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GI'TH

THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITHYANKI AND GITHZERAI


A CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGE BY ANDREW ADEY
LIN312: INVENTED LANGUAGES: KLINGON AND BEYOND
FALL 2005

GI'TH
THE LANGUAGE OF THE GITHYANKI AND GITHZERAI
A CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGE BY ANDREW ADEY
ANY COMMENTS OR REMARKS PLEASE SEND TO:
POLITICALZOMBIE@HOTMAIL.COM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
MY GOAL......................................................................3
HISTORY OF THE RACES AND LANGUAGE............................4
ALPHABET......................................................................6
PHONETICS......................................................................7
PSIONIC ARTICULATION.....................................................9
PSIONIC FREQUENCIES.....................................................11
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX.............................................14
VOCABULARY.................................................................24
TOWER OF BABEL TRANSLATION....................................29
ORTHOGRAPHY................................................................37
NUMBERS.......................................................................46
THE CREATION OF GI'TH..................................................47
APPENDIX 1: PRESENTATION OUTLINE
APPENDIX 2: CLASS HANDOUT
APPENDIX 3: PROJECT ABSTRACT
APPENDIX 4: TRANSLATION DICTIONARY

MY GOAL
My goal for this project is to create a fully functional constructed language for the races
of the Githyanki and Githzerai from the Dungeons & Dragons role playing game. As an
enthusiastic gamer, I find unique races and cultures for fantasy worlds to be very interesting, and
enjoy creating a convincing world in which to game. The creation of a language to go along
with these fantasy races will provide just that, and more fully develop the fantasy world.
The language I plan to create will have a complete list of sounds that are used in the
language along with a description and the corresponding IPA symbol. The language will have its
morphology laid out and will have a systematic approach to it, which will make the language
both easier to learn as well as reduce potential problems with the language. It will also have a
syntax that will be structured and easy to comprehend. A vocabulary of at least 500 words will
also be made in order to make the language somewhat usable. The Tower of Babel text will also
be translated into the language in order to give a nice example of what the language looks like.
The language will also have a complete and functional orthography that will be able to
communicate the language effectively.
In order to accomplish this I will research aspects of numerous constructed languages and
actual languages as well as knowledge of linguistics in general to create my new language. I will
also use such sources as Langmaker.com for help as well as the aid of my LIN 312 instructor to
get other comparisons and opinions. For the orthography I will use my knowledge of known
orthographies as well as the knowledge of phonetics to make the orthography as logical as
possible.

HISTORY OF THE RACES AND LANGUAGE


The Gi'thtahnki' and Gi'thzehra'i', or in English/Common Githyanki and Githzerai, used
to be one single, unified race that was under the enslavement of the illithids, or mind flayers.
This enslavement continued for centuries, until one rebellious character, Gith, led them to
freedom. After the race had shed the control of the mind flayers, they split into the two factions:
Githyanki and Githzerai.
The Githyanki dwell on the Astral Plane on drifting citadels and often launch assaults on
the denizens of the Prime Material Plane. The mindset and attitude of the Githyanki is primarily
evil and full of malignant intent and hatred for any other race. The Githyanki's primary enemies
however are the Githzerai and the Illithids. The Githyanki's main focus is to achieve vast power
through their psionic and arcane abilities.
While the Githyanki are inherently evil, the Githzerai on the other hand are a more
neutral race, and care less about good and evil, or law and order. The Githzerai reside on the
Plane of Limbo on floating cloud monasteries and spend most of their life searching for inner
power and enlightenment. While both the Githyanki and Githzerai know that they are superior to
those of the Prime Material Plane, the Githzerai spend little time caring about such
insignificances as opposed to destroying them.
When it comes to language, both races speak in the same tongue. The language has
evolved since the beginning of the race and has stuck with the Gith since. Even though the races
are separate the language remains primarily similar, the only major difference being that the
Githzerai prefer not to speak period, and when they do it is often choppy and short. Githyanki
however speak to the point, yet use full sentences. Also, the Githyanki have have more social
rules of conversation, and a class system that the Githzerai do not have. Both races however

often use telepathy to talk to those of their same race, however in the Githyanki society, it is
often rude to telepathically link in public and it is used only when necessary or in a private
location. The Githzerai simply do not care for communication period, telepathy or spoken, and
use each equally without any social etiquette attached.
Gi'th has evolved over the ages from what it was and two major types of speech have
developed. One is formal and one is common or informal. When formal is spoken every word
and morpheme is included, whereas in common, less important words are left out. In society, the
Githzerai rarely ever use formal, preferring the abbreviated form to cut down on speech while the
Githyanki use the formal form whenever important issues are discussed, such as legal issues, or
often when talking to elders. A third form of speech is ancient, which is similar to formal with a
few differences, however it is nearly extinct and will not be discussed much.

ALPHABET
The sounds that Gi'th is based off of are different than in English. The core alphabet has
35 letters, each with a unique sound, along with a glottal stop, and a special squeal-like sound.
Extra psionic sounds include the prepositional phrase, object and subject phrase background hum
frequencies.
Vowels:
Voiced: i' e' a' o' u'
Unvoiced: ih eh ah oh uh ( )*
Consonants:
Unvoiced: kh s p t f sh ch th k
Voiced: g z b d v dh zh
Accented: Q TS ( )*
Other: m n (nasals)
xrlwyY
Psionic Background Hum:
indicate a prepositional phrase and a continuation in the hum
( ) - indicate the subject phrase and an increase in the frequency of the hum
{ } - indicate the object phrase and a decrease in the frequency of the hum
Other:
' - indicates a glottal stop ( )*
[squeal] - indicates a squeal like sound
*These are psionically accented by specific frequencies depending on formality, class,
and meaning.
This renders a total alphabet of:
i'

e'

a'

o'

u'

ih

eh

ah

oh

uh

kh

Q/K

TS

sh

ch

th

zh

dh

PHONETICS
(Gray voiced, white unvoiced, yellow accented)
Vowels:
(Examples from Language Files: Ninth Edition
Symbol

IPA

Examples / Description

i'

[i]

Beat, we, believe, people, money cut short with glottal stop

ih

[i]

Voiceless equivalent of i' with no glottal stop

e'

[e]

Bait, reign, great, they, gauge cut short with glottal stop

eh

[e]

Voiceless equivalent of e' with no glottal stop

a'

[a]

Pot, father, sergeant, honor, hospital cut short with glottal stop

ah

[a]

Voiceless equivalent of a' with no glottal stop

o'

[o]

Boat, beau, grow, though, over cut short with glottal stop

oh

[o]

Voiceless equivalent of o' with no glottal stop

u'

[u]

Boot, who, through cut short with glottal stop

uh

[u]

Voiceless equivalent of u' with no glottal stop

Symbol

IPA

Examples / Description

[p]

Pit, tip, spit, hiccough, appear

[b]

Ball, globe, amble, brick, bubble

[m]

Moose, lamb, smack, amnesty, ample

[w]

With, swim, twilight

[f]

Foot, laugh, philosophy, coffee, carafe

[v]

Vest, dove, gravel, anvil, average

th

[]

Through, wrath, thistle, ether, teeth

dh

[]

The, their, mother, either

[t]

tag, pat, stick, pterodactyl, stuffed

[d]

Dip, card, drop, loved, batted

[s]

Soap, psychology, packs, descent, peace

[z]

Zip, roads, kisses, xerox, design

TS

[ts]

Similar to: cats, except more forced (German z)

[n]

Nap, design, snow, know, mnemonic

Consonants:

Symbol

IPA

Examples / Description

[l]

Leaf, Lloyd, love, late

[ ]

Reef, fear, Harris, prune, carp

sh

[]

Shy, mission, nation, glacial, sure

zh

[]

Measure, vision, casualty, decision

ch

[t]

Choke, match, feature, constituent

[j]

You, beautiful, feud, use, yell

[q]

Similar to: kit, scoot, or character

[q]

Same as Q but without the psionic articulation

[g]

Guard, bag, longer, designate, Pittsburgh

kh

[x]

Voiceless velar fricative

[]

Voiced velar fricative

[]

Voiceless pharyngeal fricative, there is a voiced equivalent in ancient


tongues, but has long since been phased out of the phonetics of the
language

'

[]

Glottal stop. Before each of the vowel sounds in uh-oh. Primarily used
after the voiced vowels used to cut them short.

[squeal]

N/A

This is a sound that cannot be imitated by a human. It is not however


used in any words and serves only as a sound of alarm, distress, extreme
anger, or any other powerful emotion. When this is spoken the
individual's vocal chords tense up and emit a high pitched squeal
accompanied by a psionic equivalent. To any non-psionic being this
sound causes extreme discomfort.

PSIONIC ARTICULATION
While this is the best representation of the sounds when relating it to English, many of the
sounds are unable to be spoken by anyone of non-psionic ability. The main area where this
applies is in the voiced and unvoiced vowels. To a psionic being, the voiceless vowels are
actually mentally voiced by a certain wavelength of psionic energy. This principle also applies
to the voiced vowels with a glottal stop. The vowel is voiced then cut short by a glottal stop as
well as a small force of psionic energy which is also used when pronouncing the accented
sounds of TS and Q. Though it is impossible for any non-psionic being to talk correctly in
Gi'th, it is possible to speak it to an understandable level. Furthermore, any non-psionic being
that is being spoken to by a psionic being in this tongue will get a nasty headache quite quickly.
This is intensified when the race voices the [squeal] sound which is both a physically and
psionically voiced squeal that is projected in times of great emotion. This sound however is
not a sound which can be spoken on demand, the Githyanki or Githzerai must be in emotional
turmoil of some kind to be in the state where it can be produced. The Githyanki see the sound as
fine to utter in such times, however the Githzerai usually hold it in and prefer not to let it out
unless it slips due to extremely emotional experiences.
The concepts involved with psionically articulating certain sounds are also involved in
certain morphological and cultural aspects of Gi'th. On the morphological level, the voiceless
vowel that is used when applying degree to an adjective or adverb has its own specific pitch.
This pitch is always used no matter what the situation and is written as the vowel with a
superscript. Other applications of psionic articulation are in the cultures of the races. The
Githzerai always use the standard pitch for the voiceless vowels, glottal stops, Q/K, and TS
which are written normally, though the degree voiceless vowels retain their unique pitch denoted

by the . The Githyanki however have a class system that uses varying degrees when talking
to superiors and inferiors. Whenever formal speech is used when talking to a superior, the
psionically emphasized sounds are denoted with a superscript, though the is still used
on the degree vowels. Sometimes this superior psionic frequency is used in common speech
when speaking very highly of someone or something. Lastly, a third frequency is used when
talking to an inferior in formal speech and the superscript is used. Similar to the superior
psionic frequency, this has evolved its way into common speech and is often used when talking
about someone or something in a very unfavorable or demeaning way.
The Githyanki's superior and inferior modes of mental articulation in the formal speech is
taken very seriously and if the common form of articulation is used when talking to a superior,
there are severe consequences. The common articulation is only used in formal speech when
those talking are socially equal, or if a superior is praising an inferior.
The psionic voicing is also important to the syntax of the language. During the voicing of
any word a background hum is emitted. This hum is continuous through an entire word and also
continues through multiple words if a prepositional phrase is used to modify a word. These
phrases are denoted by the symbol that comes at the beginning and end of the phrase. In
actual orthography it is denoted by the way the vowel line of the word trails off, which will be
elaborated on in the orthography section. When referring to the subject and object phrases,
parenthesis and curved brackets are used which marks the phrase. These markers are simply an
increase in the background hum frequency for the subject and a decrease for the object. These
concepts are elaborated on in the morphology and syntax section, and visually represented in the
psionics section.

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PSIONIC FREQUENCIES
The psionic voicing of certain sounds and the variations involved with the tenses as well
as the subject and object phrases, adds a whole additional level to the language. In order to
represent the psionic frequency patters of the voicing, a 0 to 1 scale has been set up to give a
visual approximate as to what is going on. The 0 to 1 numerical values assigned to the
frequencies are completely arbitrary and are just used as a rough representation.
The subject and object phrase frequencies are a background hum that goes on during the
entire voicing of the word or phrase. From this frequency the actual psionically voiced sounds
are built off of when the subject or object phrase is spoken. When an object or subject phrase is
not spoken however, the base line is roughly 0.5.

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The voiceless vowels of Gi'th (ih, eh, ah, uh, oh) are voiced psionically by a rounded
increase in the frequency. When one of these vowels is encountered, a rounded increase of 0.15
occurs in informal speech, 0.35 increase in formal superior speech, and 0.1 increase in formal
inferior speech. The degree marking vowels are the same as the regular vowels however there is
a sharp drop back to the base line after the increase. Whenever these occur in a subject or object
phrase, the variation goes from the frequency of the phrase rather than the standard 0.5 base line.

Glottal stops in Gi'th also have a psionic voicing that follows the same trend as the
voiceless vowel frequency pattern, however in the middle of the hump is a brief stop in the
psionic voicing. The variations in the frequencies also are dependent on the base line frequency
of either the standard, the subject, or the object phrase frequencies.

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The TS and Q sounds have the same psionic voicing pattern as the voiceless vowels
except the curve is more of a sharp peak. These frequencies are also effected by the subject and
object phrases by determining the base line frequency.

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MORPHOLOGY & SYNTAX


Standard Verbs:
Basic:
For the most part Gi'th is an agglutinating language. Non-infinitive verbs in Gi'th are always
conjugated with a prefix that indicates the subject, then the root of the verb. (except in the case of
special verbs that will be touched on later)
Examples: Qi'ti'th I go: Qi' (I, present) ti'th (go), or Qu'TSkhuhy He/She/It kill:
Qu' (He/She/It, present) TSkhuhy (kill)
Conjugation Morphemes:
The conjugation of verbs is done by a specific conjugation prefix, except in the case of to be
where the prefix is actually used as a suffix. The set of morphemes is as follows:
Present: Qi' I form
Qa' You
Qu' He/She
Qe' Us/We
Qo' Them
Qi'me' Everyone
Qu'me' No one
Qu'y It
Qo'y - Them (non
sentient)
Qi'me'y
Everything
Qu'me'y
Nothing

Past:

Qi'n I form
Qa'n You
Qu'n He/She
Qe'n Us/We
Qo'n Them
Qi'me'n
Everyone
Qu'me'n No one

Future: Qi'i' I form


Qa'a' You
Qu'u' He/She
Qe'e' Us/We
Qo'o' Them
Qi'me'e'
Everyone
Qu'me'e' No one

Qu'yn It
Qo'yn Them
(non sentient)
Qi'me'yn
Everything
Qu'me'yn
Nothing

Qu'yu'y It
Qo'yo'y Them
(non sentient)
Qi'me'ye'y
Everything
Qu'me'ye'y
Nothing

The present tense morpheme is used in every tense, though the past and future have an extra
morpheme added on. Past being n and future being the repeated vowel.
Examples: Qo'ti'th They go: Qo' (they, present) ti'th (go), Qu'nti'th he/she
went: Qu' (he/she) n (past) ti'th (go), or WihQe'e'ti'thi'thyu'm /
WihQe'e'ti'thi'th zhi'dh'yu'm we will be going to it: Wih (to be) Qe' (we) e'
(future) ti'th (go) i'th (gerund) [zhi'dh' (to)] yu'm (it)
Note: When a morpheme starting with n follows a past tense conjugation morpheme, a
glottal stop, ' , is added in between the two in order to differentiate between the
morphemes.
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Adverbs:
After the root comes the root for an adverb, if there is one, followed by the adverb ending of a'.
Examples: Qi'gmi'nahkhwi'ya' I cook best: Qi' (I, present) gmi'nahkh (cook) wi'y
(best) a' (adverb) or Qe'TSkhuhyze'fuhya' We kill mindlessly: Qe' (we,
present) TSkhuhy (kill) ze'fuhy (mindless) a' (adverb)
Direction:
When using a pronoun to direct the verb, it is simply tagged on after the verb root and the adverb
root.
Examples: Qi'du'suhma'm I hate you: Qi' (I, present) du'suhm (hate) a'm (you),
or similarly Qi'vahlte'la'm I hear you well: Qi' (I, present) vahl (hear) te'l
(good) a'm (you), or Qi'vahli'm I hear myself: Qi' (I, present) vahl (hear)
i'm (me)
When using a pronoun as the subject and it is not one of the conjugation morphemes detailed
below, the pronoun is simply tagged onto the very beginning of the word.
Example: no'mQu'ythri'dh That runs: no'm (that) Qu'y (it, present) thri'dh (run)
Prepositions:
When prepositions are used in a sentence it is an attachment to the object it is applying to,
however in less formal speech in Gi'th, the preposition is dropped altogether and the object is
attached to the end of the verb.
Examples: Qi'thra'dh {zhi'dh'a'm}* I walk to you (formal): Qi' (I, present)
thra'dh (walk) | zhi'dh' (to) a'm (you) OR Qi'thra'dha'm I walk to you
(informal / common) literally means I walk you: Qi' (I, present) thra'dh
(walk) a'm (you)
* The brackets and parenthesis function is described at the end of this secion.
Infinitives:
When dealing with infinitives in Gi'th, the conjugation prefix is not used and the root of the verb
starts it then followed by the infinitive ending of i'z
Examples: TSkhehyi'z to heal: TSkhehy (heal) i'z (infinitive), or vohli'z to
smell: vohl (smell) i'z (infinitive)
If the infinitive has an adverb modifying it, or it is directed, the same rules apply as when the
verb is conjugated with the exception that the i'z is always attached to the root of the infinitive.
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Examples: vahli'z to hear: vahl (hear) i'z (infinitive), or vahli'zte'la' to hear


well: vahl (hear) i'z (infinitive) te'l (good) a' (adverb), or lastly
vahli'zte'la'm to hear you well: vahl (hear) i'z (infinitive) te'l (good) a'm
(you)
Reversing Meaning:
To reverse the meaning of a word, the ti'y- prefix can be added. This prefix always comes
directly before the root of the word it is modifying.
Examples: WihQi'ti'yze'fohya' I am not dumb: Wih (to be, discussed later) Qi' (I,
present) ti'y (reversal / not) ze'fohy (dumb) a' (adverb), or
Qa'nti'yga'xihmyu'm You did not create it: Qa' (you) n (past) ti'y
(reversal / not) ga'xihm (build / create) yu'm (it)

Special Verbs:
To be or not to be:
Now for the exceptions. The major special verb is the to be verb. The big difference with the
to be verb is that the root Wih- is placed in front of the conjuagtion morpheme. (Note: The
W in the morpheme is always capitalized even though it is pronounced the same as w
because the morpheme has its own special symbol in the orthography of Gi'th) The not to be
verb of Wuh- follows the same rules.
Examples: WihQi' I am: Wih (to be) Qi' (I, present), or WihQa'a' you will be:
Wih (to be) Qa' (you) a' (future)
After the conjugation morpheme, the noun, adjective, or gerund is attached followed by the
corresponding endings of i'n for a noun a' for an adjective and i'th for a gerund.
Examples: WihQi'du'mehli'n I am (a) human (the a is optional, it can mean
the same phrase with or without it): Wih (to be) Qi' (I, present) du'mehl
(human) i'n (noun), or WihQa're'va' you are evil: Wah (to be) Qa' (you,
present) re'v (evil) a' (adjective), or in the case of a gerund
WihQe'ro'ndhi'th we are packing: Wih (to be) Qe' (us, present) ro'ndh
(pack) i'th (gerund)
WuhQe'nTSkhuhya'ni'n We were not killers: Wuh (not be) Qe' (we) n
(past) TSkhuhy (kill) a'n (noun embodying) i'n (plural)
Note: When the word because is considered, the translation is the reason is,
breaking down into [reason]+[N] | [to be]+[it-present], in formal, and in informal it
agglutinates and the noun morpheme on reason is dropped giving: [reason]+[to be]+[itpresent].

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To be able or not able:


If someone or something is capable of doing the verb, a special prefix, Weh- is added
before the conjugation prefix. If someone or something is not capable of the action then
the Woh- prefix is added. Note that whenever an infinitive proceeds the conjugation, the
final -i'z ending is not needed.
Example: WehQi'thri'dh I am able to run: Weh (to be able) Qi' (I, present)
thri'dh (run), or WohQe'ti'th We are not able to go: Woh (to not be able)
Qe' (we, present) ti'th (go)
To have to do or not do:
The to have to do and have to not do verbs are also special prefixes. These are
represented by di'- for have to do, and du'- for have to not do. These prefixes are then
followed by the conjugation and whatever it is that is being referred to. Note that similar
to the to be / not be able prefix, whenever an infinitive proceeds the conjugation, the
final -i'z ending is not needed.
Example: di'Qi'i'TSkhuhya'm I will have to kill you: di' (have to) Qi' (I) i' (future)
TSkhuhy (kill) a'm (you), or du'Qi'TSkhuhy ne'dh'Ye'thi'n I have to not
kill for fun: du' (to have to not) Qi' (I, present) TSkhuhy (kill) | ne'dh' (for
(a cause)) Ye'th (fun) i'n (noun)
Should or Shouldn't:
Similar to the able prefix, should and shouldn't prefixes also fall in the special case.
If someone or something should enact the verb the de'- prefix is added, and if someone
or something shouldn't enact the verb the do'- prefix is added.
Example: de'Qa'du'suhm {du'mehli'ni'n} You should hate humans: de' (should)
Qa' (you, present) du'suhm (hate) | du'mehl (human) i'n (noun) i'n (plural),
do'Qe'nsi'kehshyu'm We should not have used it: do' (should not) Qe'
(we) n (past) si'Kehsh (use) yu'm (it)
Adjectives and Adverbs:
To add adjectives or adverbs to a word with a prefix verb, the root of it is added at the end,
however the noun, gerund, or adjective ending is still used at the very end of the word.
Examples: WihQi'du'mehlre'vi'n I am an evil human: Wih (to be) Qi' (I, present)
du'mehl (human) re'v (evil) i'n (noun), or de'Qi'TSkhuhydu'sihma'm I
should lovingly kill you: de' (should) Qi' (I, present) TSkhuhy (kill) du'sihm
(love) a'm (you)

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Direction:
Similarly, if it is directed to an object then the object is attached at the very end in the same way
that it is with verbs that are not to be however the pronoun is at the very end after the noun,
adverb, or gerund ending.
Examples: WihQi'TSkhuhyi'tho'm I am killing them: Wih (to be) Qi' (I, present)
TSkhuhy (kill) i'th (gerund) o'm (them), or to add on an adverb as well
WihQi'TSkhuhydu'suhmi'tho'm I am hatefully killing them: Wih (to be)
Qi' (I, present) TSkhuhy (kill) du'suhm (hate) i'th (gerund) o'm (them)
Infinitives and Gerunds:
To use the infinitive form of any of the special prefix verbs, the prefix followed by -Qi'z
is used. Similarly the gerund form uses the -Qi'th suffix.
Examples: WihQi'z to be: Wih (to be) Qi'z (infinitive), de'Qi'th should be
doing: de' (should do) Qi'th (gerund)

Commands:
A command in Gi'th is structured by the verb conjugated to who/what ever is being
commanded with the pronoun of who/what ever is making the command then a glottal stop
( ' ) before the conjugation prefix. At the end of the word an -e' is attached. In
informal speech the prefix is dropped for the most part, though if it is anyone other than
I making the command it is usually included. If a subject pronoun us used, the pronoun
comes before the -e' ending.
Examples: Qa'zohkhe' die (I command that you die): Qa' (you, present) zohkh
(die) e' (command), e'm'Qi'me'e'zohkhYu'the' We command that everyone
will die extremely non-pleasurably: e'm' (we) Qi'm (everyone) e' (future)
zohkh (die) Yu'th (extremely not pleasurable) e' (command), or
Qa'TSkhuhya'me' Kill yourself (I command that you kill yourself): Qa'
(you, present) TSkhuhy (kill) a'm (you) e' (command)

Pronouns:
Basics:
The object in the sentence, often being a prepositional phrase, is frequently dropped and the
pronoun for the direction is added onto the verb as described above. In formal speech however
the preposition is attached to the noun at the beginning and is a complete separate word, and the
pronoun is only attached when it is not part of a prepositional phrase.

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Examples (same as above): Qi'thra'dh {zhi'hd'a'm} I walk to you (formal): Qi' (I,
present) thra'dh (walk) | zhi'hd' (to) a'm (you) OR Qi'thra'dha'm I walk to
you (informal / common) literally means I walk you: Qi' (I, present)
thra'dh (walk) a'm (you)
Note: When using a pronoun, the m at the end signifies the -i'n ending of a noun when
the pronoun is attached to a verb as the subject, and the -i'n ending does not need to be
added on.
Adjectives:
The second word with the preposition, that notes the direction of the verb, can be modified
substantially as well with the addition of adjectives that are added in the same way adverbs are in
verbs.
Examples: Qi'thra'dh {zhi'hd'ze'fihyu'm} I walk to the omnipotent one: Qi' (I,
present) thra'dh (walk) | zhi'hd' (to) ze'fihy (omnipotent) u'm (he/she)
NOTE: This is both the same in the formal and informal versions of speech, and the preposition
would not be dropped. The only cases where the preposition is dropped is when a pronoun is
used and it is not modified.

Nouns:
All nouns in Gi'th end with the i'n ending after the root of the word.
Examples: wehshi'n forest: wehsh (forest) i'n (noun), or TSi'i'vi'n home: TSi'i'v
(home) i'n (noun)
To indicate that a noun is plural, the i'n ending is doubled at the end of the word
Examples: wehshi'ni'n forests: wehsh (forest) i'n (noun) i'n (plural), or
TSi'i'vi'ni'n homes: TSi'i'v (home) i'n (noun) i'n (plural)
If an adjective is added onto the noun, the root of the adjective comes after the root of the noun
and at the end it is still finished with the i'n ending.
Examples: wehshsehli'n big forests: wehsh (forest) sehl (big) i'n (noun), or
TSi'i'vzhohli'ni'n dark homes: TSi'i'v (home) zhohl (dark) i'n (noun) i'n
(plural)
When referring to the -er ending, or rather the noun form of one who does the verb, the -a'n
ending is used. Also if it is plural, the standard additional -i'n ending comes at the very end.

19

Examples: TSkhuhya'n the killer: TSkhuhy (kill) a'n (one who does, er), or
when the to be verb is used: WihQe'TSkhuhya'ni'n we are the killers:
Wih (to be) Qe' (we, present) TSkhuhy (kill) a'n (er) i'n (plural)
Possession:
To add possession to a noun, the owner with the adjective morpheme -a' at the end, proceeds
the noun. If a pronoun is used though, the pronoun comes after the root of the word and before
the -i'n noun ending, similar to how adjectives are attached. Lastly, if a possessional pronoun
is used as an object, the pronoun is used with the -i'n ending.
Examples: wehshi'n khehsi'na' the Elves forest: wehsh (forest) i'n (noun) | khehs
(elf) i'n (noun) a' (possession), or wehshi'mi'n My forest: wehsh (forest)
i'm (I) i'n (noun)
Gender:
There is no male or female distinction between nouns, or anything in Gi'th for that matter.
Gender is seen as insignificant and it is neither a patriarchal or matriarchal society. In both
Githyanki and Githzerai societies males and females both are seen as capable of any task, though
when referring to reproduction, based on the action being referred to (ex: childbirth), the gender
is automatically assumed.

Questions:
In order to turn any word into a question, the i'l ending has to be added onto the very end of
the word.
Example: WihQa'ze'fehyi'l are you intelligent?: Wih (to be) Qa' (you, present)
ze'fehy (intelligent) i'l (question), or WihQu'wi'tohzhi'thi'mi'l Is he/she
talking to me?: Wih (to be) Qu' (he/she, present) wi'tohzh (talk) i'th
(gerund) i'm (me) i'l (question)
Furthermore, the basic sets of question words are simply the root for the meaning with the i'l
ending. When asking the word who? however, it is case specific to what who it could be,
though the standard is the he/she/it version of the word.
Who? (general form / he/she?) - u'mi'l
(me?) - i'mi'l
(you?) - a'mi'l
What? - i'thi'l
When? - tehli'l
How? - nahxi'l

(us?) - e'mi'l
(them?) - o'mi'l
Where? - fehri'l
Why? - ihxi'l

Each of these question words is simply the morpheme with the i'l ending, for instance in the
case of When? - tehli'l: tehl (time) i'l (interrogative)
20

Degree:
Adjectives and Adverbs:
To modify any adjective or adverb that can be increased or decreased, an extra unvoiced vowel
is thrown in before the a' ending. Seeing as the pair of a vowels fall in the middle, the
standard a' ending means the adjective or adverb as is, however an eh can be added to
increase the degree of the word, similarly an oh can be added to decrease the degree. Also the
ih morpheme can be added to make it most, and the uh can be added to make it least.
Examples: sehl (big): sehla' big: sehl (big) a' (adjective)
sehleha' bigger: sehl (big) eh (increase) a' (adjective)
sehliha' biggest: sehl (big) ih (maximize) a' (adjective)
sehloha' less big / slightly big: sehl (big) oh (decrease) a' (adjective)
sehluha' least big: sehl (big) uh (minimize) a' (adjective)
Note that the vowels added have the marker which indicates the same voiceless vowel
is used, though a separate frequency of psionic energy is emitted for the degree modifying
vowels.
Verbs:
To make any verb intensified or decreased, the same concept can be applied.
Examples: sehl (big): sehli'z to make big (more accurately: to augment size or
biggen): sehl (big) i'z (verb)
Qi'sehleh I make very big / I greatly augment: Qi' (I, present) sehl (big)
eh (increase)
Qa'a'sehluhi'm you will make me the least big: Qa' (you) a' (future, this
will be expanded on later) sehl (big) uh (minimize) i'm (me)
WihQe'sehlihi'thyu'm we are making them (non-sentient) the biggest:
Wih (to be) Qe' (we, present) sehl (big) ih (maximize) i'th (gerund)
yu'm (them, non-sentient)
Nouns (thing):
Nouns can also be modified in the same way when referring to the word thing. The standard
word for thing is simply the noun ending of i'n, however if it is a specific thing, instead of
using the word thing and then a descriptive word, the noun ending can be added onto the end of
whatever the adjective is. This adjective can also be modified by the degree morphemes. Verbs
and gerunds can also be modified to be nouns as either thing or that action.
Examples: sehli'n the big thing: sehl (big) i'n (noun / thing), sehli'thi'n the
biggening (growing) thing: sehl (big) i'th (gerund) i'n (noun)

21

Syntax:
S-V-O:
The syntax for Gi'th follows a S-V-O structure. The verb of the sentence is always conjugated to
the subject and if pronouns are used, the subject is simply implied by the conjugation. Similarly,
a pronoun used as the object can be tagged onto the end of the verb. If no pronouns are used the
subject comes before the verb and the object after, however the verb is still conjugated to the
subject. The pronoun ending of the verb that can be used to denote the object is dropped if a
pronoun is not used, though in ancient dialects, this pronoun ending is still included and the
object still stated after the verb, however this has long since been abandoned.
Examples: Qi'vahla'm I hear you: Qi' (I, present: S) vahl (hear: V) a'm (you: O),
(Gi'thyahnki'n) Qu'vahl {Gi'thzehra'i'n} The Githyanki hears the
Githzerai: Gi'thyahnki'n (the Githyanki: S) | Qu' (he/she: S) vahl (hears: V)
| Gi'thzehra'i'n (Githzerai: O)
However in ancient dialects this would be: (Gi'thyahnki'n) Qu'vahlu'm
{Gi'thzehra'i'n} The Githyanki hears the Githzerai: Gi'thyahnki'n (the
Githyanki: S) | Qu' (he/she: S) vahl (hears: V) u'm (he/she: O) |
(Gi'thzehra'i'n (Githzerai: O)
Prepositions:
Prepositions come after the word that it is describing. Furthermore, the preposition is attached
morphologically to the rest of the prepositional phrase. Also, if two are used as in The father of
the Githyanki and the Githzerai the of preposition would be used twice yielding: The father
of the Githyanki and of the Githzerai. In phrases such as this another distinction between
formal and informal speech is found in the use of the word and. In this case and would
always be used in formal speech, however in informal/common speech the and is frequently
left out, however this can result in confusion as to what each prepositional phrase modifies but it
is often just left to the context of the sentence.
Examples: TSi'nchKi'i'n zhu'dh'Gi'thyahnki'n'i'n TSa' zhu'dh'Gi'thzehra'i'ni'n
The parent of the githyanki and of the githzerai: TSi'nchK (parent) i'n
(noun) | zhu'dh' (of) Gi'thyahnki'n (Githyanki) i'n (plural) | TSa' (and) |
zhu'dh' (of) Gi'thzehra'i'n (Githzerai) i'n (plural),
Or in informal/common speech: TSi'nchKi'n zhu'dh'Gi'thyahnki'n'i'n
zhu'dh'Gi'thzehra'i'ni'n The parent of the githyanki of the githzerai:
TSi'nchK (parent) i'n (noun) | zhu'dh' (of) Gi'thyahnki'n (Githyanki) i'n
(plural) | zhu'dh' (of) Gi'thzehra'i'n (Githzerai) i'n (plural)
When a prepositional phrase is encountered, the entire phrase is encompasses by symbols,
which may have been observed in previous examples. This denotes a continuation in the psionic
voicing of the words and therefore linking them to the word that the prepositional phrase
modifies. These symbols are different however when it is the subject or the object of the
sentence.
22

Multiple Verbs:
Whenever multiple verbs are used in Gi'th, both are conjugated and in formal, separated by
and whereas in informal or common, the and is often dropped.
Examples: Qi'i'TSkhuhya'm TSa' Qi'i'gmi'nahkha'm I will kill and cook you
(Formal, actual translation = I will kill you and I will eat you): Qi' (I) i'
(future) TSkhuhy (kill) a'm (you) | TSa' (and) | Qi' (I) i' (future) gmi'nahkh
(cook) a'm (you)
Or in informal/common speech:
Qi'i'TSkhuhya'm Qi'i'gmi'nahkha'm I will kill and cook you (actual
translation = I will kill you I will cook you): Qi' (I) i' (future) TSkhuhy (kill)
a'm (you) | Qi' (I) i' (future) gmi'nahkh (cook) a'm (you)
Subject & Object Markers:
In Gi'th the subject and object along with any prepositional phrases directly modifying
them are marked with a specific background psionic hum that varies from the base line psionic
hum of any other words or phrases not in the subject or object phrases. This hum is interrupted
by any of the psionically voiced sounds though after the sound the hum is directly continued as
long as its is the same subject or object phrase or neither. Also note that this hum does not break
between words in the phrase. To denote this psionic hum in the common orthography
parenthesis are used. ( ) for the subject and { } for the object, the standard hum is not
denoted however. Whenever a prepositional phrase that is part of a prepositional phrase within
the subject or object phrase, a second set of the brackets are used with a symbol. For the
brackets with a symbol the pitch of the hum is slightly increased for the subject or decreased
for the object. This hum does not change between the different formal versions of speech,
however it usually is has a slightly less amplitude than formal speech. For a visual depiction of
this, refer to the psionics section. Examples of these markers can be observed in the previos
examples though best shown in the Tower of Babel translation.

23

VOCABULARY
(NOTE: This list is organized categorically by the most typical form the word is used in. Other
modifications to the root are applicable, and just about any root can transcend its listed class. The
adjectives are broken into groupings as nearly all typical adjectives are in a set, whereas the verbs
are not grouped because not as great an amount are grouped.)

Adjectives:
Alignment:
Not Pleasurable Yu'th
Psionic zi'fehs
Good ri'v
Height*:
Psionics zi'fahs
Neutral ra'v
Tall khe'sihkh
Non-Psionic zi'fohs
Evil re'v
Tall - khe'sehkh
Psionically Immune - zi'fuhs
Lawful khihv
Height khe'sahkh
Quality*:
Neutral (Law) khahv
Short khe'sohkh
Excellent ti'l
Chaotic khuhv
Short khe'suhkh
Good te'l
Amount:
Intelligence*:
Average ta'l
Entire/Whole Kihm
Omnipotent ze'fihy
Bad to'l
Majority Kehm
Intelligent ze'fehy
Horrible tu'l
Half Kahm
Intelligence ze'fahy
Similarity:
Minority Kohm
Dumb ze'fohy
Same de'shihs
None Kuhm
Mindless ze'fuhy
Similar de'shehs
Colors:
Length*:
Similarity de'shahs
Red pa'th
Long the'sihth
Different de'shohs
Orange ba'th
Long the'sehth
Opposite de'shuhs
Yellow ma'th
Length the'sahth
Size*:
Green tha'th
Short the'sohth
Huge sihl
Blue na'th
Short the'suhth
Big sehl
Indigo da'th
Lighting*:
Size sahl
Violet ta'th
Bright zhihl
Small sohl
Black Ka'th
Bright zhehl
Tiny suhl
White TSa'th
Lighting zhahl
Strength (Physical)*:
Comparison:
Dark zhohl
Strong zo'fihK
Best wi'l
Dark zhuhl
Strong zo'fehK
Better we'l
Mood:
Strength zo'fahK
Equal wa'l
Overjoyed ste'thiht
Weak zo'fohK
Worse wo'l
Happy ste'theht
Weak zo'fuhK
Worst wu'l
Average ste'thaht
Thoroughness*:
Comprehensibility*:
Sad ste'thoht
Thorough te'sKihs
Comprehensible ze'chihn
Depressed ste'thuht
Thorough te'sKehs
Comprehensible ze'chehn Motion*:
Average te'sKahs
Comprehensibility ze'chahn
Moving wu'chihch
Not Thorough te'sKohs
Incomprehensible ze'chohn
Moving wu'chehch
Not Thorough te'sKuhs
Incomprehensible ze'chuhn
Motion wu'chahch
Weight*:
Distance:
Still wu'chohch
Heavy che'sihch
Here KihK
Still wu'chuhch
Heavy che'sehn
Close KehK
Possibility:
Weight che'sahn
Central KahK
Possible (Definite) ti'K
Light che'sohn
Far KohK
Possible (Most Likely) te'K
Light che'suhn
There KuhK
Unsure ta'K
Wetness:
Enjoyment*:
Impossible (Most Likely)
Soaked to'mihl
Fun Yi'th
to'K
Wet to'mehl
Fun Ye'th
Impossible (Definite) tu'K
Wetness of the air to'mahl
Average Ya'th
Power (Psionic)*:
Dry to'mohl
Not Pleasurable Yo'th
Psion zi'fihs
Arid to'muhl

24

Width*:
Wide me'sihm

Thick me'sehm
Width me'sahm

Thin me'sohm
Narrow me'suhm

* vowels in the middle) tend to mean that it is that attribute to levels beyond perception.
Furthermore, the middle version of the root is often used as the noun of the attribute or as the
average of that attribute.*When referring to the above marked aspects, the extremes of the root
words (those with the ih or uh

Body Parts*:
Head li'Kihv
Face le'Kihv
Brain la'Kihv

Arm li'Kahv
Hand le'Kahv
Finger la'Kahv

Neck li'Kehv
Throat le'Kehv
Voice Box la'Kehv

Torso li'Kohv
Chest le'Kohv
Gut la'Kohv
Back lo'Kohv
Spine lu'Kohv

Leg li'Kuhv
Foot le'Kuhv
Toe la'Kuhv
Skin li're'nK

*It can be noted that the words go by decreasing vowel stance and go down in size of what each is
describing.

Interrogatives (? morpheme included):


How? - nahxi'l
What? - i'thi'l
When? - tehli'l
Where? - fehri'l
Who? - u'mi'l

He/She? u'mi'l
I? i'mi'l
It? yu'mi'l
Them? (Sentient Beings)
o'mi'l

Them? (Non-Sentient)
yo'mi'l
We/Us? e'mi'l
You? - a'mi'l

Nouns (Other):
Appearance ni'vehl
Boulder so'dihn
Brick ri'nthehg
Canyon shtu'zh
Castle zhKi'vaht
Center/Core ra'nK
Citadel zhKi'voht
City zhKi'viht
Clay ri'nthahg
Continent no's
Direction kha'sh
Down kho'sK
East kha'z
Empathy wi'tehzh
Everything ti'm
Everyone mi'm
Exterior (Not including X) ri'nK
Feel (Of Someone) ni'vuhl
Forest wehsh
Gem (Cut) se'dohn
Gem (Uncut) sa'dohn
Glass se'duhn

God (of Gods) TSi'Y


God (Greater) TSe'Y
God (Intermediate) TSa'Y
God (Lesser) TSo'Y
God (Dead) TSu'Y
Hill shte'zh
Home Tsi'i'v
Language wi'tahzh
Later tohl
Lava se'dahn
Location (Place) na's
Metal (Material) ri'nthihg
Middle kha'sK
Monastery ve'shu'm
Mortar re'nthahg
Mountain shti'zh
Name ni'vahl
North khi'sh
Now tihl
Parent - TSi'nchi'K
Pebble so'dohn
Place (Location) na's

25

Plain shta'z
Plane ni's
Astral -vi' (Githyanki)
-ve' (Githzerai)
Limbo -ve' (Githyanki)
-vi' (Githzerai)
Divine -va'
Prime Material -vo'
Infernal -vu'
Presence ni'vihl
Reason ihx
Region nu's
Rock so'dahn
Rock Vapor si'dahn
Sand so'duhn
Sand (Molten) sa'duhn
Scent (Of Someone) ni'vohl
South khu'sh
Speech (Informal) wi'tohzh
Speech (Formal)
wi'(2,3)toh(2,3)zh
Stone so'dehn

Stone (Material) ri'nthohg


Surface (Outside) re'nK
Tar sa'dahn
Telepathy wi'tihzh
Texture vohl

Then tuhl
Thing i'n**
Tower zhKa'viht
Up khe'sK
Wood (Material) ri'nthuhg

Valley shto'zh
West kha'kh
World ne's

*Single most powerful God, in the Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting, this would be the God
Ao.
**The word thing can also be tagged onto an adjectives root to indicate a specific thing possessing
the quality described by the adjective.

Numbers:
Zero x
One i'x
Two xi'x
Three e'x
Four xe'x
Five a'x
Six xa'x
Seven o'x
Eight xo'x
Nine u'x
Ten i'sh
Eleven i'shi'

Twelve i'shi'x
Twenty shi'sh
Twenty-one shi'shi'
Twenty-two shi'shi'x
Thirty e'sh
Fourty she'sh
Fifty a'sh
Sixty sha'sh
Seventy o'sh
Eighty sho'sh
Ninety u'sh
100 i'ch

101 i'chi'
110 i'chi'sh
111 i'chi'shi'
120 i'chshi'sh
200 chi'ch
234 chi'che'she'x
300 e'ch
400 che'ch
1000 i'K
2000 Ki'K
5728 a'Ke'chshi'sho'x
8473 - Ko'Kche'cho'she'

Between zha'ndh'
During a'zh'
For (a cause) - ne'dh'
For (a being) zhe'dh'
From* zhu'dh'
If zha'zh'
In zha'dh'
In front of - dhi'zh'
Instead of - da'zhu'dh'
Including dhe'yi'zh'
Into Ya'dh'
Like e'dh'

Of* - zhu'dh'
Off Yo'ti'zh'
On dha'mzh'
Over zhi'ndh'
That no'mzh'
Through Yu'dh'
To zhi'dh'
Towards Yi'dh'
Under zhu'ndh'
With zho'dh'
Within dho'zh'
Without - zho'ti'yo'dh'

Prepositions:
About dha'yi'zh'
Across Ye'ti'zh'
After u'zh'
Against dhe'zh'
Among dhi'yi'zh'
Around dhe'mzh'
As i'dh'
As well as - da'i'dh
At dhi'mzh'
Before i'zh'
Behind dhu'zh'
Beside dha'zh'

*Both Of and From are the same word, as there is no distinction between the two in Gi'th.

Pronouns:
Demonstrative:
That no'm
These ne'm
This ni'm
Those nu'm
Indefinite:
All Ki'm
Any Ka'm
Both xi'm
Each ta'm

Everything ti'm
Everyone mi'm
Few Ko'm
Many Ke'm
Nobody mu'm
None Ku'm
Nothing tu'm
Several xe'm
Somebody ma'm
Something ta'm

26

Locational:
Here (Exact) chi'm
Here (Relative) che'm
Somewhere cha'm
There (In sight) cho'm
There (Far) chu'm
Possessive (Add -i'n ending to any
Subj./Obj. Pronoun)
Subjective/Objective:
He/She u'm

His/Her self i'u'm


I i'm
It yu'm
Its self i'yu'm
Them (Sentient Beings)

o'm
Themselves (S) e'o'm
Them (Non-Sentient)
yo'm
Themselves (NS) -

e'yo'm
We/Us/Ourselves e'm
You a'm

Races:
Beholder zhihKohr
Centaur fehrehl
Cloud Giant zhbohnihl
Drow Elf du'khehs
Duergar du'mrohg
Dwarf (General) da'mrohg
Elf (General) khehs
Fire Giant behnihl
Frost Giant bahnihl
Giant (General) bihnihl
Githyanki gi'thyahnKi'
(in Githzerai
gi'thyahnKi')
Githzerai gi'thzehra'i'

(in Githyanki
gi'thzehra'i')
Gnoll nohlehl
Gnome rehlehs
Goblin buhla's
Half-Elf khehsehl
Half-Giant bihnehl
Half-Orc bahlehl
Half-Ogre guhshKehl
Half-Troll cha'Kehl
Halfling tuhlehl
High Elf di'khehs
Hill Dwarf de'mrohg
Hill Giant buhnihl

Human du'mehl
Illithid (Mind Flayer) zhehnK
Kobold nohla's
Moon Elf do'khehs
Mountain Dwarf di'mrohg
Ogre guhshK
Orc bahl
Stone Giant bohnihl
Storm Giant zhbehnihl
Svirfineblin ruhlehs
Titan zhi'bihnihl
Troll cha'Kehsh
Wood Elf da'khehs
Yuan Ti sehs'zhehsh

Emote wi'tehzh
Feel vuhl
Fight ra'g
Find ge'xehn
Flush (Mind) do'TS/de'TS (GY/GZ)
Fry gma'nahkh
Go ti'th
Halt (Progress) yo'nt
Hate du'suhm
Have (Keep) ge'xahn
Have (To Do) di' (Special Prefix)
Have (To Not Do) du' (Special
Prefix)
Heal TSkhehy
Hear vahl
Jog thre'dh
Keep (Have) ge'xahn
Kill TSkhuhy
Like du'sehm
Listen wu'tohzh
Listen (Telepathically) wu'tihzh
Live (Act of living) - zahkh
Lose (An Object) ge'xohn
Lose (An Object, Permanently)
ge'xuhn
Love du'sihm
Maintain Life TSkhahy
Maintain Structure ga'xahm
Make ga'xihm

Meditate du'TS/di'TS (GY/GZ)


Move (Permanently) ru'ndh
Neutral (To Be, Towards) du'sahm
Pack ro'ndh
Plan/Scheme di'TS/du'TS (GY/GZ)
Prepare (Food) gmi'nehkh
Preserve (Food) gmi'nohkh
Progress yi'nt
Reach (To) ti'kh
Reach (Near) te'kh
Read wu'tuhzh
Receive (Communication) wu'tahzh
Repair ga'xehm
Retract (From) to'kh
Retract (To) tu'kh
Revive TSkhihy
Run thri'dh
Satee gma'nohkh
See vehl
Sense (Psionically) vihl
Separate (Beings) de'nchohs
Serve (Food) gmi'nihkh
Settle re'ndh
Should (To Do) de' (Special
Prefix)
Should Not (To Do) do' (Special
Prefix)
Smell vohl*
Spat ro'g

Verbs:
Able (To Be) Weh (Special Prefix)
Accelerate behlahl
Acquire (Permanently) ge'xihn
Animate (To be raised as undead)
zuhkh
Animate (To raise undead) TSuhkh
Argue ru'g
Arrive behlihl
Bake gme'nahkh
Battle re'g
Be Wih (Special Prefix)
Be (not) Wuh (Special Prefix)
Begin ye'nt
Birth (To be birthed) zehkh
Boil gmo'nohkh
Break ga'xohm
Bring Together (Beings) de'nchehs
Broil gme'nihkh
Build/Create ga'xihm
Come tu'th
Communicate wi'tahzh
Cook gmi'nahkh
Crawl (Walk Slow) thru'dh
Decelerate behlohl
Destroy ga'xuhm
Die zohkh
Digress yu'nt
Dislike du'sohm
Dwell ra'ndh

27

Speak (Talk) wi'tohzh


Stagnate ya'nt
Stay (Temporary) ta'th
Stay (Continue living at a location)
ri'ndh
Steam (Food) gmo'nehkh
Stop (Speed, Motion) behluhl
Store (Food) gmi'nuhkh
Suggest (to do X) be'teht
Suggest (not to do X) be'toht

Sympathize wu'tehzh
Talk (Speak) wi'tohzh
Taste vohl*
Telepathically Communicate
wi'tihzh
Tell (to do X) be'tiht
Tell (not to do X) be'tuht
Think de'TS/do'TS (GY/GZ)
Trudge thro'dh
Unable (To Be) Woh (Special

Prefix)
Unaligned (To Be) de'nchahs
Undead (To Be) ti'yzohkh
Unified (To Be) de'nchihs
Use si'Ke'sh
Walk thra'dh
War ri'g
Wound TSkhohy
Write wi'tuhzh

*Both scent and taste are the same, as the two senses are closely related. The specific sense that is
means is determined by the context of the sentence or simply insignificant.

Other:
And TSa'
Average (than) -ahBecause the reason is:
Informal ihxWihQu'
Formal ihxi'n WihQu'
But t'cho'

Don't know (nether yes or no favored)


a'
Least -uhLess (than) -ohMaybe so e'
Maybe not o'

28

More (than) -ehMost -ihNo u'


Not ti'y
So/Therefore t'che'
Yes i'

THE TOWER OF BABEL TRANSLATION INTO GI'TH


English:
The Tower of Babel
1 Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
2 As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.
3 They said to each other, Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly. They used brick instead of stone,
and tar for mortar.
4 Then they said, Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make
a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of the whole earth.
5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building.
6 The LORD said, If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan
to do will be impossible for them.
7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.
8 So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city.
9 That is why it was called Babel because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there
the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.

Gi'th (Formal):
zhKa'vihti'n zhu'dh'ba'be'li'n
1 tihl (ne'sKihmi'n) Qu'ynge'xahn {wi'tehzhi'xi'n} TSa' {wi'tohzhde'nchihsi'n}
2 (du'mehli'ni'n) i'dh'Qo'nru'ndh {zhi'dh'kha'z} Qo'nge'xehn {shta'zi'n zha'dh'sha'yna'ri'n} TSa' Qo'nre'ndh'chu'm
3 Qo'nwi'tohzhe'o'm e'm'Qi'me'tu'the' de'Qe'ga'xihm {ri'nthehgi'ni'n} TSa' {de'Qe'gme'nahkhte'sKehsyo'm}
Qo'nsi'ke'sh {ri'nthehgi'ni'n da'zhu'dh'ri'nthohgi'n} TSa' Qo'nsi'ke'sh {sa'dahni'n ne'dh're'nthahgi'n}
4 tuhl Qo'nwi'tohzh e'm'Qi'me'tu'the' da'WihQe'gaxihm {zhKi'vihti'n zhe'dh'e'm zho'dh'zhKa'vihti'n ti'khi'z
zhi'dh'ni'sva'i'ni'n} ne'dh'WehQe'e'gaxihmi'z {ni'vahli'n zhe'dhe'm} TSa' {WuhQe'e'ti'yde'nchuhsa' dha'mzh're'nKi'n
zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n}
5 t'cho' (TSi'Yi'n) Qu'ntu'th {kho'sKi'n vehli'z zhKi'vihti'n} TSa' {zhKa'vihti'n no'mzh'du'mehli'ni'n
WihQo'nga'xihmi'th}
6 (TSi'Yi'n) Qu'nwi'tohzh zha'zhWihQo'i'th (du'mehli'xi'ni'n wi'tohzhi'th wi'tahzhda'shihsi'n) WihQo'ye'nti'th
{di'Qi'zni'm} (tu'm no'mzh'Qo'di'TS di'Qi'z) WihQu'yu'ytu'Ka' zhe'dh'o'm}
7 e'm'Qi'me'tu'the' de'Qe'e'ti'th kho'sKi'n} TSa' {de'Qe'e'ze'chohn wi'tahzho'mi'n} ne'dh'WohQo'o'ze'chehne'o'm
8 (t'che'TSi'Yi'n) Qu'nde'nchohso'm {zhu'dh'chu'm zhi'dh'zhi'ndh'ne'sKihmi'n} TSa' Qo'nyo'nt {ga'xihmi'th
zhKi'vihti'n}
9 no'mWihQu'ihxi'n {WihQu'n'ni'vahl ba'be'li'n} ihxi'n WihQu'chu'm (TSi'Yi'n) Qu'nze'chohn {wi'tahzhi'n
zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n}
zhu'dh'chu'm (TSi'Yi'n) Qu'nde'nchohso'm zhi'dh'zhi'ndh're'nKi'n zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n

29

Translation Analysis:
Key: A#) English, B#) English morphemes, C#) Translation comments, D#) Gi'th morphemes
(English), E#) Gi'th morphemes, F#) Gi'th translation
The Tower of Babel
A0)

The

Tower

of

Babel

B0)

[the]

[tower]

[of]

[Babel]

C0)

ba'be'l, Agglutinating

D0)

---

[tower]+[N]

[of]+[Babel]+[N]

E0)

---

[zhKa'viht]+[i'n]

[zhud'h']+[ba'be'l]+[i'n]

F0)
zhKa'vihti'n
zhu'dh'ba'be'li'n

1 Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
A1)

Now

the

whole

world

had

B1)

[1]

[now]

[the]

[whole]

[world]

[have]+[pst-sg]

C1)

Agglutinating

D1)

[1]

[now]

---

[world]+[entire]+[N]

[it-sg-pst]+[have]

E1)

[1]

[tihl]

---

[ne's]+[Kihm]+[i'n]

[Qu'yn]+[ge'xahn]

F1)
1
tihl
( ne'sKihmi'n )
Qu'ynge'xahn

A1)
one
language
and
a
common
speech
B1)

[one]

[language]

[and]

[a]

[common]

[speech]

C1)

Agglutinating

(Formal)

Agglutinating

D1)

[language]+[one]+[N]

[and]

---

[speech]+[unified]+[N]

E1)

[wi'tehzh]+[i'x]+[i'n]

[TSa']

---

[wi'tohzh]+[de'nchihs]+[i'n]

F1)
{ wi'tehzhi'xi'n }
TSa'
{ wi'tohzhde'nchihsi'n }

2 As men moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.
A1)
B1)

2
[2]

C1)

[As]

men
[man]+[pl]

moved
rd

[move]+[pst-3 -pl]

Eastward,

they

[eastward]

[they] [find]+[pst-3rd-pl]

Subj. comes first; (informal would be 2 words: men as-they-moved-east)

D1) [2]
E1)

As

[2]

found

Object conjugated

[human]+[N]+[pl]

[as]+[they-pst]+[move]

[to]+[east]

[they-pst]+[find]

[du'mehl]+[i'n]+[i'n]

[i'dh']+[Qo'n]+[ru'ndh]

[zhi'dh']+[kha'z]

[Qo'n]+[ge'xehn]

F1) 2
( du'mehli'ni'n )
i'dh'Qo'nru'ndh
{ zhi'dh'kha'z }
Qo'nge'xehn

30

A1)
B1)

plain

[a]

C1)

in

[plain]

Shinar

[in]

and

[Shinar]

settled

[and]

(informal would be one word: plain-in-shinar-N)

there.
rd

[settle]+[pst-3 -pl]

[there]

(formal)

Agglutinating

D1)

---

[plain]+[N]

[in]+[Shinar]+[N]

[and]

[they-pst]+[settle]+[there]

E1)

---

[shta'z]+[i'n]

[zha'dh']+[sha'yna'r]+[i'n]

[TSa']

[Qo'n]+[re'ndh]+['chu'm]

F1)
{ shta'zi'n
zha'dh'sha'yna'ri'n }
TSa'
Qo'nre'ndh'chu'm

3 They said to each other, Come, let's make bricks and bake them thoroughly. They used
brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar.
A1)
B1)

They

to

each

other,

Come,

let's

[Come]+[we-everyone]

[let] [us]

Each other = themselves, Agglutinating

Command: we - everyone

Let = we should

[they-pst]+[say]+[themselves]

[we]+[everyone-psnt]
+[come]+[command]

---

[Qo'n]+[wi'tohzh]+[e'o'm]

[e'm']+[Qi'me']+[tu'th]+[e']

---

rd

[3] [They] [say]+[pst-3 -pl] [to] [each] [other]

C1)
D1) [3]
E1)

said

[3]

F1) 3
Qo'nwi'tohzhe'o'm
e'm'Qi'me'tu'the'

A1)
make
bricks
and
bake
them
thoroughly.
B1)

[make]+[psnt-we]

C1)

We should

D1)

[should]+[psntwe]+[make]

E1)

[de']+[Qe']+[ga'xihm]

[brick]+[pl]

[and]

[bake]+[psnt-we]

[them]

[thoroughly]

(formal)

We should; Thoroughly is attached to bake

[brick]+[N]+[pl]

[and]

[should]+[we-psnt]+[bake]+[thoroughly]+[them]

[ri'nthehg]+[i'n]+[i'n]

[TSa']

[de']+[Qe']+[gme'nahkh]+[te'sKehs]+[yo'm]

F1)
de'Qe'ga'xihm
{ ri'nthehgi'ni'n }
TSa'
{ de'Qe'gme'nahkhte'sKehsyo'm }

A1)
They
used
bricks
instead
of
stone,
B1)

[they]

[use]+[pst-3rd-pl]

[brick]+[pl]

[instead]

C1)

[of]

[stone]

Agglutinating

D1)

[they-pst]+[use]

[brick]+[N]+[pl]

[instead of]+[stone]+[N]

E1)

[Qo'n]+[si'ke'sh]

[ri'nthehg]+[i'n]+[i'n]

[da'zhu'dh']+[ri'nthohg]+[i'n]

F1)
Qo'nsi'ke'sh
{ ri'nthehgi'ni'n
da'zhu'dh'ri'nthohgi'n }

A1)
and
tar
for
mortar.
B1)

[and]

[tar]

[for]

[mortar]

C1)

(formal)

(formal: add They used)

D1)

[and]

[they-pst]+[use]

[tar]+[N]

[for (a cause)]+[mortar]+[N]

E1)

[TSa']

[Qo'n]+[si'ke'sh]

[sa'dahn]+[i'n]

[ne'dh']+[re'nthahg]+[i'n]

Agglutinating

F1)
TSa'
Qo'nsi'ke'sh
{ sa'dahni'n
ne'dh're'nthahgi'n }

31

4 Then they said, Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the
heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves and not be scattered over the face of
the whole earth.
A1)
B1)

Then

[4]

they

[then]

said,
rd

[they]

C1)

[say]+[pst-3 -pl]

Come,

let

us

[Come]+[we-everyone]

[let]

[us]

Agglutinating

Command: we - everyone

Let = We should

D1)

[4]

[then]

[they-pst]+[say]

[we]+[everyone-psnt]
+[come]+[command]

---

E1)

[4]

[tuhl]

[Qo'n]+[wi'tohzh]

[e'm']+[Qi'me']+[tu'th]+[e']

---

F1) 4
tuhl
Qo'nwi'tohzh
e'm'Qi'me'tu'the'

A1)
build
ourselves
a
City,
with
a
tower
B1)

[build]+[we-psnt]

C1)

We should

D1)

[should]+[wepsnt]+[build]

[ourselves]

[a]

[city]

[with]

City for us; No article

E1) [da'Wih]+[Qe']+[ga'xihm]

[a]

[tower]

Agglutinating

[City]+[N]

[for]+[us]

[with]+[tower]+[N]

[zhKi'viht]+[i'n]

[zhe'dh']+[e'm]

[zho'dh']+[zhKa'viht]+[i'n]

F1)
da'WihQe'gaxihm
{ zhKi'vihti'n
zhe'dh'e'm
zho'dh'zhKa'vihti'n

A1)
that
reaches
to
the
heavens,
so
that we
may
make
B1)

[that]

[reach]+[it-fut]

[to]

C1) Translates to: to-reach (to)

[the]

[heavens]

[so]

[that] [we] [may]+[fut] [make]+[fut]

Heaven = Divine Plane

for (a cause) - we will be able to make

D1)

[reach (to)]+[infin]

[to]+[plane-divine]+[N]+[pl]

[for]+[be able]+[we-fut]+[make]+[infin]

E1)

[ti'kh]+[i'z]

[zhi'dh']+[ni'sva']+[i'n]+[i'n]

[ne'dh']+[Weh]+[Qe'e']+[ga'xihm]+[i'z]

F1)
ti'khi'z
zhi'dh'ni'sva'i'ni'n }
ne'dh'WehQe'e'gaxihmi'z

A1)
a
name
for
ourselves
and
not
be
scattered
B1)

[a]

[name]

[for]

[ourselves]

[and]

[not]

[be]

[scattered]

C1)

No Articles

Agglutinating

(formal)

We will not be scattered

D1)

[name]+[N]

[for (a being)]+[us]

[and]

[not be]+[we-fut]+[not]+[scattered]+[adj]

E1)

[ni'vahl]+[i'n]

[zhe'dh']+[e'm]

[TSa']

[Wuh]+[Qe'e']+[ti'y]+[de'nchuhs]+[a']

F1)
{ ni'vahli'n
zhe'dhe'm }
TSa'
{ WuhQe'e'ti'yde'nchuhsa'

A1)
over
the
face
of
the
whole
earth.
B1)

[over]

[the]

[face]

[of]

[the]

[whole]

C1)

No Articles, on (the) surface

No Articles, of (the) entire world

D1)

[on]+[surface]+[N]

[of]+[world]+[entire]+[N]

E1)

[dha'mzh']+[re'nK]+[i'n]

[zhu'dh']+[ne's]+[Kihm]+[i'n]

[earth]

F1)
dha'mzh're'nKi'n
zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n }

32

5 But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building.
A1)
B1)

5
[5]

But

the

[but]

LORD

[the]

C1)

came

[lord]

[come]+[pst-2

down
nd-sg

No Articles, lord = God


(of Gods)

(action of a God = formal


superior)

to

see

[down]

[see]+[infin]

D1)

[5]

[but]

[God (of Gods)]+[N]

[pst-3rd-sg]+[come]

[down]+[N]

[see]+[infin]

E1)

[5]

[t'cho']

[TSi'Y]+[i'n]

[Qu'n]+[tu'th]

[kho'sK]+[i'n]

[vehl]+[i'z]

F1) 5
t'cho'
( TSi'Yi'n )
Qu'ntu'th
{ kho'sKi'n
vehli'z

A1) the
city
and
the
tower that the
men
were
building
B1) [the]

[city]

C1)

[and]

[the]

[tower] [that] [the] [man]+[pl] [to be]+[pst-pl-3rd] [build]+[gerund]

(formal)

D1)

[city]+[N]

E1) [zhKi'viht]+[i'n]

Agglutinating

[and]

[tower]+[N]

[TSa']

[zhKa'viht]+[i'n]

Agglutinating

[that]+[human]+[N]+[pl] [to be]+[they-pst]+[build]+[gerund]


[no'mzh']+[du'mehl]
+[i'n]+[i'n]

[Wih]+[Qo'n]+[ga'xihm]+[i'th]

F1) zhKi'vihti'n }
TSa'
{ zhKa'vihti'n no'mzh'du'mehli'ni'n
WihQo'nga'xihmi'th }

6 The LORD said, If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this,
then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
A1)

B1) [6]
C1)

The

LORD

said

If

as

one

people

[the]

[lord]

[say]+[pst-2nd-sg]

[if]

[to be]+[psnt-3rd-sg]

[one]

[person]+[pl]

No Articles, lord =
God (of Gods)

D1) [6] [God (of Gods)]+[N]


E1) [6]

[TSi'Y]+[i'n]

(action of a God =
formal superior)

if them being

one humans'

[pst-2nd-sg]+[say]

[to be]+[they-psnt]+[gerund]

[human]+[one]+[N]+[pl]

[Qu'n]+[wi'tohzh] [zha'zh']+[Wih]+[Qo']+[i'th]

[du'mehl]+[i'x]+[i'n]+[i'n]

F1) 6
( TSi'Yi'n )
Qu'nwi'tohzh
zha'zhWihQo'i'th
( du'mehli'xi'ni'n

A1)
speaking
the
same
language
they
have
begun
B1)

[speak]+[gerund]

C1)

[the]

[same]

[language]

[they]

[have]

[begin]+[psnt-3rd-pl]

Agglutinating

They are beginning

D1)

[speak]+[gerund]

[language]+[same]+[N]

[to be]+[psnt-3rd-pl]+[begin]+[gerund]

E1)

[wi'tohzh]+[i'th]

[wi'tahzh]+[de'shihs]+[i'n]

[Wih]+[Qo']+[ye'nt]+[i'th]

F1)
wi'tohzhi'th
wi'tahzhda'shihsi'n )
WihQo'ye'nti'th

33

A1)

to

B1)

do

[do]+[infin]

this,

then

nothing

they

plan

[this]

[then]

[nothing]

[they]

[plan]+[psnt-3rd-pl]

C1)

Agglutinating

nothing

that they plan (plan Githy.)

D1)

[to do]+[special verb infin]+[this]

[nothing]

[that]+[they-psnt]+[plan/scheme]

E1)

[di']+[Qi'z]+[ni'm]

[tu'm]

[no'mzh']+[Qo']+[di'TS]

F1)
{ di'Qi'zni'm }
( tu'm
no'mzh'Qo'di'TS

A1)
to
do
will
be
impossible
for
them.
B1)

[do]+[infin]

[be]+[fut-it-sg]

C1)

[impossible]

[for]

Agglutinating

[them]

(formal)

D1)

[to do]+[special verb infin]

[to be]+[fut-it-sg]+[impossible (definite)]+[adj]

[for (a being)]+[them]

E1)

[di']+[Qi'z]

[Wih]+[Qu'yu'y]+[tu'K]+[a']

[zhe'dh']+[o'm]

F1)

di'Qi'z )

WihQu'yu'ytu'Ka'

zhe'dh'o'm }*

* Since the first part of the object phrase is attached to the verb, the object marker does not have an opening
bracket

7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.
A1)

B1) [7]

Come,

let

[Come]+[we-everyone] [let]

C1)

us

go

down

and

confuse

[us]

[go]+[fut-we]

[down]

[and]

[confuse]+[fut-we]

(formal)

we should (make)
incomprehensible

Command: we everyone

we should go

D1) [7]

[we]+[everyone-psnt]
+[come]+[command]

[should]+
[fut-we]+[go]

[down]+[N]

[and]

[should]+[futwe]+[(make)
incomprehensible]

E1) [7]

[e'm']+[Qi'me']
+[tu'th]+[e']

[de']+[Qe'e']+[ti'th]

[kho'sK]+[i'n]

[TSa']

[de']+[Qe'e']
+[ze'chohn]

F1) 7
e'm'Qi'me'tu'the'
de'Qe'e'ti'th
kho'sKi'n }
TSa'
{ de'Qe'e'ze'chohn

A1)
their
language so they
will
not
understand
each
other
B1)
C1)

[their]

[language] [so] [they] [to be]+[fut-3rd-pl] [not] [understand]+[fut-3rd-pl]

Agglutinating

[each]

[other]

So = for (cause), Understand = Comprehend, Eachother = themselves, Agglutinating

D1) [language]+[their]+[N]

[for (cause)]+[to not be able]+[they-fut]+[comprehend]+[themselves]

E1) [wi'tahzh]+[o'm]+[i'n]

[ne'dh']+[Woh]+[Qo'o']+[ze'chehn]+[e'o'm]

F1)
wi'tahzho'mi'n }
ne'dh'WohQo'o'ze'chehne'o'm

34

8 So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the
city.
A1)

B1) [8]
C1)

So

the

LORD

scattered

them

from

there

[so]

[the]

[lord]

[scatter]+[pst-3rd-sg]

[them]

[from]

[there]

No Articles, lord = God (of Gods)

Scatter = separate (beings), (action of a


God = formal superior), Agglutinating

Agglutinating

[he-pst]+[separate]+[them]

[from]+[there]

[Qu'n]+[de'nchohs]+[o'm]

[zhu'dh']+[chu'm]

D1) [8] [so/therefore]+[God (of Gods)]+[N]


E1) [8]

[t'che']+[TSi'Y]+[i'n]

F1) 8
( t'che'TSi'Yi'n )
Qu'nde'nchohso'm
{ zhu'dh'chu'm

A1) over
all
the
earth,
and
they
stopped
building
the
city
B1) [over]
C1)

[all]

[the]

[earth]

to over earth entire

[they] [stop]+[pst-3rd-pl] [build]+[gerund]

[and]
(formal)

D1) [to]+[over]+[world]+[entire]+[N]

[and]

E1)

[TSa']

[zhi'dh']+[zhi'ndh']+
[ne's]+[Kihm]+[i'n]

[the]

Stop = halt progress

No Articles

[they-pst]+[halt progress] [build]+[gerund]


[Qo'n]+[yo'nt]

[city]

[ga'xihm]+[i'th]

[city]+[N]
[zhKi'viht]+[i'n]

F1) zhi'dh'zhi'ndh'ne'sKihmi'n }
TSa'
Qo'nyo'nt
{ ga'xihmi'th
zhKi'vihti'n }

9 That is why it was called Babel because there the LORD confused the language of the
whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth.
A1)

That

B1) [9]

why
rd

[it]

called
rd

Babel
rd

that is the reason, Agglutinating

it was named, Agglutinating

ba'be'l

D1) [9]

[that]+[to be]+[it-psnt]+[reason]+[N]

[to be]+[it-pst]+[name (V)]

[Babel]+[N]

E1) [9]

[no'm]+[Wih]+[Qu']+[ihx]+[i'n]

[Wih]+[Qu'n]+[']*+[ni'vahl]

[ba'be'l]+[i'n]

no'mWihQu'ihxi'n

{ WihQu'n'ni'vahl

ba'be'li'n }

[why]

was

[Babel]

F1)

[to be]+[psnt-3 -sg]

it

[to be]+[pst-3 -sg] [call]+[pst-3 -sg]

C1)

[that]

is

* A ' is added when an n is the first sound of the word that occurs after a past-tense conjugation.

A1)
because
there
the
LORD
confused
B1)

[because]

[there]

C1)

the reason is there* (formal)

D1) [reason]+[N] [to be]+[it-psnt]+[there]

[the]

[lord]

[confuse]+[pst-3rd-sg]

No Articles, lord = God (of


Gods)

(action of a God = formal superior),


Confuse = make incomprehensible

[God (of Gods)]+[N]

[he-pst]+[make incomprehensible]

E1)

[ihx]+[i'n]

[Wih]+[Qu']+[chu'm]

[TSi'Y]+[i'n]

[Qu'n]+[ze'chohn]

F1)

ihxi'n

WihQu'chu'm

( TSi'Yi'n )

Qu'nze'chohn

* Informal of [because] > [reason]+[to be]+[it-psnt], (Agglutinates, [N] dropped)

35

A1)

the

language

of

the

whole

world

B1)

[the]

[language]

[of]

[the]

[whole]

[world]

C1)

No Articles

No Articles, of (the) entire world

D1)

[language]+[N]

[of]+[world]+[entire]+[N]

E1)

[wi'tahzh]+[i'n]

[zhu'dh']+[ne's]+[Kihm]+[i'n]

F1)
{ wi'tahzhi'n
zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n }

A1)
From
there
the
LORD
scattered
them
B1)

[from]

[there]

[the]

[scatter]+[pst-3rd-sg]

[lord]

[them]

C1)

Agglutinating

No Articles, lord = God (of Gods)

Scatter = separate (beings), (action of a


God = formal superior), Agglutinating

D1)

[from]+[there]

[God (of Gods)]+[N]

[he-pst]+[separate]+[them]

E1)

[zhu'dh']+[chu'm]

[TSi'Y]+[i'n]

[Qu'n]+[de'nchohs]+[o'm]

F1)
zhu'dh'chu'm
( TSi'Yi'n )
Qu'nde'nchohso'm

A1)
over
the
face
of
the
whole
earth
B1)

[over]

[the]

[face]

[of]

[the]

[whole]

C1)

to over the surface

No Articles, of (the) entire world

D1)

[to]+[over]+[surface]+[N]

[of]+[world]+[entire]+[N]

E1)

[zhi'dh']+[zhi'ndh']+[re'nK]+[i'n]

[zhu'dh']+[ne's]+[Kihm]+[i'n]

[earth]

F1)
zhi'dh'zhi'ndh're'nKi'n
zhu'dh'ne'sKihmi'n

36

ORTHOGRAPHY
Gi'th can be written in three different forms. The first of the writing systems is the one
that has been used throughout this paper and is referred to as human writing or
wi'tuhzhdu'mehli'n. In this system letters or pairs of letters represent the sounds of the
language and apostrophes represent the glottal stops. In order to denote prepositional phrases in
human script are used, whereas ( ) are used for object phrases and { } are used for
subject phrases. For the complete list of the symbols of the sounds, refer to the phonetics
section.
The second two writing systems are formal and informal or common writing. The
formal writing system is a complex way of symbolizing the sounds combined with a few
symbols and a unique vowel line that continues throughout each word. The common writing
system uses these same symbols but essentially chops it up and simplifies it to allow for a
quicker way of writing down anything. Also note that the formal script can be written either left
to right (most common) or right to left based on the direction of the vowel line. The formal form
is always used for any legal or religious documents and anything of any major importance
whereas the common is used for any unimportant writings or notes. The following tables will
give a break down of the formal and common writing systems, though focusing mainly on the
formal, as the common system is the same just simplified.

37

Formal Gi'th Symbols


Key: Solid Black Symbol, Dashed Black Other letters, Red Formal Superior, Blue
Formal Inferior, Green Degree vowels
Vowels:

Q and TS Variants:

Symbol Sound

i' ( )

e' ( )

a' ( )

o' ( )

u' ( )

Symbol

Sound

Symbol

ih ( )

Sound

eh ( )

ah ( )

oh ( )

Glottal Stop:

Vertical, upward break in vowel line

38

The dot is placed over the


vowel O and the tail
comes down and crosses
the vowel line

The dot is placed over the


formal superior o and a
dash comes out from the
o to cross the tail and
the tail crosses the vowel
line

The dot is placed over the


vowel O and the tail
comes down and crosses
the vowel line and then
crosses as the formal
inferior dash

TS

uh ( )

Description

The dot is placed under


the vowel O and the tail
comes up and crosses the
vowel line

TS

The dot is placed under


the vowel O and the tail
comes up and crosses the
vowel line then attaches
to the formal superior o

TS

The dot is placed on the


other side of the formal
inferior line and then
crosses it as the dash and
then comes up and
crosses the vowel line

Fricatives:
Symbol

Sound
f

Description
Above vowel line, a horizontal line with a vertical line that starts
thick then tapers thin as it trails up and off to the left

Below vowel line, a horizontal line with a vertical line that starts
thick then tapers thin as it trails down and off to the left

th

Above vowel line, a line that curves down and right then up and
then trails up and off to the left

dh

Below vowel line, a line that curves up and to the the right then
down and off to the left

Above vowel line, a dot with a tail that tapers thin as it trails up
and off to the left

Below vowel line, a dot with a tail that tapers thin as it trails
down and off to the left

sh

zh

kh

Above vowel line, a line that curves down and right then up and
then trails up and off to the left with a dot in the curve that is
created
Below vowel line, a line that curves up and to the the right then
down and off to the left with a dot in the curve that is created
Above vowel line, a vertical line that starts thick then tapers thin
as it trails up and off to the left

Below vowel line, a horizontal line with a vertical line that starts
thick then tapers thin as it trails down and off to the left

Above vowel line, a vertical oval with a tail that trails up and off
to the left. (The ancient voiced equivalent was the same, but
below the vowel line following the general fricative trend.)

39

Nasals and Approximates:


Symbol

Sound
n

Description
Starts at the top right of the vowel O and curves out and then
down to cross the vowel line and then spirals back down and in
on itself in a clockwise direction
Starts at the top right of the vowel O and curves down to cross
the vowel line and then spirals back up and in on itself in a
counterclockwise direction
Starts at the bottom right of the vowel O and curves down then
up to cross the vowel line

Starts at the top right of the vowel O and curves up then down
to cross the vowel line

Starts at the bottom right of the vowel O then curves up


crossing the vowel line then curves around and then down then
spirals in on its self in a clockwise direction

Starts at the bottom right of the vowel O then curves down and
loops around its self then comes up to cross the vowel line then
spirals in on its self in a counterclockwise direction

Stops and Affricatives:


Symbol

Sound
p

Description
Break in the vowel line, trails up and to the left and curves in on
its self ending with a dot then restarts as a dot that curves out and
reforms the vowel line

Break in the vowel line, same as the p symbol except the two
vowel line fragments interlock

Break in the vowel line, trails up and off to the left then comes in
from the lower right and curves up and then reforms the vowel
line

40

Break in the vowel line, same as the t except the two vowel line
fragments interlock
d
Symbol

Sound
K

Description
Break in the vowel line, curves down and to the right then comes
in from the lower right and curves up to reform the vowel line

Break in the vowel line, curves down and to the left then comes
in from the lower left and curves up to reform the vowel line

ch

Vowel line curves up and off to the left then sharply down and
curves down and off to the left then sharply up and over to the
right to reform the vowel line

Double Vowels:
Symbol

Sounds

i'i'

Description
Same as the standard voiced i vowel symbol with a tail that
comes down and to the left of the vowel O crossing the tick
marks on the vowel V and then trails down and off to the right,
the e'e' symbol also follows this pattern

a'a'

The tail comes from the vowel O and down and to the right
then curves off and to the right, if formal inferior speech it
crosses the tick mark

o'o'

Same as the standard voiced o vowel symbol with a tail that


comes down and to the right of the vowel O crossing the tick
marks on the vowel V and then trails down and off to the left,
the u'u' symbol also follows this pattern

The other two voiced vowels follow the same pattern as the above three with the extra
downward line that extends from the vowel O. Voiceless vowels are never repeated, so there
is no special symbol for them.
41

To Be / Be Able Symbols:
Symbol

Sounds

WihQ

WuhQ

WehQ

WohQ

Meaning

Description
Comprised from the ih symbol with a
connecting line to the next vowel O in the word
along with the Q symbol that starts with the dot
above the next vowel's O and trailing down and
To Be+Q
to the left then over and off to the right

To Not
Be+Q

To Be
Able+Q

To Not Be
Able+Q

Comprised from the uh symbol with a


connecting line to the next vowel O in the word
along with the Q symbol that starts with the dot
above the next vowel's O and trailing down and
to the left then over and off to the right
Comprised from the eh symbol, however the
vowel tail curves around the vowel O
counterclockwise then curves back up to end in a
dot above the next vowel's O, representing the
Q sound, a connecting line also joins the vowel
O to the next vowel's O
Comprised from the oh symbol, however the
vowel tail curves to the right and ends over the
next vowel's O in a dot, representing the Q
sound, a connecting line also joins the vowel O
to the next vowel's O

The i'ni'n Symbol:


Symbol

Sounds

i'ni'n

Meaning

Description
Same as the i' symbol with the n symbol
coming off of the vowel O on the upper right
Plural Noun and curving around then crossing its self and
ending shortly after

42

Do / Should Do Symbols:
Symbol

Sounds

di'Q

Meaning

Description
Comprised from the ih symbol, except the vowel
tail comes out from the top and curves around and
down, then up to connect to the next vowel's O,
To
the first half of the d symbol starts with a dot and
Do+Q crosses the vowel tail, and the Q symbol is the
same as usual except on the left side of the next
vowel.

du'Q

Comprised from the uh symbol, except the vowel


tail comes around and connects to the next vowel's
To Not O, the first half of the d symbol starts with a dot
Do+Q and crosses the vowel tail, and the Q symbol is
the same as usual except on the left side of the next
vowel.

de'Q

Comprised from the eh symbol, except the vowel


tail spirals around the O and then down, then up
Should to connect to the next vowel's O, the first half of
Do+Q the d symbol starts with a dot and crosses the
vowel tail, and the Q symbol is the same as usual
except on the left side of the next vowel.

do'Q

Comprised from the oh symbol, except the vowel


tail comes out from the top and curves around to the
right and then down, then up to connect to the next
Should Not
vowel's O, the first half of the d symbol starts
Do+Q
with a dot and crosses the vowel tail, and the Q
symbol is the same as usual except on the left side
of the next vowel.

43

Prepositional Phrase, Subject, and Object Markers


In formal Gi'th, the markers for prepositional phrases, subjects, and objects are all based
on the direction of the vowel line at the end of the word. In a prepositional phrase that modifies
a word, a tail from the prepositions first vowel's O extends out and crosses with the tail of the
word in which it modifies.
Example: Word Word =

When the subject of sentence is written, the vowel line comes out and up over the word then
crosses through the vowel O of the very first vowel in the word, including special characters.
Example: (Word) =

Whenever there are more than one word in the subject phrase, the vowel lines of the following
words comes out and up over the word and then crosses the vowel line of the preceding word.
Example: (Word Word) =

The subject of the sentence in Gi'th is denoted by the vowel tail trailing down and then under the
word then crossing through the vowel O of the very first vowel in the word, including special
characters.
Example: {Word} =

Similar to when multiple words of the subject are encountered, multiple objects follow the same
pattern, however the vowel lines come out and then go down and under the word before crossing
the vowel line of the preceding word.
Example: {Word Word} =

44

If there is a prepositional phrase that modifies a word in the subject or object phrase, it too
becomes a part of the subject or object and is similarly linked along with the standard
prepositional phrase markers.
Examples: (Word Word Word) =

{Word Word Word} =

Sample Writing in Gi'th


The Tower of Babel => zhKa'vihti'n zhu'dh'ba'be'li'n =

...a city for ourselves with a tower that reaches to the heavens =>
{zhKi'vihti'n zhe'dh'e'm zho'dh'zhKa'vihti'n tikhi'z zhi'dh'ni'sva'i'ni'n} =

The LORD came down to see the city. =>


(TSi'Yi'n) Qu'ntu'th {kho'sKi'n vehli'z zhKi'vihti'n}

45

NUMBERS
Gi'th also has a unique system for numbers that make writing numbers much more
practical. A brief description of this system is as follows:
Symbol

Letter

Symbol

Letter

i'

e'

sh

a'

ch

o'

u'

When this system is applied to the words for the numbers, a simple and clean looking
number system results.
Symbol

Number

Gi'th Word

i'x

20

shi'sh

234

chi'che'she'x

8473

Ko'Kche'cho'she'

46

THE CREATION OF GI'TH


After a long period of hard work, the language Gi'th was finally complete. The
creation of this language took a lot of work and lots of ideas that were both good and bad. In the
end, I feel my goal was successfully accomplished and Gi'th is finally a functioning constructed
language. All of the aspects of the language have an important purpose and work together
effectively to make it what it is.
The base of the language starts with the phonetics of it. My first thoughts were to make it
sound very alien and obscure, but due to wanting to be able to speak it effectively, I decided that
it would be alright to have it sound somewhat humanoid. The original list of sounds included
roughly 30, which gave me a good start and a good basis to work off of. However, after much
thought and a meeting with my instructor, I realized that there were numerous holes in the
phonetics. The primary flaws with the sounds of the language were in the fact that I had
voiceless sounds without a voiced equivalent that were in between two other locations of
articulation that had voiced / voiceless pairs. While I could have created some historical reason
for this, I decided it best to instead add these sounds to make the phonetics more full. Another
problem that was encountered with the phonetics was encountered when the vowels were
examined, specifically the voiceless vowels. The original classes were harsh and soft
equivalents of the vowels, though this made little sense, and was soon abandoned. The decision
was then made to have voiced and voiceless vowel pairs with accompanying psionic voicing.
The psionics of the language were another tricky aspect. First of all, I wanted Gi'th to be
able to be spoken by non-psionic beings, though just more in depth when spoken by psionic
beings. I accomplished this by first structuring the words so that they were not dependent on
which of the vowels were being used. This allowed for the vowels to be pronounced either way,

47

and the meaning would still be understood. An optional way of making the vowel distinction is
by voicing the voiced vowels in a higher pitch and the voiceless vowels in a lower pitch.
Another way I dealt with the psionics was by using it to distinguish between the versions of
formal speech as well as informal speech. The differences in the mode of speech are relatively
unimportant to tho more general aspects of communication. Lastly, the subject and object
markers and prepositional phrase markers were associated with psionic frequencies as it is
another peripheral aspect of the language that is not needed to be able to communicate
effectively. These markers also gave rise to the whole concept of the background hum, which
also adds some more color to the language.
After the basic concepts of the sounds and psionics of the language were fleshed out, the
morphology and syntax were tackled. My original inclination that stuck with the language from
start to finish was to make it agglutinating. I actually used some of the knowledge of Turkish
that was briefly touched on in class as an example. I also used my knowledge of Spanish to
create the tenses and conjugation morphemes. These morphemes were always intended to only
be prefixes until I decided to have some special cases, which were inspired by the complexity
and randomness of English, yet used in a way to make much more sense. The original special
case was only the to be verb to be used as a prefix to the conjugation, though this later grew to
encompass a small array of verbs that worked well with the concept. After the conjugation
aspects I worked on the morphemes that mark what type of word it is. These started with the
noun morpheme -i'n which stayed the same through the whole project as well as the idea of
pluralization being the repeated noun ending. Adjective and adverb endings also remained the
same relatively throughout the project. Later on all of the others were formed, such as the
gerund ending. Another aspect of the morphology that was not created until quite late in the

48

project was the command morpheme -e'. This was established during the Tower of Babel
translation which greatly helped to form the morphology, as well as syntax and vocabulary of
Gi'th. Despite how daunting a task the translation was, it proved invaluable to really form the
core of the language and highlight weaker points and show which stronger points truly shined.
After the basics of the morphology were hashed out, the syntax was quite simple because
of the agglutinating nature of the language. The S-V-O structure was already formed in the
morphology, as some words contain all three of those basic elements. One of the major aspects
that working on the syntax developed was in the prepositions, which later ended up becoming
morphemes, and were included in the morphology. Another aspect that was added near the end
of the creation of Gi'th were the subject phrase markers, object phrase markers, and prepositional
phrase markers. These markers are somewhat unnecessary, yet add a certain color to the
language and enhance the clarity, even though they can only be observed either psionically or in
writing. I feel they add clarity because they tie independent thoughts together by linking all
aspects related to a noun and consolidating them as one unified thought.
With the basics of the language all put together I got to work on the vocabulary. My first
approach to cranking out the vocabulary was pretty random, and quite inefficient. After I had
formed a decent amount of words I started getting a bit of a system down by using the vowel
hierarchy that was thought up earlier in the project in the degree morphemes. Once I realized
that a systematic approach could be made with relative ease, I decided to throw most of my list
to the wayside and start from scratch using my new system which, for the most part, followed a
Consonant Voiced Vowel Consonant Voiceless Vowel Consonant structure. I then began
to link certain beginning consonants to certain aspects, notably the TS sound which is linked to
divine or priestly concepts. The other structural aspects were in the vowels of the word. The

49

first vowel, usually voiced, defined the first set of five different genus roots, each with a set of
five species roots. Not all sets of words have both the genus and species classifications,
and are often just a set of the five species variations, though some notable examples of the
double classifications are in the body parts, rocks and gems, and methods of cooking. While the
majority of the words follow this structure, there are many exceptions, and the races hardly
follow it at all. This systematic approach to forming the vocabulary made it so that when I
created one word, I would be able to easily create four more, or even as many as 24 more, and
possibly even more than that if I decided to add on to that particular roots structure.
I then got to work on creating the words for numbers. This was more of a daunting task
than anticipated, especially because most of the time was spent trying to create it in a system
other than base 10. After numerous failed attempts and a burnt out brain, I realized that base 10
was much more realistic, especially since there are 5 sets of vowels. I then put a consonant
behind it, then one in front for the next number. After much thought and frustration, I finally had
my number system.
Once my language had a sizable vocabulary, I worked on fine tuning the orthography,
which I had been working on since the beginning. The orthography was one of the things that
first inspired me to create a language, as I think writing can be very beautiful and simply put:
really really cool looking. My major inspiration for the orthography was the vertical Golic
Vulcan calligraphy that was studied in class. I found it incredibly intriguing and wanted to
create something with similar wispy lines and spirals. After about 20 different pitiful attempts at
creating symbols for the vowels, I came up with the idea of using the vowel hierarchy combined
with an O. This resulted in vertical lines with circles in the middle in different spots to set
each vowel. I then decided that each vowel O would have a line coming from it which would

50

be the base for other letters. I then showed it to my instructor and realized that a line is
somewhat unfitting and instead V and U shapes that I had played with a bit would be much
more fitting as the vowels would correspond to the vowel chart. After this correction, the rest of
the orthography fell into place quite easily, and I used symbols either above or below the vowel
line as fricatives, symbolizing modifications to the air flow, and then breaks in the vowel line for
stops, to symbolize a break in the air flow. Once all of the symbols had be created, I made some
special symbols, for the special prefix verbs as well as symbols for double vowels and
pluralization. I then proceeded to work on writing in the orthography and found that the subject,
object, and prepositional phrase markers could easily be formed by the way the vowel line trails
off. After starting on writing the Tower of Babel in Gi'th, I discovered that the orthography is
perfect for a boustrophedon writing system, as the vowel line and the way symbols trail off
clearly show the direction of the writing. Though this was not originally planned, it was just too
perfect a set up to not write in boustrophedon, which also made it easier for the markers to
transcend lines of writing.
Now that the writing system was essentially complete, I decided that a number system
would be beneficial, so I began working on that. This actually came together quite easily and my
first real attempt ended up being the only one necessary, most likely due to basing it off of the
vowel system created for the writing. I decided that vowels would just be C, J, and U
shapes that corresponded by resembling the written vowels, without the Os in them. I then
simply created some symbols for the consonants and it was done.
With the orthography for the number system complete, I write the entire Tower of Babel
in the script, which brought about a great sense of accomplishment. I was finished. I had
completed what I had set out to do and created a fully functional language that was capable of

51

expressing a text, The Tower of Babel being an example, and not only in the text based writing
system, but in its own unique and beautiful (not to brag) writing system. Included in my
language were numerous unique aspects setting it apart from any other language. The psionic
voicing adding extra color and clarity, yet not limiting those able to speak it, and the vowel
hierarchy being just two of the interesting qualities. Every single aspect I had set out to do I had
seen through, with the exception of a text font, which is frankly near impossible without a
detailed program (which I happen to have a friend very willing to work on with me). The only
things left are getting a website up for it and getting it put on langmaker.com. As soon as
everything was complete I not only felt accomplished, but immediately began work on my next
conlang, or rather, set of conlangs with a historical background and structure. My next goal is to
get together several more conlangs for the Forgotten Realms of the Dungeons & Dragons role
playing game and make a book and/or website to show off my newfound hobby.

52