You are on page 1of 18

WORKED SOLUTIONS

Modeling dynamic phenomena

Skills check
1 a

x ey  x 2

1 x ey

x  1

2x

ln

tan
y

dy
x
dx

x 1
y

1 x2

ln

e2 x y

S
y
4

x
y

4x
S

(assuming principal restriction)


d

arccos( xy  1)

2 x xy  1

2 a

cos(2 x )

cos 2 x  1
x

x 2 e x  2 x e x dx

2 x

e dx

ii

ORDER

COEFFICIENTS

YES

Constant

NO

Constant

YES

Variable

NO

Constant

YES

Variable

YES

Variable

NO

Variable

2 a

iii

ex
dx
ex  1

e x  1 du

As

1
du
u

iv

cos( x )
dx
sin 2 ( x )

ln u  c then

e x dx

dx

As

b i

yc

1 ( x  1)  x 1
( x  1)2
x
1

x 1


ii

cos( x )
dx
sin 2 ( x )

1
( x  1)2
( x  1)2  x 2
( x  1)2

 sin( x )

0 to obtain

0 which is true for all x \

? y sin( x ) is solution of the differential


equation y cc  y 0.
c

x e x y c

e x  x e x

e  x to obtain e  x  e  x
which is true for all x \

ln e  1  c

3 a

1

 c.
sin( x )

1
( x  1)2
2 x  1
( x  1)2

? y x e  x is solution of the differential equation


y c  y e x .

1
du where u = sin(x)
u2

1
  c then
u

cos( x ) y cc

Substitute into y c  y

du = cos(x) dx
1
du
u2

sin( x ) y c

 sin( x )  sin( x )

ex  1

Substitute into y cc  y

1
(sin(2 x )  2 cos(2 x )) e x  c
5

0 to obtain e  x  e  x

e  x is solution of the differential


equation y c  y 0.

(sin(2 x )  2 cos(2 x )) e x  c

u du where u

e x y c

?y

sin(2 x ) e x  2(cos(2 x ) e x  2 sin(2x ) e x dx )

sin(2 x ) e x dx

 e x
Substitute into y c  y
y

which is true for all x \

5 sin(2 x ) e x dx

3
2

LINEAR

sin(2 x ) e x  2 cos(2x ) e x dx

2S

sin

x 2ex 2x e x + 2ex + c or (x2 2x + 2)ex + c

sin(2 x ) e dx
sin(2x ) e dx

e2

EQUATION

x 2 e x  2 ( x e x  e x dx )
i

1) e2  ln(1)

Exercise 3A

x 1
e2 x

or y = (x + 1)e2x
c

dy
(x
dx

1  x 2 ey

1 x2
y
x
b

3 a

Differentiating implicitly e xy  x  y

0,

dy
dy
1
0
dx
dx
dy
(1  x e xy )
 (1  y e xy )
dx
dy
1  y e xy


QED
dx
1  x e xy

y e xy  x e xy

1
x  1 1  2x

sin(2 x )
sin 2 ( x )  1

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

13

WORKED SOLUTIONS
b

Differentiating implicitly x 2  y 2
dy
2x  2 y
dx

dy
0 y
dx

r 2, r constant

dy
x
dx

x

dy
dx

x
 QED
y

4x

4  x 2 du

x
1 For example, y e y c e .
Substitute into y c  y 0 to obtain e x  e x 0
which is true for all x \ ? y e x is solution of
the differential equation y c  y 0
For example, y 2e x y c 2e x .
Substitute into y c  y 0 to obtain 2e x  2e x 0
which is true for all x \
? y 2e x is solution of the differential equation
yc  y 0

1
2

Ae x y c Ae x .
Substitute into y c  y 0 to obtain Ae x  Ae x 0
which is true for all x \
? y Ae x is a general solution of the differential
equation y c  y 0.
When x 0 y 3 Ae0 3 A 3.
? y 3e x is the particular solution (curve) that
contains the point (0, 3).

ln x  2 

z
d

dw
dx

1
y
x

t2
t3
 c
2
2

?y
4

dy
dx

k cos(kx )  k cos(kx )  k 2 x sin(kx )

dy
dx

k 2 x sin(kx ) QED

dy
dx

e2 x 
1
2

 e2 x  ln x  1  c

y (0 )

1 

?y

 e2 x  ln x  1 

1
 ln 1  c
2

d 4 3
Sr
dt 3

dr
dt

x sin( x )  cos( x )  c

1
3

v
?s

ds
1

dt
2  t2
1
2

2
S

dr
dt

Sr2
1
dt r 3
3

2
cc
S

2
125 2
t 
 r
3
S
S

? r3
7

1
u 125
3

3
2

2
r 2 dr
Sr2

r (1)

e 2 x dx

dr
dt

3
2

1 c

1
2

dV
dt

x sin( x )  sin( x )dx

1
1
x e2 x  e2 x  c
2
4
dy
3 2 1 3
2 a
3x  x 2 y
x  x c
dx
2
3
3 1
13
y (1) 4   c 4 c
2 3
6
3 2 1 3 13
?y
x  x 
2
3
6

1
2 x
e 
dx
x 1

1
y
x 1

?y

6 a

4S r 2

1
1
x e2 x 
2
2

1
cos(0)  c
2

sin(kx )  kx cos(kx )

x e2 x w

1
1
sin( x )dx
dx 
x 2
2

3
 ln 2
2
1
3
ln x  2  cos x   ln 2
2
2

ln x  c

x cos( x ) z

1

Exercise 3B
t  t2 x

1 c

1
cos( x )  c
2

2 ln 2 

y (0 )

No solution as ( y(x)) 0

dx
dt
dy
b
dx
dz
c
dx

u c

4  x2  1

1 a

du y

1
1
 sin( x ) y
x 2 2

dy
dx

dx

 2 x dx

1 4  c

?y
3

4  x2

4  x2  c

y (0 )

contains the point (1, 1).

?y

In general, y

1
dy
1
dy

y2.
2 For example, y 
2
x
dx
dx
x
1
dy
For example, y  1 dy

y2
2
x 1
dx
dx
( x  1)
1
dy
In general, y  1 dy

y2.
2
x k
dx
dx
x  k
1
k  2.
When x 1 y 1 1 
1 k
1 is the particular solution (curve) that
?y 
x 2

2 x

1
2

Investigation
x

1
s
2  t2

2
t c
S

125 2

3
S

6
(t  1)  125
S
1
dt
2  t2

t
c
2

arctan

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

14

WORKED SOLUTIONS

Exercise 3C
1 a

dy
dx

dy
y 3

y 3

dx

y 3
dy
dx

x c

Ae  3

1
(3 y 2  y  1)dy
3y  y  1

? arctan
2
2
dy
d
dx

?
e

2
dy
2y  1

1
ln 2 y  1
2

dy
dx

?
f

2 a

e x

dy
cos (3 y  1)

3dy
cos (3 y  1)

dx

3 a

d y

dx 2

5 dy
y  1 dx

dy
dx

? 5 ln y  1

x
dy
y 1

x
2 x e x  2 e dx

2
dx
x

4( x  1)e x  c

1
dy
y 1
2

2 

1
dx
x2

2
c
x

? arctan( y )

(1  cos(2 x ))

dy
dx

2 sin(2 x ) y

1
dy
y

2 sin 2 x
dx
1  cos 2 x

c
1  cos 2 x

y (0 )

1 c

?y

dy
dx

(1  x 2 )

3e x

1  y2

1
dy
1  y2

arctan( y )

3
y

y (0 )
2
dx
x

2
dx
x

Ax 2

2
1  (2 cos 2 x  1)

sec 2 x

3e x  c
b

2
y
1  cos 2 x

2 ln x  c ( y  1)5

 ln 1  cos 2 x  c

y
dx

y2
3 e x dx
2

2
5

dy
x
y 1

dy
y 1

y2
2

2 x e x dx

ydy

2 x e x  2e x  c y 2

x c

d
dy
(3e x  c ) y
dx
dx

e x

y2
2

ln y

x c

To check answers, differentiate both sides of the


equation, e.g.
2

 arctan( x )  c

2x

dy
y

dx

ydy

1
dx
x2  1

2 sin(2 x )
dx
1  cos(2 x )

1  sin 2 y
cos y

dy
cos y
1  sin 2 y
cos y
dy

dx
1  sin 2 y

dx

1
dx
x2  1

dx

? arctan(sin y )

dy
dx

e x

?
f

dy
cos (3 y  1)

dy
dx

1
dy =
2y 1

x c

1
arctan (3 y  1)
3

dy
dx

dx

1
3

dx

cos2 (3 y  1)

dx

1
dx
x

 tan(arctan( x )  c )

or y

x c

dy
2y  1
2y  1
1
2

1
dy
y2  1

1
dy
y

Ax

y2  1
1
2
dy
x2  1
y 1

? arctan( y )

y2
y x c
2
dy
dy
y2  4 2
dx
2
y 4
y 4

1
dx
x

ln x  c y

= dx y 3 
dy
dx

dy
dx

dx

(3 y 2  y  1)dy

y
1
dy
x
y

x c

dy
dx

? ln y

1
dy = dx ln y  3
y 3

1
dy
1  y2

1
dx
1  x2

arctan( x )  c

2 arctan(2)

arctan(0 )  c

?c

arctan(2)

?y

tan(arctan( x )  arctan(2))

?y

x 2
1  2x

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

1
dx
1  x2

Calculus: Chapter 3

15

WORKED SOLUTIONS
c

dy
1
1 y
dy
dx
y 1
1

dy
e  x dx
y 1

ex

1
3

5 a

dy
dx

5 4 3 2 1 0
1

5x

2
125 2
t 
 r
S
3
S

dy
dx
2y
As u 
x

dy
x
2y
 .
and
dx
2y
x
x
 1 these tangents are
2 y

orthogonal at these points.


7 a

6
(t  1)  125
S

y
4
3
2
1

y
6
4
2

1 2 3 4x

4 3 2 11
2
3
4

Exercise 3C

1.1

10 8 6 4 220
4
6

y
4

Exercise 3C

y
6

2 1
1

0
8 6 4 22
4
6

y
6
4
2

b and c

2 4 6 8 10

Exercise 3C

1.1

2 4 6 8 x

2
6 4
y1_1

At each point ( x , y ), x z 0, y z 0 the gradients


of the tangents to the solutions of each DE are

f (x )
g( y)

given by

because it cannot be written in the form

1.1

1  e x

8 6 4 2
2

e xy is not a variable separable equation

dy
dx

? r3

d 4
3
Sr 8
dt 3

dr
dr
2

4S r 2
8

dt
dt
Sr2

1
2
2
dr
2
dt r 3
t c
b
r 2 dr
2
S
3
S
dt
Sr
1
2
125 2
r (1) 5 u 125
cc

3
3
S
S

4 a

y
6

 e0  c

y (0 ) 2 ln 1
?c 1
? ln y  1

y
4

 e x  c

? ln y  1

dV
dt

e  x dx

0
2
2

Short investigation

6 a

y
4

y
2

1
2 1
1

4 3 2 1
1

annually

monthly

daily

hourly

continously

40

4,115.19

4211.61

4220.40

4220.68

4220.70

Exercise 3D

year

The model is Q (t )

Q (t )

4
1.1

0.55 Q0 Q0 e
0.55 Q0 

Q0 e

Exercise 3C

y
8
6
4
2

0
8 6 4 22
4
6
8

1.1

2 4 6 8

Exercise 3C

y
6
4
2

8 6 4 220
4
6

2 4 6 8

ln 2
5568

ln 2
t
5568

ln 2
t
5568

0.55

4800 years

The model is Q (t )

Q0 e

Q (t ) = 0.55 Q0 Q0 e

0.55 Q0 
t

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

ln 2
t
5530

ln 2
t
5530

ln 2
t
5530

0.55

4770 years

Calculus: Chapter 3

16

WORKED SOLUTIONS
3 a

dV
dt

dV
dt

 0.00015V

6 a

dV
R

 0.00015V
lnV

?V

V0 e

0.0008 V0 e 0.00015u2

V0

0.00080024...  0.001

0.0008

0.0004 P (250  P )

dP
=
P (250  P )

1
10

dt ln

1
1
g  D v  g  D v dv

P
250  P

dt

dP
dt

7 0.1t
e and P (t )
43

100(1  t )

240 t

49.93...,

100(1  t )

dP
dt

0.03
dt P
1 t

ex

A(1  t )0.03

0.03

and

P(10) = 100 (11)

P(10 )

g  Dv
g Dv

t2  c

Ae

1
 t2
D

dP
P

e3 x

e5 x

dy
 3y
dx

d 3x
(e y )
dx

e x by I(x),
e5 x

1 5x
e c
5

e5 x dx e3 x y

1 2x
e  c e3 x
5

dy
 (2 x  1
) y
dx  p
(x )

x
eN
q(x )

2 x 1 dx

ex

x

dy

(0.01  0.001t )dt

(0.01 + 0.001t)dt

ln(100 )

Multiplying both sides of


 (2 x  1) y
dx
by I(x),
2

e x

2
dy
 (2 x  1)e x  x y
dx

ex

e x

d x2 x
(e
y)
dx

ex

which is an exact DE
?ex

116.183...

q(x )

dy
 3e3 x y
dx

I (x )

100 c

2x
eN

3 dx

? e3x y

0.03

I0

100e 0.01t  0.0005t

?y

ln|P| = 0.01t + 0.0005t2 + c


P(0 )

which is an exact DE

100

(0.01  0.001t )P

dP
=
P

g  Dv
g  Dv

Multiplying both sides of

100 u 11I 0

P(10 )

dy
 3N y
dx
p(x )

I (x )

P(10) = 107.459...
107.46 euros
b

dt
+
dv

+
g

v
g

1
 t2

1 a

100 A

?P

2dt

Exercise 3E

7
43

0.03
dP
P
1 t
P

P(0 )

dt

g Ae D  1
v
1
 t2
D
Ae D  1
g
lim v (t )
x of
D

i.e., approx. 50 years.


5 a

g
dv
g 2  D 2v 2
1
D

1
t c
10

P
250  P

dt

1 1
1

the
2 g  D v
g  D v

= 2 dt  ln
1
2500

k 2
v
m

equation can be written as

Ae 0.1t

35 A

P (0 )

1
dt
2500

1
1

P  250  P dP

1
250

g
g 2  D 2v 2

As

1
dt
2500

1
1

P  250  P dP

P
250  P

dP
P (250  P )

dv
gk
g2  v2
m

g

gk
g
2
dv
m
g  D 2v 2

0.00015 t

dv
dt

mg  kv 2
g

 0.00015t  c

V (2)

dP
dt

dv
dt

 0.00015 dt

So, the drivers blood alcohol rate was within the


permissible limits.
4

?y

x

y
2

e dx e

e x  c e x

x2 x

ex  c

x

116.18 euros

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

17

WORKED SOLUTIONS
c

dy
 1N y
dx
p(x )

I (x )

2 x
e
x
)
cos(

2 a

q(x )

1dx

ex
dy

e2 x cos( x )

dy
 ex y
dx

e x cos( x )

d x
(e y )
dx

?e y

x

ex

e x cos( x )

1 x
e (sin( x )  cos( x ))  c
2

tan( x ) dx

q(x )

sec( x )

1dx sec( x ) y

cot( x ) dx

? e 2 x y

e2 x sin( x )

d 2 x
(e y )
dx

e2 x sin( x )

1
(2 sin( x )  cos( x )  e2 x )
5

x
)
cos(

q(x )

cos( x )

by I(x),

dy
sin( x )
+ cos( x ) y = sin( x )
dx

1
5

0c

y (0 )

sin( x )

e2 x sin( x )dx
1
5

x  c (use

dy
Multiplying both sides of
 y cot( x )
dx

dy
 ( x  1) y
dx

I (x )

x2
2

x2

x 1 dx

e2

x

dy

Multiplying both sides of


 ( x  1) y
dx
by I(x),
x2

x

x
x
dy
 e 2 ( x  1) y
dx

d
(sin( x ) y ) = sin( x ) which is an exact DE

dx

e2

x
) cos( x
) dx
sin( x ) y = sin(


which is an exact DE

1
sin(2 x )
2

1
sin( x ) y = cos(2 x ) + c
4

?y

 cos(2 x )  c csc( x )
4

sin x

e2 x y = ( 2sin( x ) cos( x )) e2 x + c

e ln(sin( x ))

e 2 x

dy
 2e2 x y
dx

( x  c ) cos( x )

1

which is an exact DE

I (x )

2 dx

dy
d
+ tan( x )sec( x ) y = 1
dx
dx

dy
 cot( x )
y
dx  p
(x )

2 c

sin x

cos( x )

integration by parts)

dy
 2y
dx

e2 x

(sec( x ) y ) = 1 which is an exact DE

?y

( x  1)e x  c (use

Multiplying both sides of


 2y
dx
by I(x),

dy

? sec( x ) y

x e dx e

dy

cos(
x
)


Multiplying both sides of


 y tan( x )
dx
by I(x),
sec( x )

x e x which is

x  1  e x

I (x )

e  ln(cos( x ))

d x
(e y )
dx

 2 1  c

?y

x2

 c cos x

x ex

c by I(x),

x  1  c e x

?y
y (0 )

1 x2
e (sin x  cos x )  A e x
2

I (x )

dy
 y
dx

integration by parts)

1 2 x
e (sin( x )  cos( x ))  c e x
2

dy
 tan( x )
y
dx  p
(x )

ex

dy
 ex y
dx

?ex y

(use integration by parts)

1dx

an exact DE

cos( x )dx

ex y

?y

Multiplying both sides of

which is an exact DE
x

dy
 y
dx

x y

I (x )

Multiplying both sides of


 y
dx
by I(x),
ex

dy
dx

?e

x2
x
2

e dx e

2c

y (0 )
y

x2
2

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

e

x2
x
2

ex

d x2  x
e y
dx

x2
2

ex

ex  c

x2
x
2

Calculus: Chapter 3

18

WORKED SOLUTIONS
3 a

dy
y
dx

x2  x

d
( xy )
dx

x2  x

dy
 (cos( x )) y
dx

(sin( x ))

the equation is exact.


d
( xy )
dx

( x 2  x ) dx

x 2  x xy

x
x
c
 
3
2
x

( x  1)

dy
 y
dx

d
(( x  1) y )
dx

sin( x )e x

sin( x )e x ( x  1) y

sin( x ) e dx

4 a

( x  1)

dy
y
dx

sin( x )e x

sin( x ) e

1

 x

As cos x

1 x 2 dx

x 

1
x

dy
 1  x 2 y
dx

1
x

x 

1
x 
dy
 (1  x 2 ) e x y
dx

x 

1
x

cos 4 x cos( x ) y
2

cos

d  x  1x
e
y
dx

( x 2  1) y

( x 2  1)dx

( x 2  1)

1
x c
x

1
+ x
x

dy
 xy
dx

x
dy
y

dx x 2  1

the equation is linear

cos( x ) y

3
1
1
x  sin(2 x )  sin( 4 x )  c
8
4
32

1
1
3

sin( 4 x )  c sec( x )
x  sin(2 x ) 
4
32
8

p x

dy
y

dy
dx

dy
= ( x 2  1) dx ln y
y

cos( x ) y

dy
cos x
 tan x y
dx 

x 2 y

y = Ae

1
(1  cos(4 x ))
8
1
cos(4 x )
8

Ae

1
 x
x

the equation is variable separable

x dx

1  2 cos(2 x )  cos 2 (2 x )
4

A y

dy
y
dx

cos 4 x

3 1
1
8  2 cos(2 x )  8 cos(4 x ) dx

dy
cos x  sin x y
dx

1 1
 cos(2 x ) 
4 2
3 1
 cos(2 x ) 
8 2

dy
 x2 y
dx

which is an exact DE

cos 4 x

1  cos(2 x )

x2

q(x )

the equation is exact.

 ln cos x  c

dy

dy
1
y

dx N
x 1

d
(cos( x ) y )
dx

d
cos( x ) y
dx

sin x y

 (1  x 2 ) y
Multiplying both sides of
dx
by I(x),

the equation is linear

tan x dx

I (x )

p(x )

dy
 (sin x ) y
c (cos x )
dx

sin x y

tan x dx

the equation is linear

1
(sin x  cos x ) e x  c
2
sin x  cos x x
c
e 
2( x  1)
x 1

( x  1) y
y

tan x sin x y

the equation is linear

the equation is exact.


d
(( x  1) y )
dx

d
sin x y
dx

c  ln cos x
or y ln sec x  c csc x
sin x
sin x dy  cos x y tan x
dx
dy
x
y sec
x

 cot

dx  p
x
q x

p(x )

sin( x )e x

tan( x )

dy
dy
1
x +1
x
+ y = x2 + x
+
y = N
dx
dx
x
q(x )
N

the equation is linear

d
(sin( x ) y )
dx

the equation is exact.

x3
x2

c
3
2

xy
y

tan( x )

I (x )

 x 2 1dx

cos x


1
 ln x 2 1
2

1
x2 1
dy

 2
y
Multiplying both sides of
dx
x 1
by I(x),
1

dy
x
2
x +1
x + 1 dx
2

q x

the equation is linear

1
x2 +1

y=0

d 1

y = 0

2
dx x + 1

which is an exact DE
Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

19

WORKED SOLUTIONS
1

A y

A x2 1

dy
x
y
 2
dx
x 1

dy
0
dx

x
y
x2  1

x 1

dy
y

x
dx ln y
2
x 1

1 dy
 2y
x dx

x2
2

x2
2

ex

3x

3 xe x

3 x2
e cy
2

dy
 2 xy
dx

3x

dy
3  2y

3x

d x2
e y
dx

3 xe x

2
3
 Ae  x
2

dy
dx

1 2
x c
2

dy
3  2y

1
x dx  ln 3  2 y
2

1 2
x c
2

2y
?y

1
2

 x dx

0

x2
2

1
2

x2
2

1
2

 e

1
2

ke D t  Te and

k + Te = 24
ke 5 + T = 22
e
10
ke
T
+

e = 20.4

Te = 24 k

( 5 10 )
k e e
= 1.6

10
ke + Te = 20.4

Te 24  k

1.6

k
5D

e  e 10D
ke 10D  24  k 20.4

Te 24  k

1.6
k

5D
 e 10D
e

1.6 e 10D  1  24
e 5D  e 10D

 0.044628..., k

to obtain D
1 du
1
1
 x 1 
u
u
u 2 dx

20.4

10 and Te

14.

Exercise 3F

1.1

du
 xu  x which is a linear equation of the
dx
du
form
 p x u q u .
dx

I x e

c

1 du
 2
u dx

x2
2

Use cooling model equation T (t )


solve simultaneously the

T ( 0 ) = 24
equations: T ( 5 ) = 22

T (10 ) = 20.4

2
3
 Be  x
2

dy
 xy 1  y
dx

x2
2

x2 1

 x2  c

3  Ae  x

1
dy

y
dx

 xe

x (3  2 y )

x dx  ln 3  2 y

Exercise 3F

dy
3  2y

e x

1  Ae

22

the equation is variable separable

3  2y

 Au

1  Ae

x dx

ln 3  2 y

d  x2
e u

dx

1 
1 e 2 2
2

which is an exact DE
2

x2
2

2
dy
 2 xe x y
dx

ex y

x2
2

1  Ae y

dy

1  Ae

Multiplying both sides of


 2 xy
dx
by I(x),
ex

y 1

dy
3
 2 xy
dx

2 x dx

 xe

x2
2

the equation is linear


I x

x

du
 xe 2 u
dx

1
y

1
ln( x 2  1)  c
2

A x2 1

?y

 x by I(x),

which is an exact DE

x
dx
x 1
2

the equation is variable separable


dy
y

du
 xu
dx

Multiplying both sides of

nSolve

1.6

e5xe10x

e10x1 +24=20.4, x

d:=0.044628710262786
1.6
k:=
e5ae10a
t:=24k

0.04462871
0.04462871
10.
14.

8/99

So the temperature outside is approximately


14 degrees

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

20

WORKED SOLUTIONS
2 a
b

a = 5000, b = 0.04
x 0 1000
dx
dx
5000  0.04 x
5000  0.04 x
dt

1000 A

x (0 )

0.04t

or x = 1000e
c

0.04t

+ 125000(e

100000 t

x (t )

5040

1.1

1)

14.495462
54.73141

k
 t
mg
1  e m as deduced in example 16
k

Use v

20  t 2

50
(20  t )2

50
dt
(20 t )2

50(20  t )  c (20  t )2
0 c

 2 .5

Q 10

(
(

0.5
t
9010
1e 90
0.5

Done

95.327497

250 grams (3s.f.)

Exercise 3G
1 a

3 x 2  xy
dy

2
dx
x

dy
dx

Done

y
3  The DE is
x
N
y
f
x

homogeneous.
97.272956

v(10)

2x

dy
dx

x  y 3

dy
dx

1 y
3


2
2
x
2
 x

4/99
1

k
 t
mg
1  e m dt
k

y
zf
x

The DE is non-homogeneous

491 metres

dy
c x  y
dx
2

Note: when g = 9.8, s = 481 metres

1.1

v(t):=

Exercise 3F

0.5
t
909.8
v(t):=
1e 90
0.5
v(10)

50
(20  t )2

1
50
+c
Q=
(20 t )2
20 t

Q 0

50

e 2 ln 20  t

? Q t 50 20  t  2.5 20  t

Note: For g = 9.8, v = 95.3 ms1

v(t):=

20  t dt

? Q t

with k = 0.5 and m = 90


For g = 10, v = 97 ms-1

1.1

1
Q=
(20 t )2

3/99

3 a

Q
dQ
2Q
u 10

100  5t
dt
20  t

d
1

Q
dt 20  t 2

Done

nSolve(f1(x)=100000, x)

= 9.8 v = 88.2

1
dQ
2

Q
2
(20  t ) dt
(20  t )3

Exercise 3F

nSolve(f1(x)=1000000, x)
|

mg
,
k

54.7 year. So not in the rst

f1(x):=126000e0.04x125000

10 u 5 

I t

14.5 years.

x (t ) 1000000 t
50 years.

Since solution is owing out at 10l/m and the


ow rate in is 5 l/m the quantity of water in
the tank at any given instant will be 100-5t
dQ
dt

126000e0.04 t  125000

t of

Note: when g
4 a

5000 + 0.04 x = Ae0.04 t

lim

i.e., 90 ms-1 as k = 10

dt

1
ln |5000 + 0.04x | = t + c
0.04

k
 t
mg
1 e m
t of k

lim v t

dy
x
dx

x
dy

dx
x2  y

v(10)
10
v(t) dt
0

y
1
x
N
y
zf
x

Exercise 3F

0.5
t
9010
1e 90
0.5

1
x

The DE is non-homogeneous

Done

97.272956
490.86793

2 a

dy
dx

3 x 2  xy
dy

2
dx
x

y
3
x
N
y
f
x

As y
5/99

vx

dy
dx

vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

equation above,

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

21

WORKED SOLUTIONS
dv
dx

vx

3vx

dv
dx

Method 1:

3  2v which is

dv
2  3v
dx
dv
x
2  2v
dx
dx
1 dv

x
2 1 v
1
ln 1  v ln x  c
2

vx

variables separable DE
dv

dx
1
 ln 3  2v
x
2

3  2v
1
2

2y
x

dy
dx

x y

? ln 3 

3 a

2x

ln x  c
x
A
3  2
2
x

ln x  c or y

xy
dy

2x
dx

dy
dx

1 1 y

2 2 x

y
f
x

(homogeneous)

dy
vx
dx

As y

dv
v  x , substituting in the
dx

1 1
dv
 vx
2 2
dx

1 3
 v
2 2

dx
2
2
dv =
 ln 1  3v
x
3
1 3v

? (1  3v )

2
3

3y

Ax 1 

2
3

ln x  c

dv
dx

1
2x

(linear DE)

I (x )

3
ln x
2

3
2

y
or

by I(x),
3

? x 2v

dv
3 1
 x 2v
dx
2

3
1 12
d
x
x 2v
2
dx

1 32
x c v
3

3

1
 cx 2 y
3

4 a

1
2x

1 12
x
2
1

1
x  cx 2
3

dy
2x  3 y
dx
dy
dy 2 x + 3 y
dy
y
x
= 2x + 3 y
=

= 2 + 3
x
dx
dx
dx  x

y
f
x

with nal solution y = Ax3 x

2 dx
x

e ln x

2

1
x2

 x  cx 3
4x 2  y2
x2

x2

dy
dx

4x 2  y2

dy
dx

dy
dx

y
4  (homogeneous)

 x

y
f
x

Use two different methods to solve the following


differential equations
b

x3

dv
3
Multiplying both sides of

v
dx
2x

x2

2
2
1 dv
 3 .v
2
x3
x dx x
d v
2

2
dx x x 3
v
2
2 3 dx
x
x
v
1
2  2 c
x
x

Ax

1 1
dv
3

v
 v
2 2
dx
2x

3
dx
2x

Ax 3  x

Method 2:

vx

Ax 2

dv
2  3v
dx
dv
x
2  2v
dx
2
dv 2

 .v
dx x
x

(variable separable)

y
x

vx

Method 1:

dv
dx

1

Method 2:

equation above,

vx

ln Ax 2

ln 1  v

As y

vx

dy
dx

vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

equation above,
vx

dv
dx

4  v2 x

dv
dx

4  v  v2

(variable separable)
2

1
15

v  
2
4

4  v  v2

1
dv
4  v  v2

2
15

dx

1
2

1 15

v  
2
4

dv

dx
x

2 y 1
= ln| x |+ c
2
15 x

arctan

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

22

WORKED SOLUTIONS
dy
b (x  y )
dx
2

dy
xy
dx

xy
dy

dx
x 2  y2

y
x
2
y
1

 x

vx

As y

dy
dx

vx

dv
dx

v
dv
x
dx
1  v2

1 v2
dv
v3

1
2
2v

v
v
1  v2

 ln x  c

1 x

Ay

2 y2

x2

x (x 2  y2 )

x 3  2x 2 y  y3
2

x  2x y  y
x 3  xy 2

vx

dy
dx

vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

equation above,
1  2v  v 3
dv
x
2
dx
1v

dv
dx

1v
1  v2

(variable separable)

1 v2
dv
1 v

dx
2

v  1 
dv
x
1 v

1
v 2  v  2 ln v  1
2
1

2
? 1  v e 2

v 2 v

dx
x

ln x  c
2

Ax 1  e
x

dy
dy
xy
5 a x  y
dx
dx
y
dy
x
2
dx
y
1
x
2

x 2  xy  y 2
vx

dy
dx

dv
dx

vx

0
x 2  xy  y 2
x2

dy
dx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

1  v  v2 x

1
dv =
(1 v )2

y y

x x (homogeneous)
2
y
1

 x
y
f
x

vx

dv
dx

1  2v  v 2

(variable separable)

1 2

As y vx

dy
dx

0 or

equation above,

dy
dx

dy
dx

x2

As y

dy
dx

ln y  2  ln 2
2 y

 2  ln 2

1
 ln 2
8

?  ln ln x  2  ln 2
2 y
x

ln A vx
e 2v

ln 4  c c

ln x 

dx
x

ln x  c

1
1
 2  ln
2
2

1 x

Avx

1
dx 1
3  dv
v
x
v

1
 ln v
2v 2

?

ln v  ln x  c

1
2v 2

v3
1  v2

v
dv
x
dx
1  v2

1
 ln v
2v 2

v 4

dx

1
 2  ln v
2v

dv
dx

1 v2
dv
v3

equation above,
vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

vx

(variable separable)

dv
, substituting in the
dx

vx

dy
dx

equation above,

y
f
x

(homogeneous)

vx

As y

xy
2
x  y2

v 1

0c

1
v 1

ln x  1 v

?y

x ln x
ln x  1

x2

dy
dx

2x2

Ax

vx

ln x  c

1
ln x
ln x  1

x 2  xy  y 2

As y

dy
dx

vx

dy
dx

x 2  xy  y 2
x2

dv
, substituting in the
dx

equation above,
vx

y 2  2 xy

dx
1

x
1 v

dv
dx

1  v  v2 x

dv
dx

1  v2

(variable separable)

1+ v
v (1)

dv =

dx
arctan(v )
x

0c

? arctan(v )
y

? arctan
x

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

ln x  c

0
ln x
ln x
Calculus: Chapter 3

23

WORKED SOLUTIONS
6 a

Exercise 3G

1.1

y
6

dw
du

1  w and

1 v v

dw dv
dw

d
v
d
u
du
N

dv
du

8 6 4 2
2

? 2u

8 x

dv
du

1  v  u 2u

dw
du

w  u QED

4
6

2u

2 y2  x 2
3 xy

dy
dx

w u

dy
dx

vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

2u

dw
du

w u

equation above,
v+x

dv
2v 2 1
dv
v 2 1
=
x
=
dx
3v
dx
3v

dx
3
3v
dv =
 ln(v 2  1)
x
2
+1

2u

x2

t u

y
6

w u

q u

w u
dw

2u
du

dw
du

dw
du

ut

1w

 1
2 u

dt
, substituting in the
du

t u

2 0
1

t 1
dt
u
2
du

dt
du

dt

t 1

2
6

1
(linear)
2
N

t1
2

(variable separable)

dw 1
 w
du N
2u

equation above,

A
3

dw
du

As w

 ln x  c

y
?  1
x

1 w
 1 (homogeneous)
u

2

p u

(variable separable)

dw
du

w
f
u

vx

As y

dw
du

t 1

1 1
du ln t  1
2u

y 1
1
x2

w
1
u

A
u

1
 ln x  c
2

v 1
1
u

A
u

A
x 2  y 2  Ax  1 0 circles
x

7 (extension)
a

Exercise 3G

1.1

terms have different degrees nonhomogeneous DE

y
6
4

the equation contains term in y2


non-linear DE

to the form

dy
f ( y)
=
non-separable DE
dx
g(x )
1

y2 y

? 2 xy
?x

dv
dx

1  12 dv
v
2
dx

v 1

dv
du

8 x

4
6

8 (extension)
a

1 v  x 2

u  1; y

x  y2
dv

xy
du

dy
?
dx

1  v  x 2 QED

dy
dx

u v
dv

uv
du

v
u
v
1
u
1

(homogeneous)

x2 x

?x

dv
dx
dv
du

? 2u

dy dv

dv dx

2
1  y 2  x 2 x vN
v 2

dy
dx

dy
dx

dv
dx

v 2 and

8 6 4 2
2

it is not possible to re-arrange the equation

u 2 and

dv
dx

1  v  x 2 2u
1  v  u QED

dv du
dv

du dx
dx
dv
du

2x

dv
du

As v

ut

dv
du

t u

dt
, substituting in the
du

equation above,
1 v u
t u

dt
du

1 t
dt
u
1 t
du

1  2t  t 2
1 t

(variable separable)

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

24

WORKED SOLUTIONS

2t  2
dt
 2t  1

Investigation Eulers Number

1
u

 2 du
ln t 2  2t  1

e.g. approximations for h = 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001; the


approximation of e gets better

 2 ln u  c
2

A
y 1
y 1

+ 2
1
u2
x +1
x +1

t 2 + 2t 1 =

1.1

( x + 1)2

? ( y  1)2  2( y  1)( x  1)  ( x  1)2

B xn

C yn

=0+'n*0.1
7
6
0.6
8
7
0.7
9
8
0.8
10
9
0.9
11
10
1.
C11 =c10+0.1d10

Exercise 3G

1.2

An

D f

1.77156
1.94872
2.14359
2.35795
2.59374

1.77156
1.94872
2.14359
2.35795
2.59374

9 (extension)
a

v=

dv
 2v
dx

I (x )

2 dx

e 2 x

e
e

2 x

dv
 2e2 x v
dx

3
2

dv
v
dx

e

2 dx

1
2

=v

3
2

e2 x

dv
 2e2 x v
dx

1.2

1.3

B xn

1.1

An

d 2x
(e v )
dx

 2 by I(x)
 2e2 x

1.2

e v = e

? y2

2x

Exercise 3G
C ynExercise 3H
D f

2.70608
2.70879
2.7115
2.71421
2.71692

Exercise 3H

B xn

+ A v = 1 + Ae

C yn

=0+ 'n*0.1
7
6
0.6
8
7
0.7
9
8
0.8
10
9
0.9
11 10
1.
C11 =c10+0.1d10
1.1 1.2 1.3

2x

2.59927
2.62527
2.65152
2.67803
2.70481

and for h = 0.0001, y (1) = 2.7105461 and this is a


worse approx. of e

dv
 2v
dx

 2e2 x

D f

Exercise 3H

e2 x

Multiplying both sides of

B xn

=0+'n*0.001
997 996
0.996 2.70608
998 997
0.997 2.70879
999 998
0.998
2.7115
100 999
0.999 2.71421
1001 1000
1. 2.71692
C1001 =c1000+0.001d1000

dv
+ 2v = 2 (linear DE)
dx

I (x )

Exercise 3G

1.3

2 x

1
  c e2 x
2

1 dy
;
y = y3 v
y 2 dx

v=

1.1

d 2 x

(e v )
dx

1
 e2 x  c v
2

An

 1 by I(x)

2
1  Ae 2 x

?y

e

2 x

dv
 2v
dx

1.2

C yn
=0+ 'n*0.01
97
96
0.96 2.59927
98
97
0.97 2.62527
99
98
0.98 2.65152
100
99
0.99 2.67803
101 100
1. 2.70481
C101 =c100+0.01d100

 1 (linear DE)

Multiplying both sides of


2 x

1.1

1 dy
1 dv
2
1
;
+ 2 y = y2 2
+ = 2
y dx
v
v dx
v

2 x

1.77156
1.94872
2.14359
2.35795
2.59374

1.77156
1.94872
2.14359
2.35795
2.59374

Exercise 3H

y1_1

D f

Ae 2 x  1

0
8 6 4 2
2

4
6

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

y(1) = 2.59

Calculus: Chapter 3

25

WORKED SOLUTIONS
2 a, b and d

4 a

A xn B yn

2
8 6 4 2
2

8 x

1.2

B xn

C yn

D f

cos y = e x ( x + 1) + c (integrating RHS by parts)


y (2) = 1 c = cos1 3e2
y = arccos(e x ( x + 1) + cos1 3e2 )
y (3) = 1.2308...

6.11825
6.12637
6.13449
6.14263
6.15077

exact value is y = 1.23

y(1) = 4.1507... when h = 0.001


dy
dx

dy
y
dx

2x  y

I (x )

1dx

2 x (linear DE)

e x
dy
 y 2 x by I(x),
dx
d x

(e y ) 2 xe x
dx

dy
 e x y
dx

2 xe  x

 2( x  1)  c e x

y (0 )

1 c

?y

 2( x  1)  2e x and y(1)

Ax

C f

2 1.8
1.6
3 1.6
1.736
4 1.4 1.64526...
5 1.2 1.49588...
6 1. 1.33635...
B6 =b5+0.2c5

y( 1)
b

 4  2e

dy
y

2x
dx
1  x2

5
1  32

f (3)

A
1  x2

5
1  x2

? f (x )

0.5 ! 0.48.

So the approximation gives the correct


value to 1 d.p.
6 a

1.34

1.1

1.2

1.3

A xn B yn
1.1 1.2 1.3

0.42151...
0.38228...
0.34755...
0.31674...
0.28932...

1 A

y (2)

0.68
0.453696
0.74688...
0.79766...
0.78583...

 ln(1  x 2 )  c y

? ln y

Exercise 3H

B y

Cf

2 xy
(separable)
1  x2

dy
dx

The approximation gives the correct


answer to 3 s.f.
1.2

Exercise 3H

1.3

y = 0.48
b

?y

1.1

1.2

7 2.6 0.62902...
8 2.7 0.58687...
9 2.8 0.54864...
10 2.9 0.51389...
11 3. 0.48221...
B11 =b10+0.1c10

e x y = 2 xe x dx e x y = 2( x + 1)e x + c

3 a

1.1

A xn B yn

which is an exact DE

e.g. Graphical method not reliable to predict


values which are not close to initial value.

5 a

Multiplying both sides of


e x

dy
x
=
dx
sin y e x

sin ydy = xe x dx

Exercise 3H

1.3

=0+ 'n*0.0
997 996
0.996 4.12625
998 997
0.997 4.13237
999 998
0.998 4.13849
100 999
0.999 4.14463
1001 1000
1. 4.15077
C1001 =c1000+0.001d1000

y = 1.24

An

Cf

7 2.6 1.16285... 0.21037...


8 2.7 1.18389... 0.19593...
9 2.8 1.20349... 0.18243...
10 2.9 1.22173... 0.16980...
11 3. 1.23871... 0.15799...
B11 =b10+0.1c10

y1_1

1.1

Exercise 3H

1.1 1.2 1.3

Exercise 3H

1.1 1.2 1.3

Exercise 3H

Cf

Exercise 3H

y1_1
1
1

1
0.
1.
1.
2 0.25
1.25
1.5625
3 0.5 1.640625 2.69165...
4 0.75 2.31353... 5.35245...
5 ...
...
...
B4 =b3+0.25c3

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

26

WORKED SOLUTIONS
b

dy
dy
1
= y 2 2 = dx = x + c
dx
y
y

y =

1.1 1.2

1
x +c

( )

2/99

1.(3), y(0.5)

2 and y(0.75)

T(1) = 30.3

The error increased as the value of x increased.


d

7 a

( )

x
55
x + 20
+2tan1
0.16=In
+
20
15
x 20
30.258155

1
1 x

y(0.25)
c

Done

(( )

nSolve In

y (0) = 1 c = 1

?y

Exercise 3H

f1(x):=5.E6(x4204)

The rate of decrease of temperature of a body


is proportional to the fourth power of the
temperature of the body.

1.1

Exercise 3H

1.2

A xn B yn

Cf

1
0.
35.
2 0.25 33.3242...
3 0.5 31.9826...
4 0.75 30.8748...
5
1. 29.9389...
B5 =b4+0.25c4

decrease the step (e.g. for h = 0.1, T(1) = 30.1)


1.1

6.703125
5.36609...
4.43154...
3.74346...
3.21712...

8 a

1.1

1.2

1.3

y
1.0

yn

0.4

M
dT  4 M 3 k
2
T dt

M

0.2

Exercise 3H

1.3

C f

1
0.
0.
2 0.25
0.25
3 0.5 0.48485...
4 0.75 0.68103...
5
1. 0.83104...
B5 =b4+0.25c4

dT
= 4 k (T 4 M 4 ) QED
dt

4
T  20
T
t
 2 arctan 
T  20
20 25

1.2

A xn B yn

ln

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 x


xn

0.2 0
0.2

2 M
2 M dT
2
+ 2
4 M 3k = 0
2
2

+
T
M
M
T
d
t

1 dT

k
4
4
T  M dt

Exercise 3H

0.6

1.1

1.2

1.3

4
T  20
T
t
 2 arctan 
T  20
20 25

4
2
8

6
y1_1

11
7
 2 arctan
3
4
T

2 0
2

ln

T  20

1.
0.93941...
0.78472...
0.60003...
0.43559...

y
6

11
7
+ 2arctan
3
4

ln

Exercise 3H

1.4

T (0) = 35 c = ln

0.8

T +M
T
c ln
+ 2arctan
4 M 3 kt = c
T M
M

1
1


T  M T  M
1

Cf

8
0.7 31.2614... 3.975387
9
0.8 30.8639... 3.73707...
10 0.9 30.4902... 3.52129...
11
1. 30.1381... 3.32509...
12
B11 =b10+0.1c10

T(1) = 29.9

Exercise 3H

1.2

A xn B yn

1 ln
 2 arctan 
T  20
20 25
11
7
 2 arctan
3
4

ln

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

27

WORKED SOLUTIONS

Review exercise
dT
dt

1 a

dT

k (T  23)

ln T  23

(v 1)

dx
2

= ln x + c
x
v 1
2
v 
1
ln x  c

dv =

k dt

T  23

ekt  c

kt  c T  23

2
 1
ln
x

c

?y
Aekt  23

?T
T (0 )

90 A  23

T (10)

70 67e10 k  23

b i

k=

90 A

67

cos2 ( x )

38.7

? cos 2 ( x ) y

50 and A(10) = 47 k =

?t

112.02...

ln 2 t

ln 2
k

1 47
ln
10 50

y2  1

dy
2
y 1

dx
x

y
6 a

2x 2

dy
dx

ln x  c

x y
2
x
 2

vx

dy
dx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

dv
dx

dv
dx

1  v2
QED
2

dv
dx

1  v2
dv

2
dx

dx
x

the variables can be separated QED

3 S

4
8

f ( x , y ))

vx

dv
, substituting in the
dx

dv 3v 2 + 1
dv
v2 + 1
=
x
=
which is
dx
2v
dx
2v

2v
dv =
+1

y (1)

x dx ln(v
y

2A

+ 1) = ln x + c

A x 1
x

y
1
x

Ax

5x y

x 5 x  1, x t

1
5

Exercise 3H

1.1

y
5

1 (v  1)
2

dv
x
2
(v  1)2

2c

1 1  v2
 v

x 2

dy
dx

vx

? v2  1

f ( x , y ))

vx

1 S
 c
4
8

1
1
sin(2 x ) + x + c
4
2

variables separable DE

equation above,

vx

cos(2 x )  1
dx
2

3y2  x 2
(Note that f (O x , O y )
2
xy

dy
dx

v+x

x
tan ln
3

dy
dx

(Note that f (O x , O y )

vx

equation above,

f x,y

As y

( x )dx

1
3 S
1
tan( x )  x   sec2 ( x )
2
4
8
2

As y

ln x  ln(3) y

x 2  y2

cos2 ( x ) which is

f x,y

y (3) = 0 arctan(0) = ln(3) + c c = ln(3)

? arctan( y )

y
4

112 to 3 s.f.

dy
1
dx

? arctan( y )

cos2 ( x ) y =

A0

dy
 y2
3 x
dx

cos(2 x )  1
it follows that
2

cos2 ( x ) y

A0

1
1
A0 A0 e kt = A0 kt
2
2

cos

As cos2 ( x )

A=

4 a

dy
 2 cos( x )sin( x ) y
dx

A0 e  kt

?A

cos 2 ( x )

an exact DE

ln A = kt + c A = e kt + c

A0 ec

2 tan( x ) dx

 2 tan( x ) y
Multiplying both sides of
dx
by I(x),

dA
dA
= kA
= k dt
dt
A

A(0 )

I (x )

dy

70

1 47
ln
10 67

40 t

ii T (t )

 x

4
f1(x) = x 5 x 1

3
2

(1, 2)

1
1 0
1

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

5x

Calculus: Chapter 3

28

WORKED SOLUTIONS
7

( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 xy

dy
dy
x 2 + y2
=0
=
dx
dx
2 xy

Multiplying both sides of dy 


dx

dy
xy


d
x
x2

4
4x

(homogeneous DE)

dx

dx

equation above,
dv
v2 + 1
dv
3v 2 + 1
v+x
=v +
x
=
which is
dx
2v
dx
2v

? x 3  3 xy 2
8 a

dy
dx

a
,a
x3

1
4x

ec

dy
dx

cos( x ) ( y tan( x )  1)
dy
cos( x )
 sin( x ) y
dx

4  x2

2
4  x2

dx
x

2 arcsin  c
2
1
2

y (0 )

1 c

?y

2 4  x 2 arcsin 
4  x2
2
2

a, a ! 0 QED

y tan( x )  1 cos(x)

? I (x )

4x

a
y
3  1
x3
x

x ! 0 3v 2  1

1
1
 dx ln(3v 2  1) = ln x + c
x
3
2

which is an exact DE

variables separable DE

2v
3v 2  1 dv

4  x2

1
d
y

dx 4  x 2

2 by I(x),

As y = vx dy = v + x dv , substituting in the

xy
4  x2

2.117 (to 3 d.p.) (use GDC)

y(0 )

Exercise 3H

1.1 1.2

y
5

cos( x ) (exact DE)

2
2
1 x 4 x
4 f1(x) = 24 x sin 2 + 2
3

cos( x ) is an integrating factor.

()

dy
 sin( x ) y
dx

cos( x )

cos( x ) y
cos( x ) y
?y

?y
9 a

2c

1.1

1
2
3
4
5
C4

c
cos( x )
10 a

2
(or ? y
cos( x )

I (x )

11

2 is a linear DE

4  x 2 dx

Ae  D t

V (0 )

V0 A

 ln 4  x 2
2

7x

xy

V0 e D t

V0
V
1
V0 e t = 0 t = ln
3
3
3
ln 3
?t
D

dy
dx

1  y 2 is a variable separable DE

dy

1
4  x2

V0

V =

1 y
1

?V
?V

=c3+d30.2

lnV = T + c

B xn
C yn
Df
=0+0.2*n
0.
1
2.
0.2
1.4 1.92929
0.4
1.78586 1.81397
0.6
2.14865 1.64583

dy
xy

dx
4  x2

dV
dV
= V
= dt
dt
V

tan( x )  2 sec( x ))

Answer: 2.149
b

The graph is increasing for 0 < x < 0.6 which


explains why the approximate solution is greater
than the exact one.

Exercise 3H

1.2

0
1
2
3

cos( x ) dx

tan( x ) 

An

1 0
1

sin( x )  c

tan( x ) 

y (0 )

cos( x )

x dx 2 ln( y

 1)

ln x  c

y (2) = 0 c = ln
2

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

Calculus: Chapter 3

29

WORKED SOLUTIONS
1
ln( y 2  1)
2

ln x  ln
2

? x 2  4 y2

4 or

y2  1

x
2

x2  4
,D
2

]  f,  2[]2,  f[

y
4

1
(ln x + ln(4 x )) = kt + c
4

y = 0.5x

d2 y
dx 2

x2 4y2 = 4

5 4 3 2 1
1

5 x

2
3

12

kx = mv
k

dv
k x dx = m v dv
dx

x2
v2
=m +c
2
2

v (0 )

v0 m

k
v

v02
c
2
2
0

x
2

m
r

v
v
 m kx 2
2
2

m

v02
2

mv 2  mv02

k  mv02
m
1
a
b


x
x 4
4x  x 2

 b and 4b
1
4

a = , b =

dz
1
=
( x 2 lx ) QED
dx 125l 3

dy
dx

z
1
125l 3

y (0 )

kx 2  mv02
m

1
4x  x 2

0c

dx
dx
= kx (4 x )
= k dt
dt
4x x 2
(variable separable DE)

x4
lx 3
x

c


12
6
1500

0c

x4
lx 3
x

or


12
6
1500

?y

1
125l 3

x4
lx 3
l3x



6
12
12

lx 2
l3
d2 y
1 x3



2
12
dx 2
125l 3 3
1
=
( x 2 lx )
3
125l

dy
dx

y (l )

lx 2
1 x3
1



2 1500
125l 3 3

1
125l 3

1
4

dy
dx

?y

(a  b ) x  4 a
4x  x 2

1 3 x2
2lx


2
125l 3 3

dz
dx

? v (1)

13

1
( x 2  lx )
125l 3
1 x3
lx 2
1


3
2 1500
125l 3

Ae 4 kt , 0  x  4

? 4x  x 2
14 a

1 1
1

dx = k dt
4 x 4 x

1
125l 3

l4
l4
l4



6
12
12

24
1
4 u 23
43 u 2



3
6
12
125 u 4 12
maximum distance below [AB]

y(2)

Oxford University Press 2015: this may be reproduced for class use solely for the purchasers institute

1
;
1200

Calculus: Chapter 3

30