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You are on page 1of 55

Exposed to Fire

Part 1. Material Properties

Lecture notes

BYGDTU

2007

ISSN 1396-4046

CONTENTS

Contents

Symbols

Preface

Deterioration curves

Reinforcement

10

11

Cold-worked reinforcement

13

15

17

19

Stiffness of steel

23

Properties of concrete

24

Parameters

27

Heating rate

28

Cooling

29

Strength

30

Siliceous concrete

31

32

Lightweight aggregate

33

34

Alumina cement

35

Stiffness of concrete

36

40

Stress distribution

43

References

51

SYMBOLS

A

Ac

As

At

a

a

ao

a1

au

B

b

bo

C

Ceff

C'

Ci

c

D'

d

dc

dN

dP

dP+N

ds

ds,ave

ds'

E

E'

Eco

Eco20

EP

Es

Es20

F

FcE

Fc

Fcr

Fcrc

Fcu

Fs

FsE

Fsu

area of a concrete cross-section

area of a steel cross-section

tot. area of the surf. of a compartment

thermal diffusivity

parameter proportional to c

a for o in stead of c

calculation value

ultimate value of a

coefficient of total deflection

a function of a: b = (a - 1 + e-a) /a

b for a = ao

thickness of cross-section

effective width = 4/3 C

half period of a fire heat pulse

constant of number i

modified thickness

thermal amplitude

depth of a cross-section

depth of the force of the compr. zone

depth of a normal force N

depth of a prestressing force P

depth of the resultant of P and N

depth of steel reinforcement

average of ds

depth of steel opposite the steel at ds

E-modulus

constant temperature of a fire

initial tangent modulus of concrete

Eco at 20C

tangent modulus of a prestressed steel

E-modulus of a steel

Es at 20C

force

Euler force of a concrete column

force at a concrete cross-section

critical force

Fcr of a plain concrete column

ultimate force of a concrete cross-section

force of a steel cross-section

Euler force of a steel column

ultimate force of a steel cross-section

f

fcc

fcc,ave

fcc20

fct

fct20

fs

fsu

fs20

f0.2

h

I

Ic

Ic20

Is

i

k

k

l

M

Mo

M1

M+

Mm

mw

N

P

T

TM

Ts

Ts,ave

T1- T64

t

u

V

Vc

Vct

Vs

x

y

z

strength

compressive strength of concrete

average of fcc

fcc at 20C

tensile strength of concrete

fct at 20C

tensile strength of idealized steel

ultimate tensile stress of steel

fs at 20C

0.2 pct. proof stress

opening height

moment of inertia

I of a reduced concrete cross-section

Ic at 20C

I of a steel cross-section

number

parameter defined as N/Fcu

minimum fraction of a property in general

length of a beam or a column

moment load

mid-span moment

constant moment

positive moment capacity

negative moment capacity

total moment load

iterated moment

normal load

prestressing force

temperature

temperature at the centre line

steel temperature

average Ts

parameters describing a damage curve

time

mid-span deflection of a column

shear capacity

V width respect to concrete in compression

V width respect to concrete in tension

V width respect to the steel links

depth of the neutral axis

depth of a compression zone

co-ordinate

o

c

creep

cu

cup

cu20

load

p

s

smin

th

th,ave

tr

creep

load

th

tr

c

cM

s

s,ave

o

c

p

s

increment

deflection

strain

concrete strain at min. compressed edge

concrete strain at max. compressed edge

creep strain of concrete

ult. concrete strain at the stress fcc

ult. plastic strain of concrete (>cu)

cu at 20C

instantaneous stress related concrete strain

steel strain at prestress

steel strain

minimum s to obtain the stress fs

thermal strain

average th

transient strain of concrete

stress distribution factor

inclination of compression stresses

curvature

caused by creep

caused by load

thermal curvature

caused by tr

Poisson's ratio

reduction of fcc due to heating

c at centre line of a cross-section

reduction of fs

average s

stress

concrete stress at minimum compressed edge

concrete stress at maximum compressed edge

prestress of steel

stress of steel

Indices:

,ave

B

c

cc

cr

ct

cu

eff

fict.

i

M

N

P

s

su

sy

T

th

tr

u

w

20

0.2

average

bottom of a slab

concrete

concrete compression

critical

concrete tension

concrete ultimate

effective

fictive

index number

middle

normal force

prestressing

steel

steel ultimate

steel yield

top of a slab

thermal

transient

ultimate

web

at 20 C

0.2 pct. proof (stress)

PREFACE

As a consulting engineer, the author has felt a need for a rational basis for fire safety design of concrete structures. This subject has therefore been a main area of his research

for 25 years leading to a system of methods for design of beams, slabs, columns, walls,

prestressed beams and frames and analyses of anchorage and spalling based on a continuous material research program and supplemented with full-scale tests for verification of the design methods. The aim is to be able to calculate the load bearing capacity

of any structure of any concrete at any time of any fire exposure. The resulting methods

and data are published in a number of papers and lecture notes and parts of them are

adopted by the Eurocode for Concrete Structures EN1992 and the Danish code for Concrete Structures DS411 and the Danish Action code DS410.

These lecture notes are made exclusively for the course Structural Fire Safety Design.

They are developed over a period of 20 years for bringing research results quickly into

teaching and thereby into practise. They are not published or released for public access,

and it is forbidden to distribute them. Publication of the content is in progress as a series

of journal papers.

Kristian Hertz

1.2

s ( T)

1.2

1

s02 ( T)

c2(T)

0.8

s(T

)

c1 ( T)

c1test( T)

c2 ( T)

0.6

c1(T)

0.4

c2test( T)

0.2

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

C

1200

DETERIORATION CURVES

Almost any material is damaged by heat so that the damage can be described by an

S-shaped curve, which in some cases tends to be a straight line and in other cases show a

sudden damage at a certain temperature.

The author has found that these curve shapes for the purpose of design can be expressed by

the very same mathematical expression, given as

(T) = k +

1 k

2

T T T T

1+ + + +

T1 T2 T8 T64

64

Where the Greek letter means a ratio between a material property such as the tensile

strength at a given temperature TC and the same property at 20C. T1 to T64 are parameters with the unit C describing the curve and k the ratio between the minimum and the

maximum value of the property, which is often 0 except for residual properties after a fire

exposure.

An S-shaped curve is obtained by using ratios between the variable T and fixed parameters

in the denominator. A fixed value determines at which temperature the ratio reduces the entire expression, and the power of a ratio determines how steep the reduction will be. Compared to other possible S-shaped curves given by, for example logarithmic or tangential expressions, this is found to give the best fit for the extreme curves which can be expected describing reductions of material properties.

In figure 1, the flexibility of the expression is demonstrated.

represents the reduction of compressive strength of a concrete based on Scandinavian sea

gravel which has been heated rapidly. This curve models test results found by the author for

the same property c1test(T) published in Hertz [4], where the specimens were heated 10C

per minute with a uniform temperature distribution obtained by means of microwave power.

The curve c2(T) given by (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,100000,1150,1150) represents the

reduction of the compressive strength of a Russian fire-resistant concrete (Nekrasov and Tarasova [5]). Test data are shown as c2test(T). This curve is scarcely reduced for temperatures

less than 800C, but is suddenly reduced to none at 1150C, where the material melts.

The S-curve s(T) represents the reduction of yield strength or 0.2% strength of a mild or a

hot-rolled reinforcing steel, which is compared with the best idealized curve s02(T) for this

property so far given in ECCS [6] and applied for example in the Danish code for steel constructions from 1983 [7] and corresponding slightly on the safe side to most test results of

this property [8-10].

The curve is given by the expression

T

s02 (T) = 1 +

for 0C < T 600C

T

767 ln

1750

s02 (T) =

0.108 (1000 T)

T 440

values practically identical to those from the previous expression.

From these examples it is concluded that the proposed general expression for (T) can

model anything from a straight-line reduction over any S shaped curve to a development

where the property is not reduced before a certain temperature is reached. It is also seen that

the value always will be in the range within k and 1, where k is often 0, and that it gives full

curves without breaking the expression up into intervals.

Some properties, such as the strength of a fire resistant concrete or a concrete that is not

fully hydrated, can increase within the first 100-200C, but it is not recommended that an

effect like this should be utilised for design, because the increase is often related to the age

and condition of the material, whereas a fire safety calculation usually do not take such parameters into account, and because a safe assessment of a temperature development could

lead to an unsafe assessment of the loadbearing capacity of the construction.

10

1.8

20 ( )

1.8

1.6

1.4

300 ( )

1.2

1

500 ( ) 0.8

0.6

600 ( )

0.4

0.2

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0

0.040

Figure 2. Stress-strain curves for a mild steel with a 0.2% proof strength of 253 MPa

REINFORCEMENT

Some of the lattice lines of a steel crystal are incomplete. When the crystal is subjected to a

shear stress a loose end of a lattice line may combine to a neighbour line, leaving a new

loose end and the line has moved one step. The material yields. Movable irregularities like

these are called dislocations, and movement of dislocations can give rise to formation of

more dislocations when a crystal is stretched. When sufficiently many are produced, they

may hinder the movement of each other, increasing the stress necessary for deformation.

This is a short explanation of cold-working. If atoms of, for example, carbon and nitrogen

are present, or vanadium or niobium are added to the steel, they may serve as anchors for

the dislocations, increasing the energy necessary for movement and therefore increasing the

yield strength. Nitrogen atoms can move to the dislocations in the time after the steel has

been produced, increasing the strength of the material, and the nitrogen content is often reduced to ensure that the material does not become too brittle in time. The carbon content is

often reduced to make welding possible.

If the temperature is increased, the energy necessary for moving the dislocations is reduced

because temperature represents oscillations of the atoms, and the yield stress or the 0.2%

stress will be reduced. Within the first 200-300C an increase in temperature also means

that more new dislocations can be produced when a stress is applied, and this effect of coldworking at strains of about 2.0% or more can lead to an increase of the ultimate strength.

This effect is shown in Fig. 2 for a mild steel with a 0.2% yield strength at 20C of 253

MPa tested by Skinner [11].

Figure 2 also illustrates that the value of the strain, at which the steel becomes more plastic that is, the strain of the 0.2% stress - seems to be almost constant for all temperature levels.

The same observation can be made for stress-strain curves of most other reinforcing bars.

11

1.2

1.2

1

s20 ( T)

0.8

CEN 20 ( T)

0.6

s ( T)

CEN 02 ( T) 0.4

0.2

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

0

T

1200

Figure 3. Reduction of 0.2% strength and 2.0% ultimate strength of mild steel and hot-rolled bars

(solid curves) and the same properties according to CEN (dashed curves)

The curve s(T) from figure. 1 represents, as mentioned, the development of the yield

strength or the 0.2% strength of a mild steel or of hot-rolled bars, where the yield strength

has been improved chemically.

In the CEN codes [3] the upper dotted curve called CEN20 in figure 3 is tabulated as a

strength parameter fsy, with the misleading index y. This parameter was at first introduced

as the "yield stress" in the drafts for a CEN steel code, and the author and his students ran

a project in order to unveil the background for it, because it deviated substantially from the

well-documented development of s, which is described above.

The curve represents the thermal change of stresses at a strain of no less than 2.0%, where

mild steel as shown in figure 2 has an increase of the stress level at temperatures within

300C. Calculations were made for beams and columns showing that a strain such as this

cannot be obtained in the majority of steel constructions before they must be considered to

fail owing to large deflections according to the rules from the test standards, or according

to common sense. And in compression zones of concrete constructions, reinforcement

cannot attain this strain before the concrete is crushed. This was reported to CEN [12],

and full stress-strain curves were introduced for fire-exposed structural steel and reinforcement in the CEN codes, but fsy, is still a 2.0% stress and not a yield strength.

12

1.2

s100 ( )

s200 ( )

1.2

s300 ( ) 0.8

s400 ( )

s500 ( )

s600 ( )

s700 ( )

0.6

0.4

s800 ( ) 0.2

0

0

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.04

Figure 4 Idealized stress-strain curves for hot rolled bars according to CEN [3]

The curve for 2.0% strain should only be applied if it can be shown that these large strains

can be obtained. As mentioned this is seldom possible for steel constructions, but it is possible for some concrete constructions, such as T-shaped cross-sections, where small depths

of the compression zones may lead to large strains in the tension reinforcement.

Idealised stress-strain curves from the CEN code are shown in figure 4, and calculating the

corresponding 0.2% stresses by solving the complicated equations for the stress strain

curves, the resulting curve for the 0.2% stress is shown as a dotted line CEN02 in figure 3. It

can be seen that this curve fits reasonably well with the well-documented curve s, which

must be recommended to use for nearly all steel constructions and for most concrete constructions.

This means that for hot rolled bars the curve found previously can be applied given by

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,6000,620,565,1100) for the 0.2% strength s(T). And if it can be

proved that a strain of 2.0% or more can be obtained, a curve can be applied for the 2.0%

strength s20(T) given by (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,100000,593,100000) and shown in

figure 3.

Experience from tests and fires show that, after a fire, mild steel and hot-rolled bars can be

considered to regain their strength, which is obtained through the chemical composition. (If

the general formula is used to express this in a program the parameters (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) =

(1,100000,100000,100000,100000) are obtained).

13

1.2

scw20( T)

1.2

CEN 20 ( T) 0.8

DTU 20 ( T)

0.6

scw( T)

CEN 02 ( T) 0.4

DTU 02 ( T)

0.2

0

0

0

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

1200

Figure 5. Reduction of 0.2% strength and 2.0% ultimate strength of cold-worked steel

of 560 MPa

COLD-WORKED REINFORCEMENT

Cold worked reinforcing bars may have an increased 0.2% strength of about 560 MPa obtained by twisting, stretching, or both, or by cold rolling. Twisting creates a chaotic system

of dislocations and many sources for formation of new dislocations, which can be utilised

by stretching. If a bar is first twisted and then stretched, the steel often becomes so brittle

that it is not recommended for structural use. Therefore, steels with the combined effect can

be produced by first stretching and then twisting or by a simultaneous process (Caprani and

Buchwald [13]. Steel like this has been made for many years in Denmark called Danish

Tentor, which was stretched 5% and twisted one turn over a length of 15 times the diameter.

Its properties at high temperatures have been measured in the author's laboratory by Petersen and Hansen [14].

In figure 5 the results for the 0.2% stress and the 2.0% stress from these tests, supplemented

with data from Caprani and Buchwald[13] re called DTU02 and DTU20 respectively. Except

for an increase of both strengths between 100C and 300C the test data for these bars are

seen to follow the step curves that can be derived from the CEN code for cold-worked bars

shown as CEN02 and CEN20 and new idealised curves can be described by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,900,555,100000) for the 0.2% stress scw and

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,5000,560,100000) for the 2.0% stress scw20.

It seems that these curves can be recommended for cold-worked slack reinforcement of

about 550 MPa no matter how it is cold-worked.

14

1.2

1.2

1

scwC ( T)

0.8

DTU 02C ( T)

scw20C ( T)

0.6

0.2

0

0

0

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

1200

cold worked steel of 560 MPa

One explanation of the small reduction of the 0.2% stress between 100C and 300C, and

the close position of the two curves, may be that the steel has an initial cold-working strain

and dislocation structure, and that it does not take the same strain to reach an improved

stress level at these temperatures as it does for hot rolled bars.

Above 300C the crystal structure becomes looser, and the borders between the steel grains

disappear. From approximately 600C, the 0.2% and 2.0% stresses of the cold worked bars

are reduced to the level of the same properties for hot rolled bars.

In a cold condition after a fire exposure the effect of cold-working is permanently reduced if

the temperature has been above 400C. And after heating to approximately 800C there is

no effect left. This means that the 0.2% stress, scwC, of a cold worked bar is reduced to the

original strength of the steel that it had before it was cold-worked - for example 325 MPa in

stead of 560 MPa - and the parameter k is 0.58 (Fig. 6).

The residual reduction scw20C of the 2,0% stress seems to be larger in percent mainly because the 2.0% stress before the fire was larger, and therefore k is assessed as 0.52.

The idealized curves can be given by

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.58,100000,5000,590,730) for the 0.2% stress, scwC, and

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.52,100000,1500,580,650) for the 2.0% stress, scw20C, in a cold condition after a fire.

15

/fs201.2 1.2

.

204C

93C

21C

( )

21

93 ( )

204 ( )

315C

0.8

429 ( )

429C

540 ( ) 0.4

20 C

100 C

1400

200 C

1200

300 C

800

400 C

600

654 ( )

540C

654C

0.2

1600

1000

315 ( ) 0.6

MPa 1800

0

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

400

500 C

200

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.080

wire with a 0.2% proof strength of 1470 MPa

according to Harmathy and Stanzak [15]

prestressing wires of 1600 MPa

according to CEN [3]

0.08

600 C

700 C

800 C

900 C

Prestressing wires often have 0.2% strengths of about 1600 MPa obtained by cold-working

in tension, and, when they are heated, this effect disappears. The relative drop in 0.2%

strength is considerable because of the high initial strength, and because the extreme effect

of the cold-working is reduced rapidly at small temperatures. Stress-strain curves for a

wire are given in figure 7 based on data from Harmathy and Stanzak [15], and idealised

curves from the CEN codes [3] are shown in figure 8. A slightly better agreement is obtained comparing the CEN curves with the curves from Ruge and Linnemann [8] derived

from transient tests, where the strain is recorded at different temperatures during heating,

with a fixed stress level for each test. This test procedure is more realistic for most fire

safety design, and it gives smaller stresses, especially at 200C and 300C.

A reason for this may be an increased effect of cold-working if the load is applied in a hot

condition, but it is also a result of creep giving larger strains for each stress level and thus

a smaller stress for a certain strain. Both effects may be found in fire-exposed constructions if the heating rate of the test corresponds with the rate of the fire.

Test results [16] - [20] support the conclusion that the transient stress strain curves from

the CEN code are applicable and safe for most fires.

16

1.2

1.2

sp20 ( T)

CEN 20 ( T)

sp ( T)

0.8

CEN 02 ( T)

0.6

Ruge 20 ( T)

Ruge 02 ( T)

0.4

Cahill02 ( T)

Harma 02 ( T) 0.2

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1200

Figure 9. Reduction of 0.2% strength and 2.0% ultimate strength of coldworked prestressing steels of 1600 MPa

Figure 9 shows test data derived from Ruge and Linnemann [8], Cahill [16] and Harmathy

and Stanzack [15] and compared to the 2.0% stress and the 0.2% stress derived by calculation from the CEN codes (dotted) and new idealized curves (solid) given by

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,2000,360,430,100000) for the 0.2% stress, sp, and

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,490,450,100000) for the 2.0% stress, sp20.

1.2

1.2

1

sp20C ( T)

Kord 20C ( T)

0.8

0.6

spC ( T)

0.2

0

0

0

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

1200

Figure 10 Residual reductions of 0.2% strength and 2.0% ultimate strength of a coldworked prestressing steel of 1600 MPa

Figure 10 shows residual reductions of 0.2% and 2.0% stresses for a 1600 MPa cold-drawn

prestressing steel (dotted), and idealised curves (solid) can be proposed as

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.20,100000,750,550,650) for the 0.2% stress, spC, and

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.20,100000,950,550,650) for the 2.0% stress, sp20C, in a cold condition

after a fire.

17

1.2

1.2

0.2%

1

spq ( T)

0.8

RL02 ( T)

DDM02 ( T)

0.8

RL20 ( T)

0.6

DDM20 ( T)

0.6

CEN02 ( T) 0.4

CEN 20 ( T) 0.4

0.2

0.2

2.0%

1

spq20 ( T)

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 11. Reduction of the 0.2% strength and the 2.0% ultimate strength of quenched

and tempered prestressing steel of 1500 MPa in a HOT condition and the same properties according to

Ruge and Linnemann [8] (RL Dashed), Dannenberg et al. [25] (DDM Dash-dot) and CEN [3] (CEN Dotted).

Heat treatment of steel has been used for improving the strength of swords and tools for

centuries, but its application for structural use is more recent.

Quenched and tempered wires with a tensile strength of about 1500 MPa have been

produced for more than 50 years for prestressing steel (Jniche and Puzicha [24]) and

quenched, tempered, and cold drawn cables of 3-4000 MPa are made for suspension

bridges. The quenched and tempered prestressing steel is heated to approximately 8900C depending on the carbon content and it is quenched in an oil bath followed by a

tempering in a bath of melted lead at 450C.

These prestressing steels should not be welded and should be treated with care.

The heating changes the crystal structure from body-centred cubic to face-centred cubic

Austenite. If the material is hardened by quenching only, carbon and iron have not time

for combining into Cementite (Fe3C), but form the strong and brittle Martensite with a

needle shaped structure. If the material is quenched to 450C and tempered here, Bainite

is formed, which is a very fine microstructure of Ferrite and Cementite.

As explained in Hertz [21] the parameter tabulated with an index y in the CEN code

[3] is neither a variation of yield strength nor 0.2% stress, but a 2.0% stress.

This ultimate 2.0% stress is tabulated in the code for quenched and tempered prestressing wires and shown in figure 1 as CEN20(T).

This stress can only be applied if you can show that the strain of the steel is at least

2.0%, which may occur in some T-sections and some prestressed structures.

If the 0.2% stress is derived from these values and the general expression for the stress

strain curve given in the code, you get the curve shown as CEN02(T).

18

1.2

1.2

0.2%

1

spqC ( T)

0.8

spq20C ( T) 0.8

RL02C ( T)

0.6

RL20C ( T)

0.6

DDM02C ( T)

0.4

DDM20C ( T)

0.4

0.2

0.2

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

2.0%

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 12. Reduction of the 0.2% strength and the 2.0% ultimate strength of quenched and tempered

prestressing steel of 1500 MPa in a COLD residual condition and the same properties according to Ruge

and Linnemann10 (RL Dashed), Dannenberg et al. [25] (DDM Dash-dot).

Stress-strain curves are measured for quenched and tempered prestressing steels of approximately 1500 MPa by Dannenberg et al. [25] and treated by Kordina [19] and

Leonhardt [26] and later a comprehensive study is made by Ruge and Linnemann [8].

The idealised curve is shown as a full line in figure 1 and it is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,1100,100000,430,100000) for the 0.2% stress spq(T).

If it can be proved that a strain of 2.0% or more can be obtained, a curve can be applied for

the 2.0% stress spq20(T) given by (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,3000,1400,450,100000).

The idealised curve for the residual 0.2% stress spqC(T) of quenched and tempered

prestressing steels is shown as a full line in figure 12 and it is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.213,100000,10000,590,660).

And for the residual 2.0% stress spq20C(T) the same curve is a good idealisation

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.213,100000,10000,590,660).

Although the curves of the relative reductions of the two strength parameters are equal in

this particular case, the initial values are not the same and therefore the final values are not

equal.

19

1.2

1.2

0.2%

sq20 ( T)

sq ( T)

D1020 ( T)

D1002 ( T) 0.8

D1420 ( T)

D1402 ( T) 0.6

Ds0212

Ds0225

Ds2012t

0.8

0.6

Ds2025t

0.4

Ds2012

0.2

0

2.0%

Ds2025

200

400

600

800

T , T , T , T12 , T25 , T

1000

1200

0.4

0.2

200

400

T T T T

600

T

800

T

1000

T

1200

Figure 13. Idealised curves for the reduction of the 0.2% strength and the 2.0% ultimate strength of

quenched and self-tempered reinforcing steel of 550 MPa in a HOT condition and the same properties

found by Dotreppe11 (+ 12 mm transient, x 25 mm transient, o 12 mm steady, 25 mm steady) and

according to the test series reported in this paper (Dotted 10 mm transient and Dashed 14 mm transient).

They are used for slack reinforcement in many countries.

In Hertz [21], it is explained that yielding of steel means that irregularities of the crystal

called dislocations moves when they are subjected to stresses. The stresses necessary

can be increased by cold working introducing more dislocations hindering the movement and thereby increasing the tensile strength. Another method is to add atoms of for

example vanadium or niobium as anchors for the dislocations, and this method is used

for increasing the tensile strength of hot rolled bars. However, for many years it has

been difficult to get the necessary raw materials because of a trade embargo on products

from South Africa. The quenched and self-tempered steel is an alternative for slack reinforcing bars, and it has therefore gained a considerable market share in many countries.

At first, the bar is hot rolled, and when it leaves the machine, it is sprinkled with water,

which means that the outer part of the cross section is quenched and Martensite is

formed. After this treatment, heat from the core is tempering the outer part keeping it at

a relatively high temperature so that Bainite can be formed.

The result is a composite material, where the outer 10% of the radius of the bar has a

high 0.2% strength of approximately 1500 MPa, and the core has a low 0.2% strength of

320 MPa, so that the average of the 0.2% strength is 550 MPa.

20

Figure 14

Transportable ring

oven in test

machine.

Figure 15

Principle for

deformation

measurement.

This steel is therefore completely different from other reinforcing steels on the market,

and none of the curves presented so far in this paper and in Hertz [21] nor in the codes

can be expected to represent the strength variation of it at high temperatures. The author

has therefore decided to test the properties in order to establish a complete design basis.

A previous study has been made by Prof. Dotreppe [27] where properties are found in a

HOT condition for single temperatures between 480-680C for steels of quality S500

and diameters of 12 and 25 mm. These tests are made in a gas oven, where the steels are

subjected to a standard fire exposure, i.e. a rapid heating rate compared with the heating

rate in a steel which has a cover of concrete. These results are included in figure 3 as

single points.

The authors test series comprises transient tests of the HOT curves during heating and

steady state tests of the residual stress-strain curves in a COLD condition after heating

of a quenched and self-tempered steel (of quality K550TS produced by Fundia Ltd. according to the Danish Standard DS 13080) with a 0.2% stress of 550 MPa.

With financial support from the Danish light aggregate concrete industry, an electrical

ring oven was built for the HOT tests (figure 14). The transportable oven has an insulated cylindrical chamber of diameter 200 mm and height 250 mm and it can be placed

in a test machine. A measurement device was constructed in order to measure the deformation of the reinforcing bar in the oven (figure 15). Two pairs of heat resistant

Kanthal steel rods are fixed to the reinforcing bar at a distance of 150 mm. These two

pairs of measuring rods are penetrating the bottom of the oven together with the reinforcing bar. The one pair is welded to a plate to which two potentiometers are fixed, and

the other pair is welded to a plate to which the potentiometers can measure the elonga-

21

tion. The elongation measured is the sum of the thermal and mechanical elongation of

the reinforcing bar between the two fix points minus a difference of the thermal elongation of the two pairs of Kanthal rods caused by their different lengths. By measuring this

total elongation for a loaded reinforcing bar and subtracting the same measurement for

an unloaded reinforcing bar heated by the same heating curve, the result is the mechanical elongation by means of which the mechanical strain can be found.

1.2

1.2

0.2%

1

0.8

sq20C ( T) 0.8

D1002C ( T) 0.6

D1020C ( T) 0.6

sqC ( T)

D1420C ( T)

D1402C ( T)

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0

2.0%

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 16. Reduction of the 0.2% strength and the 2.0% ultimate strength of quenched and selftempered reinforcing steel of 550 MPa in a COLD residual condition. sqC and sq20C are proposed idealized curves and D1002C and D1020C are curves measured for 10 mm steel at steady state conditions

and D1402C and D1420C are curves measured for 14 mm steel at steady state conditions.

A number of tests have been made by the author and his students Ramolla [28] and

Blichert [29] heating reinforcing bars of 10 mm and 14 mm at a heating rate of 5C per

minute until they brake while a constant load is applied. This was repeated for stress

levels of 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, 100, 104 and 108 percent of the 0.2% stress at

20C, and for each test the strain was measured during heating for each 100C.

Strains obtained without load (0%) are subtracted from the strains measured with load,

and from these results transient stress-strain curves can be constructed and the

0.2% stress and the 2.0% stress derived.

The result is shown in figure 13, where the Dotted curves refer to 10 mm bars and the

Dashed curves to 14 mm bars. I addition single points are shown found by

Dotreppe [27].

The Full lines represent the idealised curves given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,6000,1150,540,700) for the 0.2% stress sq(T), and

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,100000,590,700) for the 2.0% stress sq20(T).

In order to assess the residual COLD properties, reinforcing bars of 10 mm and 14 mm

were heated 5C per minute in an electrical oven to maximum temperatures varying

from 100C to 1000C with 100C interval. The maximum temperatures were kept for

60 minutes and the oven was cooled max 5C per minute. This heat treatment answers

roughly the heating curve for reinforcement with a concrete cover in a structure. After

22

cooling, the steel was drawn in a test machine and the stress-strain curves were recorded

by two extensometers. The results are shown in figure 6 as Dotted curves for 10 mm and

Dashed curves for 14 mm. The Full lines represent the idealised curves given by the parameters (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.418,100000,100000,700,900) for the 0.2% stress sq(T),

and (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0.437,100000,100000,700,900) for the 2.0% stress sq20(T).

The relation between the deterioration curves for slack reinforcement steels is shown in

figure 17 and the same is shown for prestressing steels in figure 18.

It is seen that the quenched steels keep their strength better than the hot rolled and cold

worked steels until the tempering temperature 450-500C where the microstructure responsible for the increased strength has been formed. It is also seen that the quenched

steels have a lower strength at higher temperatures, which means that the effect is rapidly lost at 500C.

s ( T)

1.2

1.2

0.8

0.8

sp20 ( T)

scw( T) 0.6

spq20 ( T)

sq ( T)

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

of 550 MPa quenched and self tempered steel sq

(Dotted) and hot rolled steel s (Full curve) and

cold worked steel scw (Dashed).

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

of quenched and tempered 1500 MPa prestressing steel spq20 (Dotted) and cold drawn

prestressing steel sp20 (Full curve).

23

T1

6000

100000

100000

100000

100000

100000

100000

100000

2000

100000

100000

T2

T8

C-w prestressing steel 0.2 % residual stress

k

0.000

0.000

1.000

1.000

0.000

0.000

0.580

0.520

0.000

0.000

0.200

620

100000

100000

100000

900

5000

5000

1500

360

490

750

565

593

100000

100000

555

560

590

580

430

450

550

1100

100000

100000

100000

100000

100000

730

650

100000

100000

650

0.200

100000

950

550

650

Quenched and Tempered 1500 MPa 2.0% stress

Quenched and Tempered 1500 MPa 0.2% residual stress

Quenched and Tempered 1500 MPa 2.0% residual stress

Quenched and Self-tempered 550 MPa 0.2% stress

Quenched and Self-tempered 550 MPa 2.0% stress

Quenched and Self-tempered 550 MPa 0.2% residual stress

Quenched and Self-tempered 550 MPa 2.0% residual stress

0.000

0.000

0.213

0.213

0.000

0.000

0.418

0.437

1100

3000

100000

100000

6000

100000

100000

100000

100000

1400

10000

10000

1150

100000

100000

100000

430

450

590

590

540

590

700

700

100000

100000

660

660

700

700

900

900

Hot rolled bars 2.0 % stress

Hot rolled bars 0.2 % residual stress

Hot rolled bars 2.0 % residual stress

Cold worked bars 0.2 % stress

Cold worked bars 2.0 % stress

Cold worked bars 0.2 % residual stress

Cold worked bars 2.0 % residual stress

C-w prestressing steel 0.2 % stress

T64

Table 1. Recommended parameters for design reductions of 0.2 % and 2.0 % stresses of hotrolled, cold-worked bars, cold-worked prestressing steels, quenched and tempered, and

quenched and self-tempered reinforcement during and after fire exposure.

STIFFNESS OF STEEL

prestressed cross-section is the tangent modulus Ep at the level of prestress p.

Using the definitions given above, this tangent modulus is reduced by the factor s.

Likewise, the ultimate stress fsu as well as the ultimate stress increment fsu - p are both

reduced by the factor s.

24

PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

When an ordinary not fire proof concrete is heated, free water evaporates, and above

approximately 150C, chemically bound water is released from the hydrated calcium

silicate Hertz [32]. This process has a local peak at 270C. The dehydration of the matrix and the thermal expansion of the aggregate give rise to internal stresses

(figure 20a), and from 300C micro cracks will pierce through the material (figure 20b).

The compressive- and the tensile strength, the thermal conductivity and the modulus of

elasticity are reduced and an unloaded specimen will be subject to an irreversible expansion.

Concrete heated to less than 300C can recover after a fire by soaking moisture from the

air, but when the micro cracks are formed the strength loss is permanent, and the material is susceptible to environmental impact such as frost etc. The author therefore prescribes that material heated at more than 300C should be removed when a repair work

is done.

At 400-600C, crystals of calcium hydroxide decompose into calcium oxide and water,

a process reaching its highest intensity at about 535C (figure 20c). This weakens the

concrete, but during the cooling phase and within the first days after a heat exposure,

the calcium oxide absorbs water from the ambient air and expands, which opens the

cracks already formed. You may say that the new calcium hydroxide act as jackets widening the cracks as shown on Figure 1d. The compressive strength is reduced further 20

pct. during the cooling phase and the minimum strength is found up to a week after the

fire depending on the geometry of the structure. This is why the author seldom investigates a fire damaged concrete structure before a week has passed and the minimum residual load bearing capacity is reached. This often requires that the site should be bared

until the damages are assessed.

Above 600C, the hydrated calcium silicate decomposes further and this second phase

of the process has a peak at 710C. At 800C, concrete can often be crumbled to gravel

by the fingers, and above 1150C feldspar melts and the remaining minerals of the cement paste turns into a glass phase.

25

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

26

If the concrete is loaded in compression, the compressive stresses in the matrix should

first be unloaded before tensile stresses can be established and micro cracks formed

when the aggregates expand (figure 21). The author has found this simple explanation

for the so-called transient strain, which is a strain contribution that only occurs if the

specimen is loaded during heating Hertz [32].

Since the micro cracking is reduced the drop of the compressive strength in a hot condition and after a fire is also reduced. The concrete can be up to 25 percent stronger than

an unloaded fire exposed concrete if compressive stresses of 25 to 30 percent of the

original strength are applied.

However, the engineer should only consider this effect if the compressive load is known

through the entire fire course and it is in general safer to use values obtained from tests

of unloaded specimens instead of the transient values of the compressive strength.

The loss of compressive strength in the cooling phase is one reason why a design for a

fully developed fire course must include the time where the concrete is the weakest.

Since reinforcing bars usually are the weakest in a hot condition during the fire, it is

necessary to investigate the load bearing capacity at two different times. The author

calls the conditions at these times for HOT and COLD and finds the capacity during a

full fire course as a minimum of the capacities at these two conditions.

Steam pressure from water released during heating combined with compressive thermal

and static stresses at the fire-exposed surface can give rise to explosive spalling of dense

or wet structures. This is no problem for indoor constructions of traditional concrete.

Traditional concrete means a concrete not containing particles smaller than the cement

grains such as micro silica or small filler as for example used for high strength or selfcompacting concrete Hertz [30]

If a concrete is wet or dense, a test can be made in order to document that explosive

spalling is avoided perhaps by adding polypropylene fibres or to reject the use of an actual material according to Hertz and Sorensen [31].

Sound

Damage cc

C

27

Concrete

Hard Burned Brick

Chinaware

Crystal Glass

Glass

Stoneware

Cracked Tiles

Wood

Papier Mach

1.00

0.97

0.92

0.84

0.67

0.38

0.15

0.05

0.02

20

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

As mentioned the hydrated cement paste shrinks when heated, and this causes tensile

stresses in the matrix and compressive stresses in the aggregates. The author has found

that these stresses give rise to changes in the sound picture of the material, which has

proven to be a valuable tool for determining the maximum temperature and degree of

fire damage of a concrete. Sound is a complex phenomenon, which depends on the

shape of the structure, and therefore the author has experienced from teaching that it can

be described most precisely by comparing with the sound of a material, for which the

sound picture is familiar. This comparison is given in Table 1. The damage is given by

cc, which is the ratio between the compressive strength of the heated concrete and the

corresponding strength at 20C. (cc = fcc/fcc20)

The relation between damage and sound can be used for most concretes. The temperatures shown are valid for the main group of concretes as defined later.

By means of this method, a trained person can estimate the damage and the maximum

temperature in the actual depth within 50C immediately and without leaving further

damage to the structure. The alternative would be to drill a specimen, make a section

and count the number of cracks in an electron microscope. This leaves a hole, takes time

and is less precise.

PARAMETERS

A variation of the water cement ratio has no effect on the loss of compressive strength

during a fire down to a value of approximately 0.40 because excessive water evaporates.

For lower values, unhydrated cement may act as fire resistant filler, which can reduce

the strength loss Hertz [32]

The age of the concrete has no influence except for fresh concrete where heating will

give a forced hydration within the first 150C before the concrete is damaged. This may

course a slight increase of the compressive strength, and the following damages must be

assessed related to this increased final strength level.

Super plasticizing additives have no known effect on the fire resistance, but they can be

used for adding small particles increasing the denseness and the risk of spalling. Some

super plasticizers produce ammonia when heated, which may require full breath protection of a fire brigade entering a building made from these materials Hertz [38].

28

1.2

cc ( T)

ccrapid( T)

0.8

Rapid heated ideal

0.6

ccrapidtest( T)

0.4

0.2

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 22. Residual compressive strength of rapid heated main group concrete.

HEATING RATE

The values of the compressive strength given in this paper are valid for slow heated

concrete, where the heating rate is 2C per minute or less. These values can be illustrated as S-shaped curves of cc as a function of the temperature T.

More rapid heating will occur for areas near the surface of a structure and this can be of

importance especially for slender cross sections. The problem of measuring the strength

of rapid heated concrete is that a specimen should have a certain size if its cross section

should be representative for the distribution of aggregate and cement paste. If the specimen is sufficiently big such as a 150 mm diameter cylinder, a rapid fire-exposure of 10or 20C per minute in an oven will cause a considerable temperature difference of approximately 400C between surface and core giving rise to thermal stresses, which will

damage the specimen before it is tested.

In order to investigate the effect of rapid heating the author has developed a test method

using microwave power to heat up the specimen combined with a thermal insulation to

regulate the heat loss from the hot specimen to the cold oven. By means of this method,

it is possible to heat concrete cylinders at rates of 20C per minute with a limited thermal difference Hertz [35].

A series of 300 specimens of a main group concrete (defined later) have been tested for

a heating rate of 10C per minute, and the resulting curve for cc(T) is a straight line in

stead of the S-shaped curve intersecting the slow heated curve for the same concrete at

approximately 500C (figure 22). The reason why the residual strength is smaller for

small temperatures is that the matrix does not have the same time to creep when the aggregate expands and the matrix shrinks. The matrix therefore appears to be more brittle

giving more micro cracks, when the specimen is heated rapidly. For higher temperatures, the rapid heated concrete is stronger because it takes time for the calcium hydroxide to decompose and damage the concrete. The idealised curve for the rapid heated

main group concrete is described by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,1500,580,520,690).

29

H2O

H2O

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

COOLING

If a hot specimen is taken from an oven and quenched in water the micro cracks can be

water filled and the calcium hydroxide can be established in the cracks and voids filling

them out instead of opening them as shown at figure 23b. The result may be a stronger

material in the COLD condition after the fire than in the HOT condition during the fire.

Although this mechanism is not in general relevant for building fires, it is mentioned in

order to give an understanding of the influence of the cooling process.

If the specimen is cooled down slowly, i.e. at cooling rates of 1C per minute or less, in

an oven or in a hot massive building or tunnel the reformation of calcium hydroxide has

sufficient time to take place, and the concrete has its maximum damage after the cooling

(figure 23a).

If the cooling is faster, the reformation of calcium hydroxide will take place at a slow

rate in the days after the cooling, and the concrete reaches its minimum strength several

days after the fire. The speed of this regeneration process depends also on the moisture

content of the ambient air and the size of the structure.

A concrete, which has been damaged by a fire and is subjected to a new fire exposure or

is exposed to a few thermal cycles from an industrial process will deteriorate further, if

the temperature exceeds the level from the first exposure. It will be damaged approximately as if it reaches the new temperature in the first exposure. This is logical from the

nature of the deterioration, and it is observed in the authors lab and reported in literature on structures for nuclear power plants and military purposes Hertz [32].

If many thermal cycles are made the crack movements in the microstructure may cause

an increasing damage to the concrete in time. The author has observed this in buildings

for fire training in the Danish Civil Defence, where violent fire exposures are repeated

daily for years and it is known to be a problem for military installations such as ramps

for missiles and runways for jet planes.

30

STRENGTH

Idealised values of the reduction cc of the compressive strength are made for various

concretes because it is seldom possible to make a test series of an actual concrete when

a structure is designed. As seen from the description of the deterioration processes

above the aggregate is of a major importance for the result. Therefore, idealised curves

are given on the safe side related to test results for the reduction as a function of temperature for a number of concretes characterised by their aggregates. Since the curves

need to be on the safe side, a test series for an actual concrete may give improved values, and as mentioned later it is even possible to design a concrete with a fire resistance

as wanted for almost any purpose.

It is necessary to give the concept safe a special consideration in this context before

creating recommended curves. In CEN [3], data are presented based on transient tests,

where the concrete is loaded during heating. These values of cc are up to 0.25 larger

than the values from unloaded tests with the largest difference between 500C and

700C and the effect is found for tests in a HOT as well as in a COLD condition after

cooling. As mentioned previously the compressive stresses should be between 25 and

30 percent of the ultimate strength at 20C in order to obtain this effect, and if the problem is not considered in detail it might seem reasonable to presume that these stresses

are applied in most compression zones.

However, the safety factors for strength and for load used for calculations of the ultimate limit resistance and the safety from application of a characteristic value of the

compressive strength as a 5% quantile of the real strength means, that the physical stress

level usually is near the limit for obtaining the increase of the strength from transient

tests. In addition engineers usually only calculate a few hard loaded members for the ultimate load and assume the others less loaded to be safe. Furthermore, during a fire,

beams, slabs, columns and walls often have large deflections, which can give considerable changes of the stresses in time. Changes of stresses also occur due to the deterioration of the cross sections giving rise to changes of the geometry of the compression

zones. In addition, the considerable reduction of the E-modulus above 500C means that

parts of the compression zones with high temperatures near the surface where the transient effect is predominant are unloaded and central parts with smaller temperatures are

loaded. Moreover, engineers often assume structural members as simply supported although they are not in the real structure, and they do so especially for buildings, where

fire load is important. This is a safe consideration for the ultimate load, because it means

that the moment forces at mid span are less than presumed in the calculations. Nevertheless, what is safe for the ultimate load is unsafe for the assessment of the reduction of

the compressive strength at fire. In addition, during a fire the real hogging moments at

the supports unload the sagging moments at mid span further.

The author therefore recommends average unloaded values for the compressive strength

of concrete when curves are made as a general reference for the property. For the applications, this can very roughly be estimated to represent a quantile of 5-10% of a normal

distribution of cases including variations of materials data for unloaded and transient

tests and corresponding variations of applied and changed stresses in compression zones

in building design.

31

1.2

1.2

0.8

ccHOT( T) 0.8

ccCOLD( T)

cchigh( T)

cclow( T)

ccCEN ( T)

cchigh( T)

0.6

0.6

cclow( T)

0.4

0.4

CEN

0.2

0.2

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

a) a HOT and b) a residual COLD condition. CEN is a transient curve from CEN2.

SILICEOUS CONCRETE

can be considered to form a group of aggregates, which expands the most, and to give

the largest damage. It is therefore often used as a safe reference for design values if the

aggregate is not known.

Several investigations like Abrams [36] and Malhotra [37] have clearly shown that also

siliceous concrete is further damaged in the cooling phase giving a reduction of cc of up

to 0.20.

In Hertz [32], 15 test series are compared for the compressive strength of siliceous concrete in a HOT condition. The property cc is given as the ratio between the HOT average strength at the test and the original average strength at 20C. Excluding two series

due to their test procedures, the others show a relatively close main band of results. In

figure 24a, the limits of the band are shown as dotted lines, and a full drawn design

curve is made as an average of the curves. The curves are valid for unloaded concrete. If

they were made by means of transient tests with a load of 30% of the compressive

strength at 20C, the values of the high limit curve could be increased up to 0.25 at temperatures above 500C as discussed previously.

In CEN [3], a recommended transient curve is given shown as CEN at figure 24a, and it

has larger values especially above 500C, where the cracks caused by the calcium hydroxide are significant. The full drawn curve recommended by the author for a HOT

condition is given by the parameters (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,15000,800,570,100000).

In figure 24b, curves are given for a residual COLD condition after a fire based on 12

test series Hertz [32]. As seen the relative residual strength cc is about 0.20 smaller than

the HOT strength for temperatures above 400C. The CEN code does not give any curve

for this property, because this code only contains data for standard fires.

The recommended curve for a COLD condition is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,3500,600,480,680).

32

1.2

1.2

Sea Gravel

cchot( T)

0.8

ccCOLD( T) 0.8

cchigh( T)

cclow( T)

ccCEN ( T)

cchigh( T)

0.6

cclow( T)

ccSGtest( T)

0.4

0.6

0.4

CEN

0.2

0.2

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

a) a HOT and b) a COLD condition. CEN is a transient curve from CEN2.

constitutes a group of aggregates with less thermal expansion than siliceous aggregates

and a concrete made with one of these suffers less damage than a siliceous concrete. In

Hertz [32], 15 test series are analysed for the compressive strength in a HOT condition

and 15 test series for the COLD residual strength, and more data are found from later

special references such as Khoury et al. [39] and Persson [40]. It can be concluded from

the test results that the reduction of the compressive strength and the standard deviation

of this reduction is nearly the same for these materials and they are therefore treated as

one group called the Main group. This group represents the majority of aggregates used

for concrete in the world.

In figure 25a a recommended curve is shown for main group concrete in a HOT condition and minimum- and maximum curves from not transient tests are included. The

curve marked CEN in figure 6a represents HOT transient compressive strength for calcareous concrete from CEN [3].

The recommended curve for main group HOT condition is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,1080,690,1000).

In figure 25b a recommended curve is shown for main group concrete in a COLD condition. A test series made by the author is marked Sea Gravel, and it is presented here

for the first time in a paper. The 140 specimens were Danish Standard cylinders of diameter 150 mm and height 300 mm of a concrete with Danish sea gravel and a compressive strength at 20C of 20 MPa. Sea gravel is a mixture of glacial sediments transported

by the ice from areas in the northern Scandinavia with rocks mainly containing granite

and basalt. The water cement ratio was deliberately made as high as 0.87 in order to create a porous material which was considered to be most susceptible to heating and therefore can serve as a safe reference for other concretes of the main group. The cylinders

were heated 1C per minute in an oven and tested 1 week after the heat exposure, where

the specimens were stored at standard conditions 20C and 65 % RH.

The recommended curve for main group COLD condition is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,10000,780,490,100000).

33

1.2

1.2

cchot( T)

cchot( T)

0.8

cchigh( T)

cchigh( T)

cclow( T)

ccPumice( T)

0.8

0.6

cclow( T)

ccPumice( T)

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.6

200

400

600

T

800

1000

1200

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

a) a HOT and b) a COLD condition. Pumice is a natural aggregate.

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE

like expanded clay causes only a small thermal expansion and therefore only a small

damage to the concrete, and at the same time, it ensures a small thermal conductivity.

However, due to the small density the temperature of central parts of cross sections

made from these materials are seldom smaller than temperatures of similar cross sections based on main group aggregates.

Lightweight aggregate concrete may have densities of 600 kg/m3 for the lightest over

900- and 1200 kg/m3 to 1800 kg/m3 for heavy and strong qualities. The lightest qualities

have typically a characteristic compressive strength of 3-4 MPa, where it may be about

20 MPa for the heavy. They are usually not included in the structural codes for heavy

concrete, but this seems to be a result of arbitrary traditional limitations.

The author has investigated the properties of light aggregate concretes as a part of a series of projects continuing for more than 10 years where design methods and parameters

are established for the Danish lightweight aggregate concrete industry, and has proved

that the same design methods apply for fire safety design of lightweight aggregate concrete as for heavy concrete Hertz [41]. Figure 26a is based on data from this project and

10 test series on expanded clay aggregates in a HOT condition reported in Hertz [32]. In

addition, a curve on Pumice is shown obtained by Jensen [43].

Figure 7b is also based on data from the design project, 8 test series from Hertz [32] for

the residual COLD strength of expanded clay concrete, data from later projects like

Mailund and Larsen [42] and a curve on pumice from Harada et al. [44]. The deviations

of the pumice curves from the average of the expanded clay curves can be regarded as

random, and therefore the recommended curves can be applied for natural lightweight

aggregates as well. The full drawn curve recommended for a HOT condition is given by

the parameters (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,1100,800,940).

The curve recommended for a COLD condition is given by the parameters

(k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,40000,650,830,930).

34

1.2

Chamotte

1

ccProof ( T)

0.8

ccTestProof( T)

ccDTU( T)

ccTestDTU( T)

Mo-clay

0.6

0.4

0.2

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Figure 27. Examples of fire resistant concrete and design curves for them.

Fire resistant concrete has been developed by the Russians since 1898 and has been

widely applied for example for casting bottom plates for high ovens and much more.

The most comprehensive presentation of the technology is given by Nekrasov and Tarasova[5]. The concrete is based on a light aggregate of burned chamotte and a matrix

obtained by adding pulverised chamotte to the cement as a pozzolana creating fire resistant crystals instead of free calcium hydroxide. By means of this technology, concretes

can be designed so that they will not suffer from fire exposure up to at least 800C. At

1150C the material melts.

One example of a development of the compressive strength in a HOT condition of a

Russian fire resistant concrete is shown on figure 27, and a design curve for this concrete is created.

The HOT design curve is given by (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) = (0,100000,100000,1150,1150).

The author and his students have made a humble attempt to design a fire resistant concrete based on Scandinavian raw materials. Here the pulverised chamotte is exchanged

by a natural powder of a special Danish clay called mo-clay, and the aggregates are

gravel of burned mo-clay Muff [45]. An example of a curve of a residual compressive

strength is shown in figure 27 and a design curve is made given by (k,T1,T2,T8,T64) =

(0,10000,4000,710,1100).

Since free calcium hydroxide is avoided by means of the pozzolanas, these concretes

have the same strength in a HOT condition during a fire as in a COLD condition after

one or more heat exposures, and only one curve is needed for each material.

The examples illustrate how concrete can be designed to meet almost any requirements

of fire resistance. However, design curves must be created for each fire resistant material based on tests, and the curves presented here can only be examples illustrating the

possibilities of improving the fire resistance of concrete.

35

ALUMINA CEMENT

are available as heat resistant materials for industrial applications. Nekrasov and Tarasova

[5] write that they are used in the West, but they have disadvantages in a moist climate. This

has also been realised by experience for structural use in buildings.

As an illustration, the author has made a small test series of 12 specimens with one of these

products called Hasle BST1200A with a compressive strength at 20C of 58 MPa. After

heating to 800C, the compressive strength was reduced to 50 percent. However, after only

48 hours in a moist climate at 38C and 75 % RH the compressive strength was reduced to

42 percent.

These materials are well suited for ovens and other industrial applications to operate in a

dry climate, but they are not seen as an alternative for building structures.

Siliceous concrete COLD

Main group concrete HOT

Main group concrete COLD

Light aggregate concrete HOT

Light aggregate concrete COLD

k

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

T1

15000

3500

100000

10000

100000

4000

T2

800

600

1080

780

1100

650

T8

570

480

690

490

800

830

T64

100000

680

1000

100000

940

930

Table 3 Recommended parameters for design reductions of compressive strength of concrete in a HOT

condition during a fire and in a COLD condition after a fire.

The curves shown in the this chapter are valid for a description of the reduction of strength

of slowly heated concrete, which is predominant in large cross-sections exposed to ordinary

fire courses.

However, by means of microwave power heating the author has shown that the curve

for residual compressive strength becomes much straighter, if the concrete is heated rapidly, i.e. by 10C per minute.

36

Figure 28. Residual modulus of elasticity of concrete with Danish sea gravel,

w/c = 0.87, Ec20= 27.9 GPa. Hertz [12].

STIFFNESS OF CONCRETE

Comparing curves for the development of the modulus of elasticity to curves for the development of the compressive strength with temperature for the same concretes exposed

to the same temperature-time courses and subjected to the same loading, it appears to be

a universal truth, that the reduction of the modulus of elasticity is the square of the reduction of the compressive strength.

(See for example the curves in Hertz [32]).

2

E co = c E co 20

The relation appears to be valid for a large variety of concretes in a hot condition as well

as after the cooling phase, and applicable for maximum temperatures above 200C,

where the effects of the initial moisture condition are negligible.

During the investigation previously mentioned on concrete based on Danish sea gravel, the

author has noticed a considerable increase of the ultimate strain cu with temperature

(Hertz [12]). The same observation can be made from the stress-strain curves for various

concretes with - or without application of load during heating and tested in a hot or in a cold

condition, as they are reported in the literature. (See for example Schneider [48], Harmathy

and Berndt [46], Harada et al. [44] and Fischer [47]).

37

Figure 29 Residual Poisson's ratio of concrete with Danish sea gravel, w/c = 0.87, c20= 0.16.

Hertz [32].

From the stress-strain curves it can also be seen that the increase in strain follows the

decrease in stress, and the simple model is suggested that the product of stress and strain

remains a constant for each point of the stress-strain curve while the material is weakened due to the heat.

38

Figure 31 Idealized stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to high temperatures in a hot condition and in

a cold condition after the heat exposure.

39

= Ci

where Ci is a constant for each point of the stress-strain curve.

Thus, the ultimate strain will be increased by the reciprocal reduction of the compressive strength

cu = cu 20 / c

which is in accordance with the test results.

For the idealized elasto-plastic stress-strain curve the point of change in gradient will be

transformed from

(,) = (fcc20/Ecc20,fcc20) to (,) = [(1/c)( fcc20/Ecc20), fcc20]

and it is seen that the constant product of and with fcc = cfcc20 also leads to a fulfilment of the relation

2

E co = c E co 20

The lack of knowledge about these relationships has been a main obstacle so far to the

development of simple and rationale methods for calculations of the stress-strain developments of fire exposed concrete structures.

Applying a certain variation of the single parameter c it is now possible to generate the

heat induced changes of the full, idealized stress-strain curves whether the idealisations

are elasto-plastic or curved lines are used.

40

The thermal expansion, the creep and the so called transient strain of concrete exposed

to high temperatures have been analysed by a number of authors as described in Hertz

[32], and a theoretical model for calculating the total strain has been developed by

Anderberg and Thelandersson [49].

The total strain is assumed to be a sum of 4 contributions: the thermal strain th, the instantaneous stress-related strain load, the creep strain creep and the so called transient

strain tr:

= th + load + creep + tr

The thermal strain of the concrete depends mainly on the aggregate. Yet for rough calculations up to approximately 500C, it might be a reasonable approximation to consider the thermal expansion of ordinary concrete based on quartz or limestone as linearly increasing with temperature by the coefficient 11x10-6 C-1.

-6

-1

th = 11 10 ( T - 20C ) C

chamotte the coefficient is altered accordingly.

For calculation of instability of walls and columns with an eccentric fire exposure the

thermal deflection is a predominant parameter, and a more detailed model of the thermal

expansion is needed also allowing temperatures above 500C.

For many concretes a second order curve seems to model the behaviour reasonably

where the coefficient may be varied according to the properties of the specific concrete.

One example could be:

2

2

-6

-2

th = 12 10 T C b 4ac

41

11x10-6C-1 for the thermal expansion of reinforcing steel.

The instantaneous stress-related strain depends on the stress-strain curves for heated

concrete, which are previously described.

The creep depends on the concrete, the load, the temperature and the time.

Anderberg and Thelandersson suggest the expression

creep

= 530 10

f cc

6

t

3h

3.04(T 20 C)

1000 C

where /fcc is the ratio between the actual compressive strength of the concrete at the

temperature T during the time t.

It is seen that even at a stress ratio of 1, the duration should be at least 10-20 h, if the

creep strain should be comparable to the thermal strain at temperature levels below

500C.

Creep strains therefore are important mostly for applications of concrete in industry and

reactor technology, where sustained high temperatures may occur.

As regards concrete structures exposed to short-time heat-pulses from ordinary fire

courses creep strains may be important for calculation of the time dependent deflections

after the fire exposure.

42

Figure 33. Thermal strain of concrete and steel from Harada et al. [20].

As regards concrete structures during the time of the fire exposures, creep strains are

important mostly to structural members being close to collapse, and seldom of importance to structural members, which are designed to resist fully developed fire courses.

In Hertz [32] it is shown that the transient strain may be regarded as a hindered part of

the thermal expansion for loaded concrete specimens exposed to heating.

The transient strain is found to be proportional to the ratio between the compressive

stress and the compressive strength of the concrete at 20C, and furthermore it is proportional to the thermal expansion.

tr = -2.35

f cc20

th

It is seen that the transient strain according to the expression may become larger than

the thermal strain, if the compressive stress is larger than approximately 45 pct. of the

original compressive strength.

Yet it is possible to explain the phenomenon as a hindered part of the thermal expansion:

The thermal expansion is caused by the expansion of the aggregate, and by this expansion tensile stresses and cracks are developed in the surrounding hydrated cement paste.

As it is already mentioned, the hydrated cement paste of a heated concrete will decompose and shrink.

Therefore, the thermal strain of a heated concrete should be regarded as a thermal expansion due to the aggregate minus shrinkage due to the chemical changes of the matrix.

If the concrete is loaded by compressive stresses, the aggregate is pretensioned, and the

development of tensile stresses and cracks is hindered partly or fully in the matrix. The

resulting strain may therefore become a compression to which a creep may be added if

the load remains for a longer period.

43

(C = 0.40 m, a = 348x10-9m2/s, Ah/At = 0.04 m-, q = 400 MJ/m, COLD condition).

STRESS DISTRIBUTION

One of the main hindrances for developing calculational procedures for determination

of the load-bearing capacities and other mechanical properties of concrete structures has

been the fact that the maximum temperature and he material properties vary considerably throughout a fire exposed cross-section.

The problems can be handled by application of finite element analyses using an appropriate computer and time for generating the in-data.

However, many of these calculations can be executed much more easily by introducing

a basic concept: the stress distribution factor.

Consider a cross-section exposed to fire at two parallel surfaces.

The isotherms will all be parallel to the surfaces at any time of the fire exposure, and the

reduction of the compressive strength of the concrete c is then a function of the depth

from the surface.

The maximum temperature occurring at the centre of the cross-section until the actual

time is denoted TM, and the corresponding reduction of the compressive strength of the

concrete is cM.

The average compressive strength of the concrete in a cross-section of the thickness C is

expressed as

f cc,ave = cM f cc 20

where fcc20 is the compressive strength at 20C, and is a factor called the STRESS

DISTRIBUTION FACTOR.

44

This factor represents a very useful concept by means of which the stress-strain conditions of a loaded and fire exposed concrete section can be calculated as a whole and almost just as easy as by the calculation of the same cross-section without fire exposure.

Considering that the alternative procedure is to split up the cross-section into a number

of finite elements each of uniform maximum temperature and to solve the problems for

the entire system of elements, the simple procedures using stress distribution factors are

less laborious and just as precise as the finite element analysis.

In addition, the procedures based on stress distribution factors are identical to the procedures used for cross-sections without a fire exposure if the fire exposure is reduced to

nil.

The stress distribution factor is determined by

=

1

C

0 c ( T ( z ) ) dz

C cM

and is the ratio of the average compressive strength of the cross-section to the compressive strength at the centre of the cross-section, which is

fccM = cMfcc20

Furthermore is utilised that if the compressive strength at any point of the cross-section

is reduced by the factor c to

fcc = cfcc20 ,

and that the initial modulus of elasticity of the concrete at the same point is

Eco = c2 Eco20

and the ultimate strain is

cu = cu20/c

where cu20 is often considered to be 0.35 pct.

From the elasto-plastic stress-strain relations it is seen that the ultimate stress is reached

at the strain cu20 for most of the temperature levels.

It is therefore a reasonable approximation to assume the cross-section being able to act

at its ultimate stresses at every point, when compressed to a uniform strain of cu20 in a

plastic analysis.

If cM is less than unity the approximation is even more valid when the entire crosssection is compressed to cuM = cu20/cM > cu20.

45

This means that the cross-section can be loaded to an ultimate resistance equal to the

average compressive strength multiplied by the thickness of the section, before the ultimate strain is reached at the centre-line.

For applications, where the strain may vary along the centre-line, but has a constant

value across the section, the material could be considered to be uniformly damaged

through the section.

The stress-strain curve of the material is assessed to be the one of an impaired concrete

with a compressive strength equal to the mean value through the cross-section, but with

an ultimate strain not exceeding cuM.

The ultimate resistance per unit length of the cross-section thus is

cMfcc20C

and the initial stiffness per unit length is

C

0 c dzE co 20

stiffness per unit length may also be

( cM ) 2 E co20

The factor (cM)2 is smaller than the integral, and thus it would be a safe approximation

to be used for calculations of instability and deflections of structural members.

46

4 / 3

10

1

10 cM

Figure 35. Relation between the summation of c2 and the approximation 4/3.

However, calculations of the integral for a large number of different fire exposures and

thicknesses of the concrete cross-section show that a better approximation would be

C

o c dz 3 cM C

The average deviation was less than 5 pct., and no single deviation was above 10 pct.

The values of c and may be found for a HOT condition, where the temperature is a

maximum at 30 mm from the surface, and for a COLD condition after the fire exposure.

Thus, the initial stiffness per unit length is

4

3 cM E co20C

47

Figure 36. Comparison between the model using a reduced cross-section and the actual distribution of

stiffness for a typical fire development. (C = 0.40 m, a = 348x10-9m2/s, Ah/At = 0.04 m,

If the elastic parts of the elasto-plastic stress-strain relations are used, or a more detailed

analysis is made based on a stress-strain curve, the cross-section could be considered to

have a fictive thickness of

4

3 C

and to consist of concrete with the mechanical properties of the concrete at the centreline, i.e.

2

f cc = cM f cc20 , E co = cM E co20 , cu = cu20 / cM

4

C

(1 - 3 )

2

48

4cM2

EI

EI 20

Figure 37. Relation between the relative flexural stiffness and the approximation 4cM2.

This rough model, where the Eco-modulus is zero at both sides and of full central value

over a thickness of 4/3C at the middle, is very close to the distribution of c2 over the

cross-section.

The agreement is so close, that even the moment of inertia weighted by the Eco-modulus

is almost identical for the two models.

This means that

C

2 o2 z 2 c2 E co 20 dz

1 4 3 2

C cM E co20

12

Also the validity of this approximation has been tested by calculation of the integral for

the previously mentioned fires and cross-sections as presented in the figure.

The average deviation was less than 1 pct. and the maximum deviation less than 4 pct.

of the initial value of the moment of inertia times the Eco-modulus before the fire exposure.

The model using a reduced cross-section of thickness 4/3C is therefore valuable to the

calculation of the load-bearing capacity of a fire exposed wall or column as well as for

the elastic- or curved-line analysis of a cross-section.

However, in case a plastic analysis is carried out, all parts of the cross-section will be

able to act by their ultimate stresses, when they are compressed at a large uniform strain.

49

For this analysis the cross-section could be reduced to one of a thickness C having the

uniform mechanical properties of the concrete at the centre-line

f cc = cM f cc20 , cu = cu20 / cM

In the early phases of a fire, development of large temperature gradients may occur near

the surface of the cross-section.

If the cross-section is not loaded, large thermal stresses may arise. However, if the

cross-section is loaded the thermal strains and the transient strains should be added to

the compression strain, which is assumed to be uniform through the cross-section.

If the cross-section is loaded by 30 pct. of the compression strength before the fire, a

temperature difference of say 500C between a surface layer and the core would give

rise to a difference in strain of

3

th + tr = 1.1 ( 1 - 2.35 0.3 ) 500 / 10 = 0.16 pct.

And the ultimate strain of the concrete in a hot condition at 500C is increased by

This means that if the cross-section is loaded by 30 pct. or more of the original ultimate

compression stress, the difference in thermal and transient strain between surface and

core of the cross-section would approximately be within the increase of the ultimate

compression strain of the hot surface layer.

Thus, a redistribution of the stresses will be possible without causing any damage to the

cross-section, and in case the load is at the ultimate limit state of the heated crosssection, the stress distribution is not influenced by the thermal gradients, and the stress

distribution factor is not affected.

As it appears from the previous pages, the only two variables, which are necessary to

know in order to describe the reduction of the mechanical properties of a fire exposed

concrete section, are cM and .

Their values can be calculated from the maximum temperatures, which have occurred in

a number of points through the cross-section until the time considered.

Such values can also be found for hand calculations from tables Hertz [23] for a large

variety of the cross-sections and fires or calculated by simple freeware programs also

developed by the author.

Finally the values can be calculated by dividing the half thickness of the cross-section

into at least 3 lamellas and correcting for the influence of a limited number of lamellas

as shown in the CEN code [2] and the Danish code [4].

50

These values are calculated for an unloaded concrete with Danish sea gravel aggregates,

which will represent conservative estimations for most other Danish concretes and

loads, or they are calculated for German siliceous aggregates, representing conservative

estimations for most other concretes and loads.

The engineer may of course use data for the actual concrete, if these can be documented,

in order to utilise a possible benefit of the actual data compared to the worst case data

found in codes or textbooks.

Finally, the engineer may decide to improve the fire resistance of the concrete, which is

possible by means of well-known techniques, and alter the parameters accordingly.

For example the author has developed a fire proof concrete based on Danish materials,

which is undamaged and has c = 1.0 up to a temperature level of 800C, and can sustain a temperature of 1100C.

And it is obvious that any concrete between the siliceous and the fire resistant materials

can be applied for construction.

The calculation methods presented in this book has the big advantage, that they take a

variation of the properties of the concrete into account, whether it is a natural variation

caused by different aggregates or a deliberate variation caused by the development of

fire resistant concretes.

51

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2.

Institute of Building Design (now Department of Civil Engineering,

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3.

Structural Fire Design. CEN 1994 and 2002, ENV 1992-1-2.

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American Concrete Institute, Detroit 1986, ACI Special Publication SP-92,

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5.

. . . . .

, 1969.

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7.

1983, DS412, 2nd edn .

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Beton- und Spannsthlen bei hohen Temperaturen.

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(Mechanical properties of reinforcement at high temperatures). Department for building constructions, Technical university of Lund, 1978;

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52

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CAHILL T. The Behaviour of Prestressing Wire at Elevated Temperatures. Proceedings of a Symposium on Fire Resistance of Prestressed Concrete, Braunschweig, 1965.

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Committee 44-PHT, February 1983.

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Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol.56, No.8

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53

22

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23

DS: Danish Code of Practice for Concrete Constructions. DS411, version 4.1.

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24

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25

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vorgespannten Stahlbetonbauteilen. Deutsche Ausschuss fr Stahlbeton Heft 122.

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26

Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, Munich 1964. 677p.

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29

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30

Fire Safety Journal. Vol.38.

Elsevier Science Ltd. 2003. pp. 103-116.

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HERTZ, K.D. SRENSEN, L.S.: Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete.

Fire Safety Journal. Vol.40, No.5, pp.466-476.

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32

(Fire Properties of Concrete Constructions) Part 1 of Ph.D.-Thesis.

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33

Exposed to High Temperatures. Part 3 of Ph.D.-Thesis.

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34

Report 174. Institute of Building Design now:

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35

ACI American Concrete Institute,

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36

American Concrete Institute, Special Publication SP-25

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37

of Concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol.8, No.23,

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38

HERTZ, K.D.: Danish Investigations on Silica Fume Concretes at Elevated Temperatures. ACI Materials Journal Vol. 89, No. 4. pp. 345-347.

Detroit July-August 1992.

39

KHOURY, G.A., MAJORANA, C.E. PESAVENTO, F. SCHREFLER, B.A.: Modelling of Heated Concrete.

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April 2002, pp.77-101.

40

Lund Institute of Technology, Division of Building Materials.

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41

and Walls of Concrete with Expanded Clay Aggregate.

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Technical University of Denmark. Revised April 2003. 43p.

55

42

Exposed Lightweight Concrete). Diploma project. Danish Engineering Academy,

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June 1991. 91p.

43

High Temperatures.

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Danish Technological Institute. 3p.

44

Thermal Properties of Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures.

ACI American Concrete Institute,

Special Publication SP-34, pp.377-406.

Detroit 1972.

45

(Fire Resistant Concrete based on Moclay.) M.Sc. Project.

Institute of Building Design, Now: Department of Civil Engineering,

Technical University of Denmark. Lyngby 1983. 138p.

46

HARMATHY, T.Z. BERNDT, J.E.: Hydrated Portland Cement and Light weight

Concrete at Elevated Temperatures.

Journal of the ACI Vol.63, No.1, pp.93-112.

Research Paper No. 280.

Division of Building Research. Ottawa 1966.

47

FISCHER, R.: ber das Verhalten von Zementmrtel und Beton bei hheren Temperaturen. Deutcher Ausschuss fr Stahlbeton. Heft 214, pp.61-128.

Berlin 1970.

48

und instationrer Temperaturbeanspruchung.

Die Bautechnik heft 4. pp.123-132.

Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn. Berlin 1977.

49

concrete at high temperatures.

2. Experimental Investigation and Material Behaviour Model.

Bulletin 54, Lund Institute of Technology. Lund 1976.

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