys house
down if he hadnt built it with brick / built it out of
brick.
If there had been a ban placed earlier on hunting
the Caspian tiger, it may not have become extinct.
If Lucky hadnt taken the baby to her refuge, he
might have died.
Many more species would have become extinct if
the ESA hadnt been ratified in 1973.
If there hadnt been a LAI, the WWF wouldnt have
found so many new species living in the Amazon.
Bart the bear wouldnt have been in the movie if he
hadnt been trained to act.

3
4
5
6
7

If only someone had paid attention to the barking


dog, his owner might not have died.
I wish I hadnt forgotten to close the door. / I wish
my cat hadnt run off.
If only Knut hadnt had brain damage, he wouldnt
have died.
Paul wishes more people would follow suggestions
given by the WWF to help protect our world.

UNIT 14
14A
1

We had great window frames made for our house


last summer.
Tow will have new curtains hung at his new flat
tomorrow.
Carlos is having his car fixed.
The bank has had its website monitored for the past
three months.
Silvia has/gets her hair cut every month at Montalvo
Spa.
Margaret has her office cleaned every Friday.

14B
1
2
3
4
5
6

must lock the door


had her house painted
wasnt allowed to play
have the doctor look at / examine
must turn off
am supposed to turn down

2
3
4
5

12C
1

If the shark hadnt jumped into the boat, the


fisherman wouldnt have caught it.

CFC Plus Grammar Sheet


Mixed Conditionals

AD5

A mixed conditional sentence is one in which the time of the if clause is different from the time of the result clause. Combinations include
past/present, past/future, present/past, present/future, future/past, and future/present.
if clause in past
result in present II

If I had eaten breakfast, I wouldnt be so hungry


right now.
I didnt eat breakfast, so now I am hungry.

if clause in past
result in future I

If Lawrence had followed his doctors orders, he


wouldnt be going into surgery tomorrow.
He didnt follow his doctors orders, so he will go into
surgery.
If I werent working on my dissertation this
semester, I would have gone to the party last night.
I am working on my dissertation, so I didnt go the
party.
If Mike and Sandra had a more spacious apartment,
they would host their familys Christmas party next
year.
They have a small apartment, so they wont host the
party.
If I didnt have to work so early tomorrow, I would
have stayed out later with my mates.
I will have to work early tomorrow, so I didnt stay
out late
If Norbert were participating in a bodybuilding
contest on Saturday, he wouldnt be eating that
cake.
Nobert has no contest on Saturday, so hes eating
cake

if clause in present
result in past II

if clause in present
result in future II

if clause in future
result in past I

if clause in future
result in present 1

Angie would be in a much better financial situation if her


husband had not died suddenly.
She is in a dire financial situation because her husband died
suddenly.
The sailors would be going on shore leave this Friday night
if they had completed all their duties.
They wont go on shore leave because they didnt complete
their duties.
Grant would have made a toast at his brothers wedding if
he had more self-confidence.
Grant didnt make a toast because he lacks self-confidence.
We would go with you next summer on your underwater
adventure to the Bahamas if we knew how to scuba dive.
We wont go with you because we dont know how to scuba
dive.
Julie would have worked harder yesterday if she werent
quitting her job tomorrow.
Julie didnt work hard yesterday because she'll quit her job
tomorrow.
You would be really nervous if you were giving a speech in
front of a thousand people tomorrow.
Youre not nervous because you will not give a speech
tomorrow.

Write a mixed conditional sentence that makes sense based on the sentence given.
Example: Mike is in hot water because he forgot his wifes birthday.
Mike wouldnt be in hot water if he had remembered his wifes birthday.

_____

1. Mario didnt meet his sales quota, so he wont get a raise at the end of the year.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Janet and Samantha are going to Quebec next summer, so they signed up for an expensive French immersion course.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. I am fasting for 12 hours because Im getting some blood work done at the clinic tomorrow.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Ann is married, so she wont go on the singles cruise with her friends next summer.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Cinderellas step sister is not married to the prince because her foot did not fit in the glass slipper.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. Andrew has a bad cold, so he didnt visit his father at the hospital last night.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. We are stuffed because we ate so much at the buffet.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Mr Peterson stood up to the hooligans because he is a brave man.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. You are sticking to your diet, so you will be able to fit into your dress on your wedding day.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. The children wont be getting any desert because they didnt finish their vegetables.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cambridge University Press & Britnico

______

CFC Plus Grammar Sheet


Causative Have Have vs. Get Something Done

AD5

As covered in Unit 14, we use have/get something done when someone arranges for something to be done by somebody else.
This passive construction is subject + get or have + object + past participle. The same construction is used to say that something is done to
someone or to something belonging to the subject of have/get

He has his teeth cleaned every six months.


He has
his teeth
cleaned.
have/ get
object
past
participle

We got our photo taken with the guards at Buckingham Palace.


We got
our photo
taken.
have/ get
object
past
participle

As we have seen this pattern, get and have are often interchangeable, with get being used more often in conversation and in less formal
writing. As we will see below, however, there are times when the decision to use get or have affects meaning.
Have is used ...

Get is used...

when the person referenced in


the subject of the sentence is clearly not
responsible for or does not control what
happens:
Lana had her tonsils taken out.
They had their bikes stolen.
(get can also be used in sentences like these in
spoken informal English)

when we say that the person referenced in


the subject of the sentence does the act
themselves, causes what occurs, maybe
unintentionally, or it is their fault:
I'll get the dishes washed if you fold the
laundry.
(= I'll wash the dishes)
Burt got his car keys locked inside his car.
(= Burt locked his keys in his car.)

A. Complete these sentences using subject + had/got + it/them + past participle. Select from the verbs below and use each
word once only. In these sentences had or got can be used interchangeably.
deliver
groom
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

dry-clean
trim

engrave
redecorated

resole
service

laminate
deter

Our dog was looking scruffy, so __we had him groomed__________________________________.


When Simon wore holes in both his shoes, he decided he couldn't afford to buy a new pair, so ___________________.
Frank spilt tea on his silk tie. It cant be machine washed, so _________________________.
The trees on Michelles property are growing into the electric power lines, so _________________________.
My lorry wasnt running well and was making strange noises so _________________________.
Lorraine wants the watch she gave her husband to bear a personalized message from her, so
_________________________.
The scouts map was getting tattered, so to preserve it _________________________.
We dont have time to run down to the pizza shop to pick up our pie, so _________________________.

B. Complete these sentences with the most likely form of have or get.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Alex had severe pains and had to ___________ his appendix removed.
The skiers ___________ their weekend plans ruined by the unseasonably warm and sunny weather.
We always ___________ our pictures framed at a place on the High Street.
When they ___________ it explained to them for the tenth time, they finally understood.
Micah ___________the sculpture valued by the appraiser at a higher price than he ever imagined.
When Mrs Jameson tried to call out her students by name, she ___________ all their names mixed up.
Andrea ___________ her laptop nicked at the library when she left it unattended to go look for a book.
Steven promised that he would ___________ all his homework done by Thursday if he was allowed to go to the party
on Friday.

Cambridge University Press & Britnico

ANSWER KEY
CFC Plus Grammar Sheet: Mixed Conditionals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

If Mario had met his sales quota, he would get a raise at the end of the year.
If Janet and Samantha werent going to Quebec next summer, they wouldnt have signed up for an . . .
I wouldnt be fasting for 12 hours if I wasnt getting some blood work done at the clinic tomorrow.
If Ann wasnt / werent married, she would go on the singles would go on the singles cruise with her friends next summer.
Cinderellas step sister would be married to the prince if her foot had fit in the glass slipper.
If Andrew didnt have a bad cold, he would have visited his father at the hospital last night.
We wouldnt be stuffed if we hadnt eaten so much at the buffet.
Mr Peterson wouldnt have stood up to the hooligans if he wasnt / werent a brave man.
If you werent sticking to your diet, you wouldnt be able to fit into your dress on your wedding day.
The children would be getting some dessert if they had finished their vegetables.

CFC Plus Grammar Sheet: Causative Have


A.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
7
8
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

he had them resoled / he got them resoled


he had/got it dry cleaned
she had/got them trimmed
I had/got it serviced
she had/got it engraved
they had/got it laminated
we had/got it delivered
have
had
have
got
had/got
got
had
get