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AlfredWegener

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AlfredLotharWegener(1November1880November
1930)wasaGermanpolarresearcher,geophysicistand
meteorologist.
Duringhislifetimehewasprimarilyknownforhis
achievementsinmeteorologyandasapioneerofpolar
research,buttodayheismostrememberedastheoriginator
ofthetheoryofcontinentaldriftbyhypothesizingin1912
thatthecontinentsareslowlydriftingaroundtheEarth
(Kontinentalverschiebung).Hishypothesiswascontroversial
andnotwidelyaccepteduntilthe1950s,whennumerous
discoveriessuchaspalaeomagnetismprovidedstrong
supportforcontinentaldrift,andtherebyasubstantialbasis
fortoday'smodelofplatetectonics.[1][2]Wegenerwas
involvedinseveralexpeditionstoGreenlandtostudypolar
aircirculationbeforetheexistenceofthejetstreamwas
accepted.Expeditionparticipantsmademanymeteorological
observationsandachievedthefirsteveroverwinteringonthe
inlandGreenlandicesheetaswellasthefirsteverboringof
icecoresonamovingArcticglacier.

Contents
1 Biography
1.1 Earlylifeandeducation
1.2 FirstGreenlandexpeditionandyearsin
Marburg
1.3 SecondGreenlandexpedition
1.4 WorldWarI
1.5 Postwarperiodandthirdexpedition
1.6 Fourthandlastexpedition
1.7 Death
2 Continentaldrifttheory
2.1 Reaction
3 Moderndevelopments
4 Awardsandhonors
5 Seealso
6 References
7 Selectedworks
8 Externallinks

Biography
Earlylifeandeducation

AlfredWegener

AlfredWegener,ca.19241930
Born

1November1880
Berlin,GermanEmpire

Died

November1930(aged50)
Clarinetania,Greenland

Residence

Germany

Citizenship

German

Nationality

German

Fields

Meteorology,Geology,
Astronomy

Almamater

UniversityofBerlin

Doctoral
advisor

JuliusBauschinger

Knownfor

Continentaldrifttheory

Influenced

JohannesLetzmann
Signature

AlfredWegenerwasborninBerlinon1November1880astheyoungestoffivechildreninaclergyman's
family.Hisfather,RichardWegener,wasatheologianandteacherofclassicallanguagesattheBerlinisches
GymnasiumzumGrauenKloster.In1886hisfamilypurchasedaformermanorhousenearRheinsberg,which
theyusedasavacationhome.TodaythereisanAlfredWegenerMemorialsiteandtouristinformationofficein
anearbybuildingthatwasoncethelocalschoolhouse.[3]HewascousintomoviepioneerPaulWegener.
WegenerattendedschoolattheKllnischesGymnasiumonWallstrassein
Berlin(afactwhichismemorializedonaplaqueonthisprotectedbuilding,
nowaschoolofmusic),graduatingasthebestinhisclass.Afterwardhestudied
Physics,meteorologyandAstronomyinBerlin,HeidelbergandInnsbruck.
From1902to1903duringhisstudieshewasanassistantattheUrania
astronomicalobservatory.Heobtainedadoctorateinastronomyin1905based
onadissertationwrittenunderthesupervisionofJuliusBauschingerat
FriedrichWilhelmsUniversity(todayHumboldtUniversity),Berlin.Wegener
hadalwaysmaintainedastronginterestinthedevelopingfieldsofmeteorology
andclimatologyandhisstudiesafterwardsfocusedonthesedisciplines.
In1905WegenerbecameanassistantattheAeronautischesObservatorium
LindenbergnearBeeskow.HeworkedtherewithhisbrotherKurt,twoyearshis
Commemorativeplaqueon
senior,whowaslikewiseascientistwithaninterestinmeteorologyandpolar
Wegener'sformerschoolin
research.Thetwopioneeredtheuseofweatherballoonstotrackairmasses.On
Wallstrasse
aballoonascentundertakentocarryoutmeteorologicalinvestigationsandto
testacelestialnavigationmethodusingaparticulartypeofquadrant
(Libellenquadrant),theWegenerbrotherssetanewrecordforacontinuousballoonflight,remainingaloft
52.5hoursfromApril57,1906.[4]

FirstGreenlandexpeditionandyearsinMarburg
Inthatsameyear1906,WegenerparticipatedinthefirstofhisfourGreenlandexpeditions,laterregardingthis
experienceasmarkingadecisiveturningpointinhislife.TheexpeditionwasledbytheDaneLudvigMylius
ErichsenandchargedwithstudyingthelastunknownportionofthenortheasterncoastofGreenland.During
theexpeditionWegenerconstructedthefirstmeteorologicalstationinGreenlandnearDanmarkshavn,wherehe
launchedkitesandtetheredballoonstomakemeteorologicalmeasurementsinanArcticclimaticzone.Here
Wegeneralsomadehisfirstacquaintancewithdeathinawildernessoficewhentheexpeditionleaderandtwo
ofhiscolleaguesdiedonanexploratorytripundertakenwithsleddogs.
Afterhisreturnin1908anduntilWorldWarI,Wegenerwasalecturerinmeteorology,appliedastronomyand
cosmicphysicsattheUniversityofMarburg.HisstudentsandcolleaguesinMarburgparticularlyvaluedhis
abilitytoclearlyandunderstandablyexplainevencomplextopicsandcurrentresearchfindingswithout
sacrificingprecision.Hislecturesformedthebasisofwhatwastobecomeastandardtextbookinmeteorology,
firstwrittenIn1909/1910:ThermodynamikderAtmosphre(ThermodynamicsoftheAtmosphere),inwhichhe
incorporatedmanyoftheresultsoftheGreenlandexpedition.
On6January1912hepublicizedhisfirstthoughtsaboutcontinentaldriftinalectureatasessionofthe
GeologischenVereinigungattheSenckenbergMuseum,FrankfurtamMainandinthreearticlesinthejournal
PetermannsGeographischeMitteilungen.[5]

SecondGreenlandexpedition
AfterastopoverinIcelandtopurchaseandtestponiesaspackanimals,theexpeditionarrivedin
Danmarkshavn.Evenbeforethetriptotheinlandicebegantheexpeditionwasalmostannihilatedbyacalving
glacier.TheDanishexpeditionleader,JohanPeterKoch,brokehislegwhenhefellintoaglaciercrevasseand
spentmonthsrecoveringinasickbed.WegenerandKochwerethefirsttowinterontheinlandiceinnortheast
Greenland.[6]Insidetheirhuttheydrilledtoadepthof25mwithanauger.Insummer1913theteamcrossed

theinlandice,thefourexpeditionparticipantscoveringadistancetwiceaslongasFridtjofNansen'ssouthern
Greenlandcrossingin1888.OnlyafewkilometersfromthewesternGreenlandsettlementofKangersuatsiaq
thesmallteamranoutoffoodwhilestrugglingtofindtheirwaythroughdifficultglacialbreakupterrain.Butat
thelastmoment,afterthelastponyanddoghadbeeneaten,theywerepickedupatafjordbytheclergymanof
Upernavik,whojusthappenedtobevisitingaremotecongregationatthetime.
Laterin1913afterhisreturnWegenermarriedElseKppen,thedaughterofhisformerteacherandmentor,the
meteorologistWladimirKppen.TheyoungpairlivedinMarburg,whereWegnerresumedhisuniversity
lectureship.

WorldWarI
AsaninfantryreserveofficerWegenerwasimmediatelycalledupwhentheFirstWorldWarbeganin1914.On
thewarfrontinBelgiumheexperiencedfiercefightingbuthistermlastedonlyafewmonths:afterbeing
woundedtwicehewasdeclaredunfitforactiveserviceandassignedtothearmyweatherservice.Thisactivity
requiredhimtotravelconstantlybetweenvariousweatherstationsinGermany,ontheBalkans,ontheWestern
FrontandintheBalticregion.
Nevertheless,hewasablein1915tocompletethefirstversionofhismajorwork,DieEntstehungder
KontinenteundOzeane(TheOriginofContinentsandOceans).HisbrotherKurtremarkedthatAlfred
Wegenersmotivationwastoreestablishtheconnectionbetweengeophysicsontheonehandandgeography
andgeologyontheother,whichhadbecomecompletelyrupturedbecauseofthespecializeddevelopmentof
thesebranchesofscience.
Interestinthissmallpublicationwashoweverlow,alsobecauseofwartimechaos.Bytheendofthewar
Wegenerhadpublishedalmost20additionalmeteorologicalandgeophysicalpapersinwhichherepeatedly
embarkedfornewscientificfrontiers.In1917heundertookascientificinvestigationoftheTreysameteorite.

Postwarperiodandthirdexpedition
WegenerobtainedapositionasameteorologistattheGermanNavalObservatory(DeutscheSeewarte)and
movedtoHamburgwithhiswifeandtheirtwodaughters.In1921hewasappointedseniorlectureratthenew
UniversityofHamburg.From1919to1923Wegenerdidpioneeringworkonreconstructingtheclimateofpast
eras(nowknownas"paleoclimatology"),closelyincollaborationwithMilutinMilankovi,[7]publishingDie
KlimatedergeologischenVorzeit(TheClimatesoftheGeologicalPast)togetherwithhisfatherinlaw,
WladimirKppen,in1924.[8]In1922thethird,fullyrevisededitionofTheOriginofContinentsandOceans
appeared,anddiscussionbeganonhistheoryofcontinentaldrift,firstintheGermanlanguageareaandlater
internationally.Witheringcriticismwastheresponseofmostexperts.
In1924WegenerwasappointedtoaprofessorshipinmeteorologyandgeophysicsinGraz,whichfinally
providedhimwithasecurepositionforhimselfandhisfamily.Heconcentratedonphysicsandtheopticsofthe
atmosphereaswellasthestudyoftornados.ScientificassessmentofhissecondGreenlandexpedition(ice
measurements,atmosphericoptics,etc.)continuedtotheendofthe1920s.
InNovember1926WegenerpresentedhiscontinentaldrifttheoryatasymposiumoftheAmericanAssociation
ofPetroleumGeologistsinNewYorkCity,againearningrejectionfromeveryonebutthechairman.Three
yearslaterthefourthandfinalexpandededitionofTheOriginofContinentsandOceansappeared.
In1929WegenerembarkedonhisthirdtriptoGreenland,whichlaidthegroundworkforalatermain
expeditionandincludedatestofaninnovative,propellerdrivensnowmobile.

Fourthandlastexpedition

Wegener'slastGreenlandexpeditionwasin1930.The14participantsunderhis
leadershipweretoestablishthreepermanentstationsfromwhichthethickness
oftheGreenlandicesheetcouldbemeasuredandyearroundArcticweather
observationsmade.Wegenerfeltpersonallyresponsiblefortheexpedition's
success,astheGermangovernmenthadcontributed$120,000($1.5millionin
2007dollars).Successdependedonenoughprovisionsbeingtransferredfrom
WestcamptoEismitte("midice")fortwomentowinterthere,andthiswasa
factorinthedecisionthatledtohisdeath.Owingtoalatethaw,theexpedition
wassixweeksbehindscheduleand,assummerended,themenatEismittesent
amessagethattheyhadinsufficientfuelandsowouldreturnon20October.
On24September,althoughtheroute
markerswerebynowlargelyburied
Wegener(left)andVillumsen
undersnow,Wegenersetoutwith
(right)inGreenland
thirteenGreenlandersandhis
November1,1930.
meteorologistFritzLoewetosupplythe
campbydogsled.Duringthejourney,
thetemperaturereached60C(76F)andLoewe'stoesbecameso
frostbittentheyhadtobeamputatedwithapenknifewithoutanesthetic.
TwelveoftheGreenlandersreturnedtoWestcamp.On19Octoberthe
remainingthreemembersoftheexpeditionreachedEismitte.There
beingonlyenoughsuppliesforthreeatEismitte,WegenerandRasmus
Vehiclesusedbythe1930expedition
VillumsentooktwodogsledsandmadeforWestcamp.Theytookno
(stored).
foodforthedogsandkilledthemonebyonetofeedtherestuntilthey
couldrunonlyonesled.WhileVillumsenrodethesled,Wegenerhadto
useskis,buttheyneverreachedthecamp:WegenerdiedandVillumsenwasneverseenagain.Theexpedition
wascompletedbyhisbrother,KurtWegener.
ThisexpeditioninspiredtheGreenlandexpeditionepisodeofAdamMelfortinJohnBuchan's1933novelA
PrinceoftheCaptivity.

Death
WegenerdiedinClarinetania,Greenland,inNovember1930.Villumsenhadburiedthebodywithgreatcare,
andapairofskismarkedthegravesite.AfterburyingWegener,VillumsenhadresumedhisjourneytoWest
camp,butwasneverseenagain.Sixmonthslater,on12May1931,Wegener'sbodywasfoundhalfway
betweenEismitteandWestcamp.Theteamthatfoundhimreburiedhisbodyinthesamespotandmarkedthe
gravewithalargecross.Wegenerhadbeen50yearsofageandaheavysmoker,anditwasbelievedthathehad
diedofheartfailurebroughtonbyoverexertion.Villumsenwas23whenhedied,anditisestimatedthathis
body,andWegener'sdiary,nowlieundermorethan100metres(330ft)ofaccumulatediceandsnow.

Continentaldrifttheory
AlfredWegenerfirstthoughtofthisideabynoticingthatthedifferentlargelandmassesoftheEarthalmostfit
togetherlikeajigsawpuzzle.TheContinentalshelfoftheAmericasfitcloselytoAfricaandEurope,and
Antarctica,Australia,IndiaandMadagascarfittednexttothetipofSouthernAfrica.ButWegeneronlytook
actionafterreadingapaperin1911andseeingthatafloodedlandbridgecontradictsisostasy.[9]Wegener's
maininterestwasmeteorology,andhewantedtojointheDenmarkGreenlandexpeditionscheduledformid
1912.HepresentedhisContinentalDrifthypothesison6January1912.HeanalyzedbothsidesoftheAtlantic
Oceanforrocktype,geologicalstructuresandfossils.Henoticedthattherewasasignificantsimilaritybetween
matchingsidesofthecontinents,especiallyinfossilplants.

Fossilpatternsacrosscontinents
(Gondwana).

From1912,Wegenerpubliclyadvocatedtheexistenceof"continental
drift",arguingthatallthecontinentswereoncejoinedtogetherina
singlelandmassandhadsincedriftedapart.Hesupposedthatthe
mechanismscausingthedriftmightbethecentrifugalforceofthe
Earth'srotation("Polflucht")ortheastronomicalprecession.Wegener
alsospeculatedonseafloorspreadingandtheroleofthemidocean
ridges,stating:theMidAtlanticRidge...zoneinwhichthefloorofthe
Atlantic,asitkeepsspreading,iscontinuouslytearingopenandmaking
spaceforfresh,relativelyfluidandhotsima[rising]fromdepth.[10]
However,hedidnotpursuetheseideasinhislaterworks.

In1915,inTheOriginofContinentsandOceans(DieEntstehungder
KontinenteundOzeane),Wegenerdrewtogetherevidencefromvarious
fieldstoadvancethetheorythattherehadoncebeenagiantcontinentwhichhenamed"Urkontinent"[11]
(Germanfor"primalcontinent",analogoustotheGreek"Pangaea",[12]meaning"AllLands"or"AllEarth").
Expandededitionsduringthe1920spresentedfurtherevidence.Thelastedition,justbeforehisuntimelydeath,
revealedthesignificantobservationthatshalloweroceansweregeologicallyyounger.

Reaction
Inhiswork,Wegenerpresentedalargeamountofobservational
evidenceinsupportofcontinentaldrift,butthemechanismremaineda
problem,partlybecauseWegener'sestimateofthevelocityof
continentalmotion,250cm/year,wastoohigh.[13](Thecurrently
acceptedratefortheseparationoftheAmericasfromEuropeandAfrica
isabout2.5cm/year).[14]
WegenerduringJ.P.Koch's
WhilehisideasattractedafewearlysupporterssuchasAlexanderDu
Expedition19121913inthewinter
ToitfromSouthAfrica,ArthurHolmesinEngland[15]andMilutin
base"Borg".
MilankoviinSerbiaforwhomcontinentaldrifttheorywasthepremise
ininvestigatingpolarwandering,[16][17]thehypothesiswasinitiallymet
withskepticismfromgeologistswhoviewedWegenerasanoutsider,andwereresistanttochange.[15]Theone
AmericaneditionofWegener'swork,publishedin1925,whichwaswrittenin"adogmaticstylethatoften
resultsfromGermantranslations",[15]wasreceivedsopoorlythattheAmericanAssociationofPetroleum
Geologistsorganizedasymposiumspecificallyinoppositiontothecontinentaldrifthypothesis.[18]The
opponentsargued,asdidtheLeipzigergeologistFranzKossmat,thattheoceaniccrustwastoofirmforthe
continentsto"simplyploughthrough".

Wegener'sfitofthesupercontinentatthe200misobath(thecontinentalshelves),anideahehadsinceatleast
1910,wasagoodmatch.[15]PartofthereasonWegener'sideaswerenotinitiallyacceptedwasbasedonhis
proposedfitofthecontinents,withCharlesSchuchertcommenting:
Duringthisvasttime[ofthesplitofPangea]theseawaveshavebeencontinuouslypounding
againstAfricaandBrazilandinmanyplacesrivershavebeenbringingintotheoceangreat
amountsoferodedmaterial,yeteverywherethegeographicshorelinesaresaidtohaveremained
practicallyunchanged!ItapparentlymakesnodifferencetoWegenerhowhardorhowsoftarethe
rocksoftheseshorelines,whataretheirgeologicalstructuresthatmightaidorretardlandor
marineerosion,howoftenthestrandlineshavebeenelevatedordepressed,andhowfar
peneplanationhasgoneonduringeachperiodofcontinentalstability.Furthermore,sealevelin
itselfhasnotbeenconstant,especiallyduringthePleistocene,whenthelandswerecoveredby

millionsofsquaremilesoficemadefromwatersubtractedoutoftheoceans.Intheequatorial
regions,thislevelfluctuatedthreetimesduringthePleistocene,andduringeachperiodofice
accumulationthesealevelsankabout250feet.
ThecommentwasbasedonthemisapprehensionthatWegener'sfitwasjudgedalongthecurrentcoastline,
whileWegenerwasusingthe200misobath.Wegener,whowasintheaudience,madenoattempttodefendhis
work,(possiblybecauseofaninadequatecommandoftheEnglishlanguage).SupporterssuchasToit,also
contributedtothismisunderstandingofthemethodofthecontinentalfitting,commenting(afterWegener's
death)"mostpersonsviewthecontinentalshelfasanintegralpartofthecontinentalblock,andcriticise
Wegenerforendeavoringtofittogetherthemassesbytheirpresentcoastlinesinsteadofbythesubmerged
marginsoftheshelves."[15]
In1943GeorgeGaylordSimpsonwroteavehementattackonthetheory(aswellastherivaltheoryofsunken
landbridges)andputforwardhisownpermanentistviews.[19]AlexanderduToitwrotearejoinderinthe
followingyear.[20]

Moderndevelopments
Intheearly1950s,thenewscienceofpaleomagnetism
pioneeredattheUniversityofCambridgebyS.K.Runcorn
andatImperialCollegebyP.M.S.Blackettwassoon
producingdatainfavourofWegener'stheory.Byearly
1953samplestakenfromIndiashowedthatthecountryhad
previouslybeenintheSouthernhemisphereaspredictedby
Wegener.By1959,thetheoryhadenoughsupportingdata
thatmindswerestartingtochange,particularlyinthe
UnitedKingdomwhere,in1964,theRoyalSocietyhelda
symposiumonthesubject.[21]
Additionally,the1960ssawseveraldevelopmentsin
Thetectonicplatesoftheworldweremappedinthe
geology,notablythediscoveriesofseafloorspreadingand
secondhalfofthe20thcentury.
WadatiBenioffzones,andthisledtotherapidresurrection
ofthecontinentaldrifthypothesisanditsdirectdescendant,
thetheoryofplatetectonics.MapsofthegeomorphologyoftheoceanfloorscreatedbyMarieTharpin
cooperationwithBruceHeezenwereanimportantcontributiontotheparadigmshiftthatwasstarting.Wegener
wasthenrecognizedasthefoundingfatherofoneofthemajorscientificrevolutionsofthe20thcentury.
WiththeadventoftheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS),itbecamepossibletomeasurecontinentaldrift
directly.[22]

Awardsandhonors
TheAlfredWegenerInstituteforPolarandMarineResearchinBremerhaven,Germany,wasestablishedin
1980onhiscentenary.ItawardstheWegenerMedalinhisname.[23]ThecraterWegenerontheMoonandthe
craterWegeneronMars,aswellastheasteroid29227WegenerandthepeninsulawherehediedinGreenland
(WegenerPeninsulanearUmmannaq,7112N5150W),arenamedafterhim.[24]
TheEuropeanGeosciencesUnionsponsorsanAlfredWegenerMedal&HonoraryMembership"forscientists
whohaveachievedexceptionalinternationalstandinginatmospheric,hydrologicaloroceansciences,defined
intheirwidestsenses,fortheirmeritandtheirscientificachievements."[25]

Seealso
HairiceWegenerintroducedatheoryonthegrowthofhairicein1918.

References
1.Spaulding,NancyE.Namowitz,SamuelN.(2005).EarthScience.Boston:McDougalLittell.ISBN0618115501.
2.McIntyre,MichaelEilers,H.PeterMairs,John(1991).Physicalgeography.NewYork:Wiley.p.273.ISBN0
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3.ThememorialsiteistheGedenksttteZechlinerhtte,see
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6.DansgaardW(2004).FrozenAnnalsGreenlandIceSheetResearch.Odder,Denmark:NarayanaPress.p.124.
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7.introductiontotheEnglishedition(http://borntraegercramer.com/9783443010881),TheClimatesoftheGeological
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8.Kppen,W.&Wegener,A.(1924):DieKlimatedergeologischenVorzeit,BorntraegerSciencePublishers.In
EnglishasTheClimatesoftheGeologicalPast(2015).
9.Arldt,Th.(1910)."ReferatScharff:UeberdieBeweissgruendefuereinefruehereLandbrueckezwischenNordeuropa
undNordamerika".Naturwiss.Rdsch.(inGerman).25:8687.,Scharff,R.F.(1909)."UeberdieBeweissgruende
fuereinefruehereLandbrueckezwischenNordeuropaundNordamerika".Proc.RoyalIrishAcad.(inGerman).28:
128.citedinFlgel,HelmutW.(December1980)."WegenerAmpfererSchwinner:EinBeitragzurGeschichteder
Geologieinsterreich"[WegenerAmpfererSchwinner:AContributiontotheHistoryoftheGeologyinAustria]
(PDF).Mitt.sterr.Geol.Ges.(inGerman).73.
10.Jacoby,W.R.(January1981)."ModernconceptsofearthdynamicsanticipatedbyAlfredWegenerin1912".
Geology.9:2527.Bibcode:1981Geo.....9...25J.doi:10.1130/00917613(1981)9<25:MCOEDA>2.0.CO2.
11.accordingtotheOED,2dedition(1989),thewordisnotfoundinthe1915editionofWegener'stextitappearsinthe
1920editionbutwithnoindicationthatWegenercoinedit
12.W.A.J.M.vanWaterschootvanderGracht,BaileyWillis,RollinT.Chamberlin,JohnJoly,G.A.F.Molengraaff,
J.W.Gregory,AlfredWegener,CharlesSchuchert,ChesterR.Longwell,FrankBursleyTaylor,WilliamBowie,
DavidWhite,JosephT.Singewald,Jr.,andEdwardW.Berry(1928).W.A.J.M.vanWaterschootvanderGracht,ed.
TheoryofContinentalDrift:asymposiumontheoriginandmovementoflandmassesbothintercontinentaland
intracontinentalasproposedbyAlfredWegener,ASymposiumoftheAmericanAssociationofPetroleumGeologists
(AAPG,1926).Tulsa,OK.p.240.
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oncalculator.html)(accessed30April2015).
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Bibcode:1976Geo.....4...41D.doi:10.1130/00917613(1976)4<41:AWROP>2.0.CO2.
16.MathematischeKlimalehreundastronomischeTheoriederKlimaschwankungen.inW.Kppen&R.Geiger(Hrsg.):
HandbuchderKlimatologieBd.1:AllgemeineKlimalehre.Borntraeger,Berlin,1930
17.http://elibrary.matf.bg.ac.rs/bitstream/handle/123456789/3675/mm35F.pdf?sequence=1
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Selectedworks
Wegener,Alfred(1911).ThermodynamikderAtmosphre[ThermodynamicsoftheAtmosphere](in
German).Leipzig:VerlagVonJohannAmbrosiusBarth.(German)
Wegener,Alfred(1912)."DieHerausbildungderGrossformenderErdrinde(KontinenteundOzeane),
aufgeophysikalischerGrundlage".PetermannsGeographischeMitteilungen(inGerman).63:185195,
253256,305309.PresentedattheannualmeetingoftheGermanGeologicalSociety,Frankfurtam
Main(January6,1912).
Wegener,Alfred(July1912)."DieEntstehungderKontinente".GeologischeRundschau(inGerman).3
(4):276292.Bibcode:1912GeoRu...3..276W.doi:10.1007/BF02202896.
Wegener,Alfred(1922).DieEntstehungderKontinenteundOzeane[TheOriginofContinentsand
Oceans](inGerman).ISBN3443010563.LCCNunk83068007.
Wegener,Alfred(1929).DieEntstehungderKontinenteundOzeane[TheOriginofContinentsand
Oceans](inGerman)(4ed.).Braunschweig:FriedrichVieweg&SohnAkt.Ges.ISBN3443010563.
Englishlanguageedition:Wegener,Alfred(1966).TheOriginofContinentsandOceans.New
York:Dover.ISBN0486617084.TranslatedfromthefourthrevisedGermaneditionbyJohn
Biram.Britishedition:Methuen,London(1968).
Kppen,W.&Wegener,A.(1924):DieKlimatedergeologischenVorzeit,BorntraegerScience
Publishers.Englishlanguageedition:TheClimatesoftheGeologicalPast(http://borntraegercramer.co
m/9783443010881)2015.
Wegener,ElsieLoewe,Fritz,eds.(1939).GreenlandJourney,TheStoryofWegenersGerman
ExpeditiontoGreenlandin193031astoldbyMembersoftheExpeditionandtheLeadersDiary.
London:Blackie&SonLtd.TranslatedfromtheseventhGermaneditionbyWinifredM.Deans.

Externallinks
WorksbyAlfredWegener(http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Alfr
WikimediaCommonshas
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WorksbyoraboutAlfredWegener(https://archive.org/search.ph
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Lothar%22%20OR%20subject%3A%22Wegener%2C%20Alfred%20L%2E%22%20OR%20subject%3
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ener%29%29%20AND%20%28mediatype:software%29)atInternetArchive
WorksbyAlfredWegener(http://librivox.org/author/3040)atLibriVox(publicdomainaudiobooks)
WegenerInstitutewebsite(http://www.awi.de/en)
USGSbiographyofWegener(http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/wegener.html)
WegenerbiographyatPangaea.org(http://pangaea.org/wegener.htm)
AlfredWegener(18801930)(http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/wegener.html)Biographical
material

Wegener'spaper(1912)onlineandanalyzed,BibNum(http://www.bibnum.education.fr/sciencesdelaterr
e/g%C3%A9ologie/laformationdescontinents)(forEnglishtextgoto"Atlcharger")
DieEntstehungderKontinenteundOzeane(http://lhldigital.lindahall.org/cdm/ref/collection/earththeory/i
d/16311)fulldigitalfacsimileatLindaHallLibrary
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfred_Wegener&oldid=740761435"
Categories: 1880births 1930deaths Germangeophysicists Germangeologists Germanmeteorologists
Germanclimatologists Tectonicists GermanmilitarypersonnelofWorldWarI ScientistsfromBerlin
PeoplefromtheProvinceofBrandenburg HumboldtUniversityofBerlinalumni
UniversityofMarburgfaculty 20thcenturyGermanwriters Germanmalewriters
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