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Centrifugal Separation

Centrifugal Separation

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(Unit Operation-2)

Prof. Saikat Maitra

TODAYS TOPIC

Today Topics :

Centrifugal Separation

Introduction

Application

Equipment: Cyclone Separator

Theory

Centrifugal force

Rate of Settling

Critical Diameter

LESSON OUTOMES

comprehend & discuss concept & theory on

centrifugal separation

determine centrifugal force, critical diameter, rate of

settling

analyze & design an application

Centrifugal Separation

Introduction

on the particles

settling smaller particles

does not change relative settling velocities

overcome

free convective currents

Slurry

feed

Slurry

feed

Slurry Fed

Liquid-liquid feed

Slurry feed

Slurry Fed

Slurry

Slurry feed

feed

Liquid

liquid

Solid

solid

heavy

Heavy

liquid

Liquid

fraction

Faction

light

Light

liquid

Liquid

fraction

Fraction

Application

separation of cellular materials

beers

vegetable oil

fish-protein-concentration

fruit juice

drying crystals

separation of emulsion into liquids or solid-liquid

remove dust particles from air

vacuum cleaner

vertical

conical

Size classification

Centrifugal force

ae= acceleration from a centrifugal force (m/s2)

r = radial distance from centre

= angular velocity (rad/s)

Rotational speed, N rev/min

Gravitational Force,

Centrifugal force in terms of gravitational force

Example

Force in a centrifuge

A centrifuge having a radius of the bowl of 0.1016 m is

rotating at N = 1000 rev/min.

a) Calculate the centrifugal force developed in terms of

gravity forces.

b) Compare this force to that for a bowl with a radius of

0.2032 m rotating at the same rev/min.

Example

Force in a centrifuge

A centrifuge having a radius of the bowl of 0.1016 m is

rotating at N = 1000 rev/min.

a) Calculate the centrifugal force developed in terms of

gravity forces.

b) Compare this force to that for a bowl with a radius of

0.2032 m rotating at the same rev/min.

Given:

(b) r = 0.2032 m

N = 1000 rev/min

Example : Solution

Fc

0.001118rN 2

Fg

113.6 g

Fc

2

0.001118rN

Fg

227.2 g

Settling in Stokes law range,

the distance between r1 and r2.

Example

Settling in a centrifuge

A viscous solution containing particles with a density

1461 kg/m3 is to be clarified by centrifugation. The

solution density is 801 kg/m3 and its viscosity is 100 cp.

The centrifuge has bowl with r2 = 0.02225 m, r1 =

0.00716 m and height b = 0.1970 m. Calculate the

critical particle diameter of the largest particles in the

exit stream if N=23000 rev/min and the flowrate q =

0.002832 m3/h.

Given:

rp = 1461 kg/m3

r = 801 kg/m3, m = 100 cp

bowl: r2 = 0.02225 m, r1 = 0.00716 m

N = 23000 rev/min

q = 0.002832 m3/h

Example : Solution

2N

60

Bowl volume

V b(r22 r12 )

0.002832

qc

3600

RECAP

comprehend & discuss concept & theory on centrifugal

separation

determine

centrifugal force, FC

critical diameter, DPC

rate of settling, qC

analyze & design an application

References:

[1] Geankoplis C. J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations,

4th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003.

[2] Perry, R.H. and Green, D. Perrys Chemical Engineers

Handbook, 6th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

1984.

THANK YOU

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