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This chapter deals with the review of related literature and studies, the
conceptual model of the study, the research hypothesis, and the definition of
terms used in the study.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
To intensify the knowledge and clarity the perception of the problems, a
number of books and periodicals were read to gather insights which were used
by the researcher in conceptualizing this study. Those which have been found
relevant are hereby presented.
Related Literature. The school canteen follows guidelines on operational
management set by the Department of Education Through DepEd Order No, 8, s.
2007, the Revised Implementing Guidelines and Management of school
canteens In Public Elementary and Secondary level. These guidelines are
hereby issued in order to rationalize the operation and management of school
canteens in the public elementary system and to ensure that the school canteens
shall help eliminate malnutrition among pupils/students and that the school
canteens shall serve as a laboratory for home economics retails trade in the
incidental teaching of health and nutrition. It shall provide hands-on-training for
pupils on planning, purchasing, handling and storage, preparation, serving and
sale of safe and nutritious meals. The school canteen guidelines shall serve as a
mechanism to support the departments response to the mandate of Article 2 of
Republic Act No. 6938 to create an atmosphere that is conducive to the growth


and development of cooperatives. Services should be the main consideration for

operating a school canteen. Profit shall only be secondary since the clientele is
composed of pupils who are dependent only on their meager allowance from
their parents. Reporting and accounting of the proceeds from the operation of a
school canteen shall be made by the parties concerned to emphasize
transparency and accountability. School canteens shall be of two types: (1)
school-managed canteens and (2) teachers cooperative-managed canteens.
Both shall adhere to professional management and sound business practices as
well as to safety and security measures.
Adunna (2013) discussed that along the line of canteen management is
the need for an improvement system to boost not only sales but also the
efficiency of its operations. In addition to providing with nutritious and affordable
foods, the canteen should be based on good management practices and be
financially self-sustaining. Experience shows that, with good management and
marketing practices, a canteen can provide healthy foods and also be financially
viable. The canteen is a small business. Like any business, it requires good
management practices to be efficient and successful. Effective canteen
management requires that: everyone involved knows its goals and objectives and
is familiar with its policies canteen staff and committee develop an
implementation plan to achieve policy goals day-to-day operational procedures
are structured and enforced staff are adequately trained and supervised staff
carry out efficient stock management, accounting and financial procedures staff


are familiar with and comply with relevant legal requirements regarding food
safety and occupational health and safety standards.
School canteens may operate under a variety of management structures,
depending on the individual characteristics and needs of the school. Most
canteens in schools are run under the direction of, and are accountable to, the
school council. Schools may decide to provide a food service to students in
several ways. A formal management agreement detailing the terms and
conditions of the management structure should be drawn up and signed by the
relevant management parties, which will usually be the school council and
principal, or the school council or principal and private contractor. Contracting a
canteen business is not as new but contains several procedures which need to
be taken seriously for a more effective means of negotiating an enterprise. The
following pointers should help you in selecting a good supplier. An ideal supplier:
is located locally has been recommended by other school canteens delivers
frequently, and will do so at a convenient and suitable time for the canteen
delivers stock in good condition, for example ice-cream which is always frozen
and fruit and vegetables which are always fresh delivers stock with the maximum
shelf life follows appropriate storage, handling and food safety requirements,
such as adequate refrigeration for chilled and frozen goods and shade and cover
for fresh produce uses adequate packaging and handling procedures to ensure
products are not damaged offers an adequate range of products communicates
well, keeping you informed of price changes, specials and product availability
offers competitive prices, as well as specials, discounts and incentives offers


taste-testing opportunities or free samples to trial provides free promotional

material in line with your healthy canteen policy, such as posters promoting
healthy food products offers incentives, such as equipment rewards offers
convenient and acceptable payment procedures, including method of payment
and settlement terms (Bensons, 2013).
Elementary schools in the rural areas with 500 pupils or less and those in
urban areas with 1000 pupils or less shall have only one canteen to be operated
and managed by the school under the general supervision of the school
head/principal. Where the enrolment size in rural elementary schools is more
than 500 pupils, the existing duly registered teachers cooperative that complies
with the criteria for qualification herein set forth, shall manage and operate the
school canteen, when there is no duly registered teachers cooperative that is
interested or qualified to operate and manage the same.
Chedeng ( 20012: 200 ) stated , people of all ages can learn about
nutritious food choices by observing the meals served to them each day.
An education program can teach the principles of basic nutrition through
foods served in daily meals that reflect excellence in meal planning and







in Head


programs, day care centers, or residential facilities can be introduced to a

wide variety of health foods through the menus and food preparation
activities planned as part of their daily educational activities.
Family members and caregivers should be involved in nutrition
education so they can encourage their child or adult relative to consume


an adequate and appropriate amount of food. Family members should

participate in nutrition counseling and education with the client, so they
understand the reasons why certain foods are selected, prepared, and







program. Family



caregivers especially need to understand the underlying principles for any

physician-prescribed MNT so

that they can serve appropriate meals and

snacks at home or bring appropriate food gifts when visiting their relative
in the health care or residential facility. Family members may also need
guidance in basic food safety to ensure the foods they bring in from
outside are safe for the resident to eat.
Nadhja ( 2013 : 21) discussed that the science of nutrition is the
study of how food nourishes the body. It encompasses the study of
nutrients and how they are handled by the body as well as the impact of
human behavior and environment on the process of nourishment. As such,
this discipline involves physiology, psychology, and socioeconomics. Nutrients










body for


health maintenance,


recovery from illness or injury. The metabolic processes involved in these

functions are complex.

Subsequently, most nutrients work better together

than they do alone. Also, nutrient needs change throughout the life cycle
in response to

changes in body size, activity, growth, development, and

state of health.

Some nutrients are considered essential because either

they are not synthesized in the body or are made in insufficient amounts.


Essential nutrients must be provided in the diet or through supplements.












tissue (such


as micronutrients.

Micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, are required in much smaller

amounts to regulate and control body processes.
Shimane( 2013 : 83 ) stated , during the preschool-age period, parents
and care givers still have a fair amount of control over a childs food
intake, and nutritional concerns focus on offering a proper selection and
amount of nutrients needed by the growing child. Children



age respond best to regular mealtimes. Three meals per day arent enough
for this age-group, and snacks are recommended as part of regular eating
pattern. Research indicates that snacks typically provide 20% of childrens
total caloric intake and therefore, can be a good way to provide protein,
calories, and nutrients to young children. At this age, its good to begin
involving children in meal-related activities, such as food selection and
preparation. School-age children are more independent of adults. Meeting
their nutritional needs must be must be balanced with their need for
decision making and peer acceptance. School-age children spend much of
their day at school, away from parents and, in many cases, are only
marginally supervised at lunchtime. In addition, theyre increasingly aware of
their peers behaviors and are exposed to different types of food and
eating behaviors. They begin to make their own choices about what to eat
at this age.


Ridon( 2013 : 45 ) , the rapid change in the eating habits of the

Filipino in fast food establishments particularly those in the urban centers
increases the risk of the segment of population to food-borne


due to unsanitary handling of preparation of food. The first strategy on

changing peoples behavior is best exemplified by the peoples use of food
safety practices such as: use of safe drinking water for drinking and
cooking, handwashing before cooking and eating, washing vegetables
properly during food preparation, and storing cooked food in the right
temperature. These simply ways of doing food safety practices will prevent
people from contracting infectious disease through ingesting contaminated
food and water. A uniform policy and practical programs to alleviate the
living conditions of the population is needed: 1. Food Establishments shall
be appraised as to the sanitary conditions. 2. Inspection/approval of all food
sources, containers, transport vehicles. 3. Compliance to Sanitary Permit
requirements for all Food establishment 4. Provision of updated Health
Certificate for food Handlers, cooks and cook helpers which include
monitoring as to presence of intestinal parasites (ascaris, amoeba, etc.)
and bacterial infection (typhoid, cholera, dysentery, salmonella infections
and others). 5. DOHs administrative Order no. 1 2006 requires all
laboratories to use Formalin Ether Concentration Technique (FECT) instead
of the direct fecal smear in the analysis of stools of food handlers. This
will enable laboratories are allowed to work in food establishments. In this
way, parasitism will be prevented from spreading through ingestion of


contaminated food and water. 6. Destruction or banning of food until for

human consumption. 7. Training of food handlers and operators on food
sanitation. Four Rights in Food Safety: These four rights on food safety
involve the chain in food processing from the source in the market until
the food reaches the table. They mainly encompass the following: Right
Source, Right Preparation, Right Cooking, and Right Storage.

( 2010 : 273 ) , in 2005, the Institute of Medicine

published a report called Preventing childhood Obesity: Health in the

Balance. Calling childhood obesity a critical public health threat, the report
recommends steps that federal state, and local governments should take
to make prevention of obesity in children and youth a national priority.




for advertising


marketing of foods and beverages to children and giving the Federal

Trade Commission authority and resources to monitor compliance. The
report notes that more


50 percent of television advertisements

directed at children promote foods and beverages such as candy, fast

food, snack foods, soft drinks, and sweetened breakfast cereals that are
high in calories and fat, low in fiber, and low in nutrient density. It also
recommends that governments should develop and implement nutritional
standards for all foods and beverages sold or served in schools. Food and
beverages companies have invaded schools with vending machines selling
unhealthy drinks and snacks, fast food in school cafeterias, and special


educational programs and materials accompanied by advertisements for fast

food and junk food.

( 2013 ) , only nutrient-rich foods such as root


noodles, rice and corn products in native preparation, fruits and vegetables
in season, and fortified food products labeled rich in protein, energy,
vitamins and minerals shall be sold in the school canteen. Beverages shall
include milk, shakes and juices prepared from fruits and vegetables in
The sales of carbonated drinks, sugar-based synthetic or artificially
flavored juices, junk foods and any food product that may bedetrimental to
the childs health and that do not bear the Sangkap Pinoy seal and/or did
not pass the BFAD approval is probihited.
Iodized salt shall be used, in controlled quantity, in the preparation
of cooked foods to ensure that iodine requirement of the clientele shall be
met and to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders. The use of monosodium
glutamate (vetsin) shall be regulated.
A reasonable mark-up price for all merchandise in the canteen shall
be allowed, provided that the selling retail price does not exceedthe
prevailing prices in the locality.
FNRI DOST ( 2013 ) , nutritional guidelines for Filipino revised and
organized by the (FNRI DOST) , an inter agency and multi disciplinary


technical working group. The new Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos was
approved by the National Nutrition Council during its October 31, 2012
meeting. The revision was in response to the changes in the nutrition
situation of the country as reported by the FNRIs survey results and in

of new nutrition

information and related

intervention to


malnutrition. The 2012 Nutritional guidelines for Filipinos includes ; 1.Eat a

variety of foods everyday to get the nutrients needed by the body. 2.
Breastfeed infants exclusively from birth up to six months, then give
appropriate complementary foods while continuing breastfeeding for two
years and beyond for optimum growth and development. 3. Attain normal
body weight through proper diet and moderate physical activity to maintain
good health and prevent obesity. 4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry, egg,
dried beans or nuts daily for growth and repair of body tissues.5. Eat
more vegetables and fruits everyday to get the essential vitamins, minerals
and fiber for regulation of body processes. 6. Limit intake of salty, fried,


sugar rich







Consume milk, milk products, and other calcium - rich foods, such as small
fish and shellfish, everyday for healthy bones and teeth. 8. Use iodized
salt to prevent Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 9. Consume safe foods and
water to prevent diarrhea and other food - and water borne diseases. 10.
Be physically active, make healthy food choices, manage stress, avoid
alcoholic beverages and do not smoke to help prevent lifestyle related
non-communicable diseases.




( Cooperative

promoting viability and growth of


Authority ) , towards

Cooperatives as instruments of equity,

social justice, and economic development, has tasked the agency for the
noble purpose as cited. Created under the Office of the President, the
Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) disseminates provisions concerns










cooperatives and the accounting, interest on share capital and patronage

refund, fines on unpaid subscribed share capital, merger and consolidation
of cooperatives guidelines for laboratory cooperative, common provisions,
To be organized and registered by at least fifteen (15) persons, a
Cooperative maybe set up for any or all of the following purposes: 1)
Encourage thrift and savings among the members; 2) Generate funds and
extends credit to the members for productive and provident purposes; 3)





and marketing;


Provides goods services and other requirements to the members; 5)

Develop expertise and skills among its members; 6) Acquire lands and
provide housing benefits for the members; 7) Insure against losses of the
members; 8) Promote and advance the economic, social and educational
status of the members; 9) Establish, own, lease or operate cooperative



and retail




agricultural and industrial processing enterprises, and public markets; 10)

Coordinate and facilitate the activities of Cooperatives; and 11) Undertake


any and all other activities for the affective and efficient implementation of
the provisions.

( 2009 )

Sanitation makes an important role in any food

service institution. The standards sanitation practice is important to be able

to attain a better health of the workers and most especially the costumers
because they are the reasons why we established food institution. And
because of that, the researches focus on this particular study and this will
give them a chance to be one of the leading foodservice institutions. In a










management as well as the costumers. A matter of facts, before you

operate a business you will secure first a sanitation permit from the city
hall. One

very important aspect institutional food


is food

sanitation and safety. However, its true importance is often not seen until
such time that the food establishment encounters legal problems resulting
to civil and provable criminal liabilities. Besides this, the non-observance of
proper sanitation and safety practices usually lead to other situations that
would hinder the success of food establishment. Poor hygiene in the
handling and preparation of food leads not only to products of poor quality
but also increases the cost of producing goods and services because they
lead to a lot of wastage and spoilage. More often than not, over
production and improper storage due to insufficient planning and lack of
knowledge increases the risks of food poisoning and inspection as well as
the higher cost not only due to spoilage but also due to higher storage


cost and repurchase cost. This situation is particularly for establishments










institutional food catering and production deals with handling of large

quantities of raw and cooked food ingredients, the contamination risk is
increased several folds, reiterating the need and importance of proper
sanitation in the production area. Such problems could actually be easily
avoided if the production area follows practices sanitation principles in food
In another book authored by Titcombe, (2010: 84) it was stated in the
authors observation that the canteen is a provider of much more than vending
machines. Aside from its

offer of vending solutions, its comprehensive

refreshment and dining services help clients turn the companys vending and
dining offerings from what can be a compromise for the sake of convenience, to
clients and employees first choice for food and beverages. For clients who need
more than traditional vending machines, canteens provide full-service vending
options with a greater, fresher selection than traditional machines. For clients
who require the next level in dining services, canteens offer Dining Solutions,
from food kiosks to full-service cafs and restaurants which give more
convenience to everyone. The Canteen provides customized foodservice
programs in-house or through one of concessionaire type, semi-outdoor set-up
whether for break room, office coffee service or pantry provisions and office
supplies selling scheme. Most vending machines are self-service but the canteen


gives clients a middle ground, offering full service vending with the convenience
and speed of traditional self-service machines.
Dunhill (2013: 209) explained that lunch rooms have provisions of
innovative snack and beverage vending machines, and also canteen which
offers micro-markets with an expanded product selection, more akin to a
convenience or grocery store as well as comprehensive dining solutions, like
meal service in university or business center dining halls. There are customize
vending services programs to fit the needs of virtually any workplace or multilocation company, serving businesses in professional, financial, retail, healthcare,
manufacturing, and education industries. Whether a company need a
comprehensive vending program, self-service food or beverage vending machine
which satisfies all business needs, canteens technicians and service
representatives should be regularly available to keep machines stocked and
maintained, bringing new meaning to full service vending. No one wants to
wrestle with an outdated machine for a stolen peso or a snack stuck in the
dispenser, but with a full service canteen, this will never have to happen. In an
industry that is always on, any company can count on canteens to go beyond the
vending machine to provide them with a full service vending experience.
Taylor (2012: 59) postulated that many organizations provide canteens as
an additional subsidized facility for their employees as a welfare measure. The
usage of the canteen by the employees depends on many factors like a
centralized food distribution center with swift and simple in operations. Canteens
design provides a user-friendly system that facilitates quick and efficient


operations to cover a larger section of employees within a specified time. There

are canteens that are even paperless and have almost cashless transactions.
This system is also appropriate in an environment where multiple caterers
operate in a closed environment or at multiple locations. Advantages cited are
the following: removal of the manual system of maintaining the coupons; instant
information at ones fingertips for immediate use; support for both prepaid and
postpaid methods of accounting; implementation of computerized management
in an organization where the employees have cards (any type of identification
cards) for unique identification; preset daily limits on the amount of usage of
canteen facility; use of coupons for transactions; reduction of wastage of food
items; advanced notification on the usage of the canteen facilities by the
employees on any particular day or shift; and freedom on the conduct of different
types of reports with respect to employee consumption and with respect to daily
sales by the canteen. The challenges include: in case of multiple locations,
required canteen consolidated utilization which is very tedious or almost
impossible in the case of a manual process; multiple items management;
effective inventory management; re-ordering of items to be managed in order to
restock at proper time; and subsidized food tracking.
According to Rigel (2012: 95), some innovations that can be added to the
canteen may be implemented. A new name for the canteen flags a new approach
to the canteen. The name, however doesnt have to be terribly flamboyant.
Simple names often work better. Simple tactics like incorporating the school
name and/or address/suburb into specials on offer could work. The use of some


fun words for products is also good. Reconsider how the product is wrapped and
presented product. Marketing the menu through be beautiful presentation in
wraps and rolls with a student (seek permission from parents first) and enlarge
these photos. These photos not only decorate the canteen but also work as
treats at promoting the item. Seek help from a parent who may be willing and
able to Photoshop and enhance the pictures.

Look at the presentation of the

canteen as if one were the customer, making sure that food looks appetizing and
appealing. Look at the display counter as if one is opening the fridge door looking
for a snack. Its the food that looks the best that grabs ones attention.

A fun

and effective way to draw attention to key food items is to tuck a novelty item in
with the display to attract the attention of the students. A silly spider or obvious
toy mouse, which changes location occasionally, makes the customer notice
items for sale.
Johannes (2013: 39) discussed that school canteens should provide
cheap, sanitary, nutritious food such as fresh milk, fresh fruits and fresh drinks,
boiled root crops, high calorie indigenous recipes and the like. Canteen
personnel handling food in the canteen should be required to undergo training for
food handlers, obtain a certificate of good health from the municipal health
department and observe hygiene. Operational practices that will be to the welfare
of the students, teachers and to the school as a whole as well as any violation of
the provision of the Memorandum of Agreement and the operational
management guidelines should be considered as grounds for the return of the
canteen operation to the school.


As explained by Janesburg (2013: 244), a canteen is a facility which

serves food in a cafeteria-style setting. The canteen is a place where food is
prepared and eaters are used to be served food in an institutional level.
Militaries, schools and offices may use the canteen to meet the food needs of
their workforces and students. A typical canteen is a facility in which diners walk
along a food line with trays which could be filled with various food items. Diners
then seat themselves, eat and bus their dishes and trays at the end of the meal.
Food service is not a high priority of canteens. The goal is to provide food which
meets nutritional recommendations and hopefully satisfies the taste of the diners.
The food is prepared in large batches, and the food handlers stay behind the
counter to dish out food, rather than walking around the dining room to bring
plates out. The canteen may also include self-service drink containers, fruit bowls
and so forth. Aside from remaining in a fixed location, a canteen can also be
mobile. Mobile canteens are used to provide quick food to disaster workers and
other temporary work crews who are deployed in active duty. Organizations that
use mobile canteens may run the canteen out of series of trailers, or have large
trucks packed with canteen equipment, tables and tents for shelter so that an
eating facility can be quickly built wherever it might be needed.
Canteen workers are those who prepare and serve short-order food items,
sell canteen merchandise, clean the service area, and perform other related
work. These positions involve standing for a six-hour shift and lifting objects to
counter height. These workers are the ones who were often assessed for a better
service and for better client relations. Most of the time, it is not the ambience that


is considered by clients but the services that workers are executing for the clients
(Dexter, 2012: 123)
As discussed by Sears (2009: 117), the college canteen is a service
provided by the college for the benefit of students and staff. The college canteen
sells food and drinks that are healthful, nutritional and tasty. It is a valid business
enterprise and is operated according to good, ethical business practices
committed to holistic education; therefore the whole life of every student is of
concern to the college canteen which includes students physical well-being as
much as their spiritual growth and intellectual development. All operations of the
college canteen reflect its values and vision. The canteen is an important part of
the schools life and as such, its management and operations need to also reflect
the colleges aims and mission. The canteen of the college must always consider
the different needs of the students and also the cultures where they came from.
Some students and even other non-student clients might not eat pork as their
religion and cultural values may dictate. Some might not eat fish that has no
scales and other might not eat beef. These are some of the considerations that,
no matter how good the services may be and how tasty and nutritious the foods
are, would make these foods unfit to the likes and choices of the students.
Ray (2011: 301) discussed the aim of the canteens in schools where they
provide a healthful variety of food and drinks, support classroom teaching of
nutrition and health, encourage the development of good eating habits, provide
friendly and prompt services encourage courtesy and consideration, operate as
an effective, efficient and profitable business enterprise consider the special


dietary needs of some students, and demonstrate high standards in food safety
and hygiene in relation to the preparation, storage and serving of food.
All the references cited are related to the present study since they all
discuss canteen management and considerations, including effective means of
implementation. The suggestions posted have been of great help to this research
as basis for the outcome of the study.
Related Studies. The study of DonJun (2013) emphasizes on the need
to effectively manage the canteen stocks that he made the observation and
recommendation that only one person in the canteen should be responsible for
ordering stock, which includes foods, drinks, packaging, utensils, first aid and
cleaning materials. Ideally this will be the canteen manager, or a person who
oversees most of the canteen and has the largest time involvement. Allocating
this responsibility to only one person is important as it prevents confusion and
overordering, maintains consistency and ensures maximum efficiency. Canteens
generally return higher profits when they restrict the number of suppliers and
range of stock. Restricting the number of suppliers can be beneficial as it allows
canteen staff to develop management rapport with a supplier. This can also result
in special services and treatment, such as discounts and better quality of service.
Minimizing the range of stock assists in reducing slow turnover items, which can
lead to spoilage. It will also allow you to use employees and volunteers with less
training given there are less products to work with. Both of these practices will
also result in more efficient ordering with fewer orders needing to be placed. It is
important to ensure that when minimizing the range of stock in a canteen the


range and variety of nutritious foods, such as fruit and vegetables, is not
reduced. Finally, never select food or drink products that fail to reflect nutrition
standards detailed in the canteen policy even if the supplier can offer a lucrative
deal, such as bargain prices or equipment rewards.
Bertland (2013) was able to come up in his study that the conclusion that
the canteen needs to ensure that all canteen money can be accurately tracked at
all times. Management of money involves: running off cash registers at the end of
each trading period during the day (if applicable) counting money and balancing
cash registers at the end of each day maintaining a standard float banking each
day and keeping minimal money in the canteen accurately recording payment of
all orders and invoices accurately recording all cheques accurately recording all
petty cash expenses. It is recommended that all stock should be paid for by
cheque or electronic transfer, with petty cash being used only for the purchase of
items of a minor or unexpected nature. Only a small petty cash float should be
kept. In order for a canteen to be financially viable, income from selling food
must either be equal to or greater than the expenses involved in running the
canteen. Accurate costing of foods plays a very important part in determining
income. A financially successful canteen also requires efficient management of
all canteen resources. The following section details why it is important to:
account for all canteen money account for all stock determine the cost price of
pre-packaged items and recipes determine the selling price of pre-packaged
items and recipes per serve.


Canteens role in feeding students are just roles as parents must do. The
average healthy 8-year-old weighing 30 kg (66 lb) requires about 1,750 ml
of fluid per day. Many school-age children have only one meal a day with
their family, at dinner. Mealtime should be a social time enjoyed by all,
and parents should retain from discussing a childs poor eating habits at
this time. Parents should be aware that children learn many of their food
habits by observing their parents. Eating a balance diet should be the
norm for both parent and child. Thus, canteen must serve foods which can
uplift the childs nutritional needs and benefit their overall being. (Camaya, 2013)
According to Garan (2013), the school-age child generally eats lunch
at school. The children may bring lunch from home or buy lunch at the
school. Many dietary problems stem


this independence



choices. The children may trade their food, not eat lunch at all, or buy
sweets or junk food with their lunch money. Parents should discuss with
the child the foods that they should eat and continue to provide a
balanced diet in the home setting. In this juncture, the presence of good food
at canteen services must be complied with specifically if the snacks brought in
from the childs lunch boxes are improperly prepared at home. The availability of
food choices which can make children at school be nutritionally good is a role
that can never be compromised.
As evidenced in the observation of Ching (2013) , nutrition continues to
be a high priority for growing children. School-age children require a
balanced diet including 2.400 Kcal per day. School-age children eat three


meals a day and one or two nutritious snacks. They need a protein-rich
food at breakfast to sustain the prolonged physical and mental effort
required at less by late morning and have decreased problem-solving
ability. Undernourished children become fatigued easily and face a greater
risk of infection, resulting in frequent absences from school. This risk in their
studies must be complemented by a better canteen ambiance and management
which would derail them if not properly executed. Innovations in canteens were
suggested including having potable water for free and nutritious foods in a
balanced form of diet must be served.
The study of Jamil (2013) focused on the assessment of the canteen in
San Pedro Relocation

Center National High School with regard to its

privatization in almost four years. The study was conducted to assess the
services and the benefits it can give to the school. Based on the study, the
canteen, which was concessional, was found to be effective in its service to
students and faculty. This was due to the fact that the concessionaires are
subject to further evaluation of the administration before their contract is to be
renewed. This has posted a healthy competition among the canteen
concessionaires in which they have to perform best by offering good food of
reasonable prices and offer good services as well. The study also brought to light
the fact that the monthly rentals are a good source of income for the school.
However, problems arise during times when delayed payment occurs, specifically
when vacation is upcoming. The concessionaires encounter payment problems
since, according to them, return of profit is very hard when students and teachers


are not willing to buy from the canteen and would instead go home early specially
during examination periods and near vacation periods. On the other hand,
enrollment period gives good opportunity for them as bulks of students and even
parents come to the canteen for refreshment and meals. Thus, it was suggested
that payment schemes should be more flexible during the time when sales are
low as a matter of new policy in canteen management.
Echiverri (2011) studied the management of the school canteen in the
Laguna State Polytechnic University campuses. Based on the findings of this
study, the following conclusion were drawn: (1) Majority of the canteens were
managed by private individuals and found out that all canteen facilities and
equipment were moderately adequate; (2) food procurement was supervised by
outside paid helpers; (3) canteen managers ensured that the food to be cooked
was washed thoroughly and prepared nutritiously; (4) majority of the canteens
were implementing self-service in food serving; and (5)

problems in the

operation of the canteen include lack of personnel, lack of time in food

preparation, source of water supply and pupils preference for junk foods instead
by nutritious one.
Conde (2013) made a study on canteen administration and operation in
five public elementary schools in the Santa Cruz district division of Laguna. The
descriptive method of research was used in this research with two sets of
questionnaire used to gather the perceptions of the respondents. The highest
rating was given by the canteen teachers for the strategic value of the buildings
location and the safety of the foods for sale, and for non-canteen teachers,


accessibility of the building to pupils and teachers. The lowest rating given were
noted in the following: time schedule for recess of intermediate grade pupils and
distribution of time allowance for recess, the quality and quantity of foods being
served. The highest rating on the other hands was on the perception of the
quality of fruits and vegetable for sale. All the respondents gave the highest
ratings to the drive to put up a normal-sized canteen room/building. On the
contrary, the lowest ratings were noted in terms of the ability to solicit assistance
from NGOs and GOs for canteen improvement and the ability to put up the
needed accessories in the canteen.
The conclusions made on this study were as follows: 1) canteens in public
elementary schools are properly managed and systematically run by the staff and
personnel involved, 2) teachers have different reactions on some policy
implementations particularly in class programming, food service operations and
teachers assignment. These conclusions led to the recommendations that the
school heads should prepare a workable and viable long range master plan on
canteen operations and personnel functions. Similarly, it is the suggested that
part of the canteens proceeds should also be used for other school projects.
Service assistance by government and non-government organizations should
also be tapped and finally, a wider and deeper study should be made in order to
validate and compare the findings of this study.
Salik (2013) conducted a research on the canteen management in
National high schools in the Victoria district division of Laguna, school year 20112012. The aim of the study was to make a system analysis of the canteen


management of the said school. The results revealed that efficient canteen
management is necessary in order to provide food of the lowest cost and highest
nutritious value. Common problems met in the management of the canteens
were as follows: 1) lack of space to accommodate the students; 2) helpers
chores were given to the teacher in charge of managing the canteen; 3) lack of a
full-time canteen manager; 4) the time allotted for cooking is very limited; 5) the
food being prepared is not enough for the consumers, and finally the buyers do
not have plenty of choices of food. Possible solutions were recommended to
lessen or totally eliminate the existing problems such as: 1) expansion of school
facilities; 2) addition of more tables and chairs, and cooking utensils, 3)
installation of a deep well and better water connection, 4) hiring of more helpers,
5) having dialogues with a co-signers to assess the quality and quantity of the
food services they render, and 6) finally, the canteen teachers should be free
from teaching loads to enable them to supervise the helpers in food preparation.
Canteen operations and management are considered to be two of the services
offered by the school, and others become part of the school administrations
tasks and part daily operations. In fact, most of these schools already have
handbooks on how to properly maintain and operate canteens. Canteen
management is also considered not just as a school function but also a full job
that needs formal training and that many schools.
In the study conducted by Yumol, et al (2010) presented during the 2010
research forum on annual agency in-house review proceedings in the KalingaApayao State College, it was found out that the canteen needs further


rehabilitation and assessment must be done periodically to help the management

improve its services. Thus, tools in the assessment of operation is proposed.
Focused group discussions were done so that stakeholders were involved in the
process of making the tool. The principals and canteen managers involve agreed
to use the assessment tools in their respective schools. The tool will help the
canteen staff to assess their performance to be able to maintain or improve their
services in terms of food serving, maintenance of canteen cleanliness and
manner of dealing with clients. It will also serve as guide to the manager in
deciding which meals must be served each day to satisfy the students need for
nutritious food. It was also identified that green leafy vegetables must be served
as regular meals. The study also revealed the following insights: 1) management
of the canteen must delegated to someone who is capable, qualified and honest,
person and 2) adequate facilities to maintain the good services are needed and
enhanced efficiency of the canteen worker sin doing their job must be given
The study of Sindaratana (2013) presented in the International Research
Forum of School Management in the University of Mumbai determined how well
the school canteen of Yudaras Wittayalai School In Mai was managed in
accordance with the regulations given by the canteen regulation board. Her study
involved 170 respondents from the lower and upper secondary education levels
and 130 teachers, Results showed that physically, the canteen was clean and
neat with appropriate settings; food quantity; dishes and utensils were clean; and
tables and chairs in the canteen were in good condition and maintained regularly.


The canteen billboard also helped students have knowledge of nutrition with
practical application. Nutrition information about meals prepared was posted on
the board, along with other similarly nutritious meals. Also, the canteen board,
detailing its regulation, showed the steps of canteen services. In addition, its time
frame, opening at 6:30am and closing at 4:00 pm, was established for the needs
of the students, serving breakfast for those who have early classes and late
snacks for those who will travel home.
In another related study, Wongkhum (2012) evaluated the Watweruwan
School Lunch program and presented the results to the Research Institute of
Donghua University. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the lunch
programs implemented by the school administrator during the academic year of
2011. Respondents included 296 students, parents and teachers. The study
evaluated whether the lunch program management aim of students having good
health with good hygienic habits and saving attitudes, was achieved and realized.
Evaluation results revealed conserving context, input processes, and product
indicated in the performance in all aspects. Details of the performance include:
1)students, parents, and teachers understand the aim of the program and
develop hygienic habits; 2) personnel budget and material are adequate, 3) on
duty teachers give or help hand out lunch; 4) clean food is served with proper
nutrition; 5) and students are requested to clean dishes and put dishes in place.
The study concluded that the lunch program was able to reach or achieve its
aims for the program, which is that students with good health and hygienic habits
knew how to save.


As cited by Herrera (2009) in her study, a specific school lunchroom must

be provided in every canteen for a more convenient stay for those who will eat
meals. This problem has sprouted when canteens in most schools in Metro
Manila offer services for food but the facilities available are only of long tables
two feet wide without chairs which the respondents found to be unsuitable to
eating heavy meals. These tables were built to save space and maximize its use
by making the clients a little inconvenient where they would immediately leave
after eating to give place to other customers. The idea of maximization of place
was primarily considered by the canteen managers instead of better service. The
study further recommends to put up a lunchroom where clients would only stay
for eating of heavy meals and not for chatting to allow other customers to use the
facility. The lunchroom is an open area with a roof and tables and chairs are only
good for two persons to further save space. The tables and chairs are movable
so that groups can be accommodated as well. The open space can also save
electricity consumption and would not encourage longer stay for customers,
except if they wanted to eat heavy meals. Another proposal is to have the
lunchroom divided where one half allows for staying for heavy meals while the
other part will be for quick eating only.
Bana (2013) conducted a study on the Canteen management of Ilocos Sur
Polytechnic State College.

The study tried to identify the strengths and

weaknesses in canteen management of the Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College

in terms of food preparation and costing, convenience of the place, capacity to
serve numerous expectations and profitability for the college. The study


proposed the professionalization of the canteen managers and employees by

training them on proper food handling and serving, and customer relation and
supervision. It was also proposed to establish a canteen management committee
which will serve as the arm of the school in the quality assurance of the services
of the canteen to its clients and also the transparency in its operation. The main
function of this committee is to supervise quality, quantity and cost of food and
beverages supplied by the canteen to the employees. The receipts and
expenditures will be reviewed by the members during the course of monthly
meetings and suggestions will be noted for improvement of the canteen. The
formal systems of participation will include five representatives from the
stakeholders and clients and another five from the administration.


The study of Babol (2011) presented in the 2011 Multidisciplinary

Research Forum in the University of Northern Philippines focused on the creation
of a strategic plan for the canteen of the Iloilo Polytechnic State College where
the main concern is privatization. The teachers and administration were found to
have bulks of work and that there were a few of them who are willing to take
charge of the canteen operations; thus, the need to privatize the canteen
operation is a must so that the school may be able to conform to the needs of the
students. Every school must provide provisions of services that include
availability of food stalls and lunch rooms where students can have their food to
eat which should be strategically located inside the school premises. However,
due to lack of training from the teachers and even from the administration
personnel considering as well the bulk of work in the school operations and
activities, it was found out that canteens must be taken care of by professionals
from the food and services business. The strategic plan includes the creation of a
committee to handle the overseeing and bidding of canteen concessions
including the assessment of it every year as a consideration in the renewal of the
contract. The committee will also be involved in the improvement mechanism that
the canteen needs for the benefit of the students and other clients.


In the study of Fernandez (2013), it was assessed that the canteen

concessionaires have good solid waste management practices to be able to
maintain the cleanliness of the lunchroom. Regular cleaning and disinfecting of
the utensils is done every end of the day. Trash bins with covering are located at
the four corners of the canteen color coded as biodegradable and nonbiodegradable. These trash bins are unloaded everyday and sprayed with
disinfecting chemicals to avoid bacteria that may cause foul odor due to spoiled
foods. Solid waste was removed daily by the local collectors to maintain
cleanliness within the school as a special arrangement between the canteen
concessionaires and the local collectors. On the other hand, it was
recommended that the wash area be set on one side of the canteen to allow the
clients to wash their hands before and after eating. It was also recommended
that the main trash bins be located in the back portion of the canteen instead on
the sideways so that it will not be an eyesore to clients.
The studies presented are all related to the present study as they all focus
on canteen management, cleanliness and maintenance. All of these are
also part of the topic of the research being conducted although the nature
of management is different, including the respondents and the location of
the study.


Conceptual Framework of the Study

Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual framework which serves as guide of the
study. Specifically, it shows the input, process and output.

__ Teachers
__ Canteen


School Data


and Retrieval
of the

Collection of
data on

treatment of

Analysis and
interpretation of
data and


Assessment of
status of the
school canteen
practices .

Difference between
perception of the
two groups of
respondents on the
school canteen
practices in
selected public
schools in
Marikina City
District II during
school year 2016

Comments and
suggestions of the




Figure 1. Conceptual Model of the Study

The first frame shows the input of the study: the respondents of the study
where the number of which shall be determined using the Slovins Formula and
shall be chosen by stratified random sampling in the four schools in district II of
the Division of Marikina City.
In the second frame, the process, includes the following: distribution,
administration and retrieval of the questionnaires, the statistical treatment of
data and the analysis and interpretation of the data and information gathered will
be the next process.
For the third frame as output, the following was included: Assessment of
status of the school canteen practices, significant difference between the
perception of the two groups of respondents on the school canteen management
practices in selected public elementary schools in Marikina City District II



2016 2017, comments and suggestions of the

respondents, and the proposed enhanced handbook.

Research Hypotheses


On the basis of the statement of the problem and the research framework,
the hypotheses that were used for this study are the following:

There is no significant difference between the perception of the two

groups of respondents on the status of the school canteen practices.

Definition of Terms
In order to arrive at a common understanding, the following terms used in
the study are hereby defined:
Academic. It refers to the performance of the students in all their classes
being assessed in their classroom skills and actions.
Assessment. It refers the observation of the pupils the teacher and
principal as means of evaluating the effectiveness of the canteen. It means how
the respondents feel about what they actually experience or see of the situation
of the school of the in the management of the activities, utilization of facilities
quality and quantity of food serve kind of service rendered to the consumers.
Canteen. Also known as cafeteria, a restaurant in which customers serve
themselves or are served at a counter and take the food to eat.
Canteen Management. In this research it includes the management of
the daily routine of the canteen. It is the administration of the direction of the
means and objectives of the school canteen which include operation food service
management physical facilities and canteen services,


Clientele. This refers to customers who eat or dine regularly, specifically

the persons served by the canteen.
Facilities. In this research it refers to the chairs tables tools utensils and
other cooking equipment use in food preparation and dining.
Food. This refers to the newly cook ready to eat meals beverages and
other items bought in the school canteen.
Hand washing. Is the act of


one's hands with or without

the use of water or another liquid, or with the use of soap, for the purpose
of removing soil, dirt, and/or microorganisms.
Meal Management. This means the efficient use of available resources in
providing meals that are nutritionally adequate, sanitary, economical and
aesthetically pleasing to the client.
Non-academic. It refers to the activity and performance of the students
during extra curricular actions which are basically non-academic in nature.
Nutrition . It is the intake of food, considered in relation to the
bodys dietary needs. Good nutrition an adequate, well balanced diet
combined with regular physical activity is a cornerstone of good health.
Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to







and reduced


Quality of food. This refers to the aspects of the food which describes or
characterize in terms of nutrition, palatability, variety appearance and the like.
Quality of service. This refers to the manner of service employed by the
cafeteria personnel reflecting the personality of the server.
School Canteen . This refers to one of the ancillary services in the
school system that sells food items to the pupils/students and serves as a
support mechanism in the effort to eliminate malnutrition concerns of the
school. It can be used as a laboratory canteen on food planning,
preparation, serving, storage, and selling. A school canteen can either be
school management or teachers cooperative managed.
School Managed Canteen . Refers to a school canteen that is
operated and managed by the school under the general supervision of the
school head/principal.
Teachers Cooperative Managed Canteen . Refers to the canteen
that is operated and managed by a duly registered teachers cooperative.
Micronutrients . A substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that

is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of

a living organism.
Growth and Development . Growth denotes increase in body
size; focus is on child's height and weight. It occurs as cells divide and
synthesize new proteins; change in body structure. Development


gradual growth and change from a lower to a more advance state of

complexity progressive increase in skill and capacity to function it
involves expansion of the child capacities through growth, maturation,
and progressive gains in function ability; change in body function.
Cafeteria . Is a type of food service location in which there is
little or no waiting staff table service, whether a restaurant or within an
institution such as a large office building or school; a school dining
location is also referred to as a dining hall or canteen.
Contamination . The introduction or occurrence of a contaminant
in food.
Environmental conditions . Conditions under which certain food
may be required to be stored including temperature, humidity, lighting
conditions and atmosphere.
Equipment . A machine, instrument, apparatus, utensil or
appliance, other than a single-use item, used or intended to be used in
or in connection with food handling and includes any equipment used
or intended to be used to clean food premises or equipment.
Food borne disease . A disease that is likely to be transmitted
through consumption of contaminated food.
Food business . A business, enterprise or activity that involves:
(a) the handling of food intended for sale; or (b) the sale of food;
Regardless of whether the business, enterprise or activity concerned is
of a commercial, charitable or community nature or whether it involves



the handling or sale of food on one occasion only.

Food handler . A person who directly engages in the handling of
food, or who handles surfaces likely to come into contact with food, for
a food business.
Food handling operation . Any activity involving the handling of
Cooperative . This refers to a duly registered association of
persons with a common bond of interest, who have voluntarily joined
together to achieve a lawful common social and economic ends in
accordance with universally accepted cooperative principle.
Teachers Cooperative . This refers to the duly registered
association of teachers voluntarily and willfully joined together to
attain lawful, social and economic goals with equitable contributions to
the required capital based on accepted cooperative law.