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CHAPTER 8

MASS SPECTROMETER TESTING METHOD


QUESTIONAIRE
1. A pressure of 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) is defined as the pressure which
supports a column of mercury :
a. 76 cm high at 0oC at sea level
b. 30 in. high at 32oF at sea level
c. both a and b
d. none of the above
2. When a liquid in a confined place no longer continues to evaporate,
the partial pressure of the space will reach a condition of equilibrium
equal to the ____________ of the liquid
a. atmosphere pressure
b. vapor pressure
c. Avogadros pressure
d. vacuum pressure
3. For sensitive leak testing, the mass spectrometer should have the
capability of yielding an unambiguous response to a helium partial
pressure of :
a. 13 kPa (100 mm Hg)
b. 13 GPa (108 mm Hg)
c. 1.3 Pa (10-2 mm Hg)
d. 1.3 nPa (10-11 mm Hg)
4. Vacuum roughing (mechanical) pumps are generally able to evacuate
a chamber from atmosphere pressure to an absolute pressure of
about :
a. 1.3 kPa (10 mm Hg)
b. 1.3 Pa (10-2 mm Hg)
c. 1.3 Pa (10-8 mm Hg)
d. 13 kPa (102 mm Hg)
5. The principle of operation of the vacuum diffusion pump is :
a. oil vapors colliding with gas molecules, forcing them in one specific
direction
b. gas molecules being trapped in the diffusion oil
c. ionization of gas molecules
d. to improve efficiency of the roughing pump by injecting oil vapors

6. The spontaneous evolution of gas and vapor from materials in a


vacuum as pressure is reduced is called :
a. gasification
b. hydrofoiling
c. outgassing
d. reticulation
7. Outgassing during leak testing can be eliminated quicker by :
a. cooling the material while pumping
b. coating the material lightly with vacuum grease prior to pumping
c. baking the material while pumping
d. using large capacity vacuum pumps
8. Diffusion pump oils for high vacuum leak testing should :
a. have low vapor pressure
b. be chemically and thermally stable
c. have low viscosity and high molecular weight
d. all of the above
9. For leak testing, helium is often used as a tracer gas because:
a. it has a low mass and is inert
b. it has a high mass and is inert
c. it is inexpensive because of its natural abundance in the atmosphere
d. none of the above
10. Neon is generally not used as a tracer gas for leak testing work because
:
a. it is not an inert gas
b. it is extremely difficult to tune a mass spectrometer to be sensitive to it
c. it does not diffuse through leaks
d. it is very expensive
11. In mass spectrometer leak testing, which of the following gases is not
used as a tracer gas ?
a. helium
b. argon
c. neon
d. none of the above
12. Which term denotes the time it takes for a leak detector to yield output
equal to 63 percent of the maximum signal (stable peak) obtained when
helium was previously applied indefinitely to the system inlet ?
a. rise time
b. response time
c. time constant
d. cycle time

13. 1 m Hg absolute pressure is equal to :


133 kPa (1 000 mm Hg)
a. 101 kPa (760 mm Hg)
b. 133 Pa (1 mm Hg)
c. 133 mPa (0.001 mm Hg)
14. A torr is defined as :
a. 2 Pa (14.7 psia)
b. 1 m of Hg
c. 1/760 of a standard atmosphere
d. 101 Pa (760 mm of Hg)
15. What are three essential parameters involved in the dynamics of
gases ?
a. density, atomic weight, pressure
b. pressure, specific gravity, atomic weight
c. volume, temperature, density
d. volume, temperature, pressure
16. Pressure is best defined as :
a. total force
b. temperature x volume
c. volume x density
d. force per unit area
17. The pressure of a gas relative to a vacuum and independent of
atmospheric pressure is :
a. gauge pressure
b. absolute pressure
c. partial pressure
d. vapor pressure
18. Which of the following can contribute to the inaccuracy of leakage
measurement with a mass spectrometer leak detector ?
a. variations in the pressure differential applied across the leak
b. non-linearity of the mass spectrometer leak detector equipment
c. impurity or stratification of the tracer gas
d. all of the above
19. The passage of a gas by diffusion through a solid material where
there is no physical leak in the sense of an opening or defect is called :
a. absorption
b. adsorption
c. capillary action
d. permeation

20. -273oC (0 degrees Kelvin) is best defined as the temperature at


which :
a. nitrogen solidifies
b. ideal gases become real gases
c. a gas exerts zero pressure
d. gases liquefy
21. A continuous measurement to detect the presence of contaminants
entering or leaving a system is called leakage :
a. measurement
b. location
c. monitoring
d. mobility
22. Which of the following is generally considered absolutely leaktight?
a. a thin-walled cryogenic vessel
b. a thick-walled normal sphere
c. a stainless steel normal sphere
d. nothing is considered absolutely leak-tight
23. The size of a leak in mass spectrometer leak detector testing is
generally expressed in terms of :
a. physical dimensions
b. leakage rate
c. pressure differential
d. none of the above
24. The leakage rate through a given leak is :
a. greatest at a zero differential pressure
b. smaller at a higher differential pressure
c. larger at a higher differential pressure
d. larger at a lower differential pressure
25. An increase in a test systems boundary differential pressure increases
the flow of tracer gas through a particular size leak; this in turn:
a. increases the tracer gas flow rate into the leak detector
b. increases the response time of a leak detector
c. both a and b
d. none of the above

26. Which of the following factors affect the sensitivity and response
time of a vacuum test system?
a. the speed at which the gas is removed by the pump or combination of
pumps
b. the volume under test
c. the sensitivity of the leak detector used
d. all of the above
27. When performing a mass spectrometer leak detector leak test of an
ultra high vacuum system :
a. a preliminary hydrostatic test should be performed
b. a preliminary hydrostatic test should not be performed
c. a pressure test should be used in instead of a vacuum test
d. none of the above
28. An output signal of the mass spectrometer leak detector caused by
any reason other than a real leak is called :
a. a Doppler signal
b. a dipole signal
c. background
d. a virtual leak
29. A device that permits a known flow of tracer gas into a leak
detector to facilitate the standardization of the leak detector is a :
a. manifold
b. standard leak
c. pirani gauge
d. diatron
30. Which of the following would not cause an inaccuracy of a leak
detector?
a. non-linearity of the mass spectrometer leak detector
b. impurity of the tracer gas
c. low atmospheric pressure
d. none of the above
31. When roughing down large vacuum test systems :
a. the mass spectrometer leak detector diffusion pump should be used to
assist the roughing pump(s)
b. the mass spectrometer leak detector diffusion pump should not be
used to assist the roughing pump(s)
c. the piping connecting the mass spectrometer leak detector to the
system should be as long as possible
d. dry ice should be used in the cold trap(s)
32. The first step before roughing down a specimen to be vacuum leak

tested is to :
a. check your standard leak
b. fill the diffusion pump with liquid nitrogen
c. check and make sure the remote control switch is on
d. inspect a specimen for cleanliness and then check all fittings and
connections for leaks
33. Gas sample analysis in the mass spectrometer leak detector is based
upon the fact that :
a. only the tracer gas will be ionized
b. only the tracer gas ions will be sufficiently accelerated to overcome the
magnetic field
c. only the tracer gas ions will be sufficiently charged to generate a single
at the electron target
d. the tracer gas ions have a different radius of curvature in the magnetic
field than the other gas ions in the samples
34. The forepump in a helium mass spectrometer is used to :
a. evacuate the internal pressure of the system to less than 1.3 Pa (0.01
m)
b. evacuate the manifold pressure of the system to less than 130 Pa (1
m)
c. rough down the internal high vacuum system and back the diffusion
pump or turbomolecular pump
d. pressurize the diatron cavity
35. Which of the following conditions might affect the leakage rate from
a calibrated permeation type standard leak :
a. pumping speed of the mass spectrometer leak detector
b. high intensity
c. ambient temperature
d. volume of the glass leak reservoir
36. The test sensitivity when detector probe pressure testing at
standard pressure, as compared to the test sensitivity when tracer
probe vacuum testing, is :
a. increased by a ratio of at least 1 to 100
b. decreased by a ratio of at least 100 to 1
c. decreased by a ratio of 3 to 2
d. not affected

37. Increasing the detector probe speed over the area being examined
will result in :

a.
b.
c.
d.

a decrease in response time


an increase in test sensitivity
a decrease in test sensitivity
a decrease in instrument sensitivity

38. Increasing the detector probe distance from the surface being
examined will result in :
a. a decrease in response time
b. an increase in test sensitivity
c. a decrease in test sensitivity
d. none of the above
39. The purpose of a mass spectrometer leak detector diffusion pump is
to :
a. evacuate the internal high vacuum system to a very low pressure
b. evacuate the internal manifold system to less than the 0.13 Pa (0.001
m)
c. preheat gases to increase the forepump efficiency
d. none of the above
40. The purpose of the mass spectrometer leak detector analyzer tube is
to :
a. detect and measure the tracer gas content in the test sample
b. measure the internal pressure of the system in microns of mercury
c. pump all the gases except the tracer gas from the test sample
d. control the filament protection system
41. The leakage rates of tracer gas are measured in :
a. m of Hg
b. std. cm3 /s
c. percentage of tracer gas to air
d. parts per million
42. The diffusion pump in a mass spectrometer leak detector must not
be vented to atmosphere while the system is operating because the :
a. forepump will stall
b. oil vapors may oxidize and backstream through the system
c. water vapor in the atmosphere will emulsify the oil in the diffusion
pump
d. diffusion pump will be automatically cut off from the test system

43. An output signal of the leak detector due to the entrapment of the
tracer gas in the vacuum test system is called :
a. degassing

b. backstreaming
c. background
d. all of the above
44. What single factor influences the response time significantly in mass
spectrometer dynamic vacuum testing ?
a. the volume of the system under test
b. the ambient temperature
c. the model of the mass spectrometer leak detector used
d. none of the above
45. In the molecular mode, helium will flow through a leak :
a. at the same rate as air
b. at a slower rate than air
c. at a faster rate than air
d. in a turbulent flow pattern
46. In the viscous mode, air will flow through a leak :
a. at the same rate as helium
b. at a faster rate than helium
c. at a slower rate than helium
d. in accordance with Knudsens law
47. Ions in a mass spectrometer analyzer tube are :
a. negatively charged
b. neutral
c. positively charged
d. elastic
48. A virtual leak is :
a. a leak that is small enough to be within the acceptance standards and
therefore does not have to be repaired
b. a leak that is so small as to be virtually impossible to detect
c. a leak from an isolated pocket within a vacuum system
d. outgassing vapors within a vacuum system
49. In a vacuum system, which of the following are areas where virtual
leakage can exist?
a. fillet welds completely around stiffeners
b. fillet welds completely around internal attachments
c. double gasket seals
d. all of the above
50. To measure pressure in a vacuum system in the range of 1 to 500 m
Hg, which type of gauge should be used ?
a. swing dial gauge

b. cold cathode gauge


c. ionization gauge
d. pirani gauge
51. When conducting a helium mass spectrometer rest of a vacuum
Vessel in the pressure range of 13 mPa to 1.3 Pa (10 -4 to 10-8 mm
Hg), which type of gauge could be used to measure the pressure?
a. alphatron gauge
b. thermionic ionization gauge
c. pirani gauge
d. thermocouple gauge
52. When monitoring a vacuum vessel during pumpdown from
atmosphere to 2.6 kPa (20 mm Hg), which type of gauge could be
used to measure the pressure?
a. pirani gauge
b. cold cathode gauge
c. bourdon and diaphragm dial gauge
d. red head gauge
53. When manually throttling a helium mass spectrometer into a
vacuum system for leak testing, which of the following factors
affects the extent to which the instrument throttle valve may be
opened?
a. the system volume
b. the diameter of the mass spectrometer connecting line
c. the length of the mass spectrometer probe line
d. all of the above
54. In addition to the direct effect of helium mass spectrometer
sensitivity, which of the following can affect the sensitivity attainable
when performing a helium tracer probe test of a vacuum system?
a. volume of the system
b. location and length and size of the connection between the instrument
and the system
c. effective pump speed of the system
d. all of the above

55. Helium standard leaks in the ranges of 10 -6 through 10-10 std. cm3 /s
are known in general terms as :
a. reservoir standard leaks
b. capillary standard leaks
c. permission standard leaks

d. adjustable standard leaks


56. Helium standard leaks in the range of 10-1 to 10-5 std. cm3 /s are
known in general terms as :
a. needle standard leaks
b. capillary standard leaks
c. permission standard leaks
d. adjustable standard leaks
57. What type of helium mass spectrometer test is performed to detect
leaks by spraying helium on the outside of an evacuated system
while the system vacuum pumps are pumping on the system?
a. helium detector probe test
b. helium tracer probe test
c. helium static leakage rate test
d. either a or c
58. Which of the following is a helium mass spectrometer vacuum
testing technique?
a. helium hood test
b. helium detector probe test
c. helium tracer probe test
d. either a or c
59. When conducting a helium detector probe test of a vessel using a
helium mass spectrometer, which of the following affects the test
sensitivity attainable?
a. linear speed of the sampling probe
b. vessel vacuum system pump speed
c. volume of the vessel
d. pressure level in the evacuated vessel
60. Which of the following is a test performed by pressurizing a vessel
with a helium mixture to a pressure, greater than atmospheric
pressure and then scanning the outside surface of that vessel with a
helium mass spectrometer to detect helium leakage :
a. helium hood test
b. helium detector probe test
c. helium tracer probe test
d. helium static leakage rate test
61. To measure vacuum in the range from 20 mm Hg Pressure, which one of
the following gauges could be used?
a. pirani gauge
b. cold cathode gauge
c. bourdon or diaphragm dial gauge

d. ionization gauge
62. To measure vacuum in the range from atmosphere to 7 mPa (50 m
Hg) pressure, which of the following gauges could be used?
a. ionization gauge
b. thermocouple gauge
c. bourdon gauge
d. cold cathode gauge
63. As the pressure in a space decreases, the length of the mean free
path of gas molecules in that space :
a. becomes shorter
b. becomes longer
c. oscillates
d. stays the same

Q.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
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Chapter - 8
Answers Q.No.
C
33
B
34
D
35
B
36
A
37
C
38
C
39
D
40
A
41
D
42
C
43
B
44
D
45
C
46
D
47
D
48
B
49
D
50
D
51
C
52
C
53
D
54
B
55
C
56
A
57
D
58
B
59
C
60
B
61
C
62
B
63
B

Answer
D
C
C
B
C
C
A
A
B
B
C
A
C
B
C
C
D
D
B
C
B
D
C
B
B
D
A
B
C
B
B