numpy

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numpy

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numpy.linalg.eig

numpy.linalg.eig(a) (http://github.com/numpy/numpy

/blob/v1.11.0/numpy/linalg/linalg.py#L1000-L1138)

Previous topic

[source]

Parameters:

a : (..., M, M) array

Matrices for which the eigenvalues and right

eigenvectors will be computed

Returns:

numpy.linalg.svd

(numpy.linalg.svd.html

Next topic

numpy.linalg.eigh

(numpy.linalg.eigh.html

w : (..., M) array

The eigenvalues, each repeated according to

its multiplicity. The eigenvalues are not

necessarily ordered. The resulting array will

be of complex type, unless the imaginary part

is zero in which case it will be cast to a real

type. When a is real the resulting eigenvalues

will be real (0 imaginary part) or occur in

conjugate pairs

v : (..., M, M) array

The normalized (unit length) eigenvectors,

such that the column v[:,i] is the

eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue

w[i].

Raises:

LinAlgError

If the eigenvalue computation does not

converge.

See also:

eigvals (numpy.linalg.eigvals.html#numpy.linalg.eigvals)

eigenvalues of a non-symmetric array.

eigh (numpy.linalg.eigh.html#numpy.linalg.eigh) eigenvalues

and eigenvectors of a symmetric or Hermitian (conjugate

symmetric) array.

eigvalsh (numpy.linalg.eigvalsh.html#numpy.linalg.eigvalsh)

eigenvalues of a symmetric or Hermitian (conjugate

symmetric) array.

Notes

New in version 1.8.0.

10/24/2016 10:03 AM

https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.linalg.eig.html

details.

This is implemented using the _geev LAPACK routines which compute

the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of general square arrays.

The number w is an eigenvalue of a if there exists a vector v such that

dot(a,v) = w * v. Thus, the arrays a, w, and v satisfy the

equations dot(a[:,:], v[:,i]) = w[i] * v[:,i] for

.

The array v of eigenvectors may not be of maximum rank, that is,

some of the columns may be linearly dependent, although round-off

error may obscure that fact. If the eigenvalues are all different, then

theoretically the eigenvectors are linearly independent. Likewise, the

(complex-valued) matrix of eigenvectors v is unitary if the matrix a is

normal, i.e., if dot(a, a.H) = dot(a.H, a), where a.H denotes

the conjugate transpose of a.

Finally, it is emphasized that v consists of the right (as in right-hand

side) eigenvectors of a. A vector y satisfying dot(y.T, a) = z *

y.T for some number z is called a left eigenvector of a, and, in

general, the left and right eigenvectors of a matrix are not necessarily

the (perhaps conjugate) transposes of each other.

References

G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 2nd Ed., Orlando, FL,

Academic Press, Inc., 1980, Various pp.

Examples

>>>

>>> w, v = LA.eig(np.diag((1, 2, 3)))

>>>

>>> w; v

array([ 1.,

2.,

3.])

array([[ 1.,

0.,

0.],

[ 0.,

1.,

0.],

[ 0.,

0.,

1.]])

Real matrix possessing complex e-values and e-vectors; note that the

e-values are complex conjugates of each other.

>>> w, v = LA.eig(np.array([[1, -1], [1, 1]]))

>>>

>>> w; v

array([ 1. + 1.j,

1. - 1.j])

array([[ 0.70710678+0.j

0.70710678+0.j

],

[ 0.00000000-0.70710678j,

0.00000000+0.707106

78j]])

2 of 3

10/24/2016 10:03 AM

https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/generated/numpy.linalg.eig.html

e-vectors); note that a.conj().T = a, i.e., a is Hermitian.

>>> a = np.array([[1, 1j], [-1j, 1]])

>>>

>>> w, v = LA.eig(a)

>>> w; v

array([

2.00000000e+00+0.j,

5.98651912e-36+0.j]) #

i.e., {2, 0}

array([[ 0.00000000+0.70710678j,

0.70710678+0.j

],

[ 0.70710678+0.j

0.00000000+0.707106

78j]])

>>> a = np.array([[1 + 1e-9, 0], [0, 1 - 1e-9]])

>>>

>>> w, v = LA.eig(a)

>>> w; v

array([ 1.,

array([[ 1.,

[ 0.,

3 of 3

1.])

0.],

1.]])

10/24/2016 10:03 AM

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