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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Update on ISO Standards in Condition Monitoring and Vibration


Simon Mills BSc(Eng) CMarEng CEng MIMarEST
Director of Training Services, AV Technology Ltd
Avtech House, Arkle Avenue, Handforth, Cheshire, SK9 3RW
Telephone: +44 (0) 161 486 3737
Telefax: +44 (0) 161 486 3747
E-mail: simonmills@avtechnology.co.uk

Abstract
This paper presents a further update and overview of the progress in International Standards in
Vibration and Condition Monitoring. In particular it highlights the proposed revisions to ISO
18436-2 Vibration Analysis (VA) Qualification & Assessment(1). The BINDT third-party
implementation of which has already had the additional syllabus detail for the four categories of
Vibration Analyst sub-topic examples added. Also included is the latest status of revisions and
renumbering to the International Standards on balancing.

1. Introduction
The author has reported previously on the development of International Standards in the field of
condition monitoring and the progress of training, qualification and accreditation of personnel in
condition monitoring (2) (3) (4). This paper presents a further update on the current status of
International Standards in the field of vibration and condition monitoring, and in particular
developments in the re-issue and renumbering of International Standards in balancing, and in the
Vibration Analyst Qualification & Assessment scheme.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

2.

ISO Vibration and Condition Monitoring Standards

2.1

Overview of ISO Technical Committee 108

ISO Technical Committee (TC) 108 Mechanical Vibration & Shock, was originally established
in 1963 and its original scope included terminology, balancing, isolation & damping, methods
of testing, measurement & calibration.
Using existing national standards from countries including the UK, USA and Germany, this led
to the development of international vibration measurement guidelines such as ISO 2372(5).
These were later superseded by International Standards ISO 10816(6) and ISO 7919(7) series of
standards. ISO TC 108 has issued over 197 standards since its establishment in 1963.
ISO TC 108 is now called: "Mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring",
and its' scope(8) was extended to include condition monitoring:
"Standardization in the fields of mechanical vibration and shock and the effects of vibration and
shock on humans, machines, vehicles (air, sea, land and rail) and stationary structures, and of
the condition monitoring of machines and structures, using multidisciplinary approaches."

2.2

ISO Vibration Standards

Since ISO Technical Committee 108 was set up in 1963 it has published 185 vibration and shock
related International Standards, of which 157 are current. Many of these standards are required
references for the 4 Categories in the Vibration Analysis Qualification and Assessment standard
ISO 18436-2.
An overview of a selection of the areas of ISO International Standards relating to Vibration is
shown in Figure 1 below:

Vibration Vocabulary

Vibration CM &
Diagnostics

Machine Vibration

Vibration
of Ships

Vibration
Instrumentation

Balancing

Vibration CM &
Diagnostics Training

Isolation

Figure 1 Overview of relevant Vibration Standards

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

An updated selection of International Standards useful for vibration analysts is shown in Figure
2 below.
Vibration Vocabulary
ISO 2041
Mech vib, shock & condition
monitoring - Vocabulary
(TC108)

ISO 1925
Mech vib - Balancing
- Vocabulary (TC108 WG31)

Vibration CM &
Diagnostics
ISO 13373-1
Vib CM - Part 1: General
procedures (TC108 SC2)

Vibration of
Machines

Vibration
Instrumentation

Balancing

ISO 10816

ISO 1940-1

ISO 2954

Mech vib - Evaluation of m/c vib by


measurements on non-rotating parts
(TC108 SC2)

Mech vib - Bal quality req for rotors


in a const (rigid) state - Pt 1: Spec &
verific. of bal tolerances (TC108 )

Mech vib of rotating and recip m/c Req for instruments for measuring
vibration severity (TC108 SC3)

Casing Vibration ISO Parts


ISO 10816-1 General guidelines
ISO 10816-2 Land-based steam
turbines & generators > 50 MW
ISO 10816-3 Industrial machines
with nominal power >15kW
ISO 10816-4 Industrial GT sets
ISO 10816-5 Hydraulic m/c
ISO 10816-6 Recip m/c >100kW
ISO 10816-7 Rotodynamic pumps
for industrial applications
ISO/DIS 10816-8 Reciprocating
compressor systems
ISO/CD 10816-21 Onshore wind
turbines with gearbox

ISO 10814

ISO 5347 series

Mech vib - Susceptibility &


sensitivity of machines to unbalance
(TC108)

Methods for the calibration of


vibration and shock pick-ups
(TC108 SC3)

ISO 11342

ISO 16063 series

Mech vib - Methods & criteria for the


mech balancing of flexible rotors
(TC108)

Methods for the calibration of


vibration and shock transducers
(TC108 SC3)

ISO 5348

ISO 14694
Industrial fans - Spec for balance
quality & vibration levels (TC117)

ISO 13373-2

ISO 8528-9

ISO 19499

Vib CM - Part 2: Processing analysis


& presentation of vibration data
(TC108 SC2)

Recip internal combustion engine


driven AC gen sets - Pt 9:
Meas & eval of mech vib (TC70)

Mech vib - Balancing - Guidance on


the use & application of bal.
standards (TC108)

ISO 14695

ISO 21940-14 (ISO 1940-2)


Mech vib - Rotor balancing - Pt 14:
Proc. for assessing balance errors
(TC108)

ISO/WD 13373-3
Vib CM - Part 3: Basic techniques
for diagnostics (TC108 SC2)

Vibration
of Ships
ISO 6954
Mech vib & shock - Guidelines for
the meas, reporting & evaluation of
vib in merchant ships (TC108 SC2)

ISO 20283-2
Mech vib - Meas of vib on ships - Pt
2: Meas of structural vib on ships
(TC108 SC2)

Industrial fans - Method of


measurement of fan vibration
(TC117)

ISO 7919-1
Mech vib of non-reciprocating m/c's
- Meas's on rotating shafts and
evaluation criteria (TC108)

Shaft Vibration ISO Parts


ISO 7919-1 General guidelines
ISO 7919-2 Large steam turbine
ISO 7919-3 Coupled Industrial m/c
ISO 7919-4 Industrial GT sets
ISO 7919-5 Hydraulic m/c
(TC108 SC2)

Vibration Training

ISO 20283-3 Mech vib - Meas of

ISO 18436-2

vib on ships - Pt 3: Pre-installation


vib meas of shipboard equipment
(TC108 SC2)

Req. for training & cert. of


personnel - Part 2 - Vib CM and
diagnostics (TC108 SC2/SC5)

ISO 20283-4 Mech vib - Meas of


vib on ships - Pt 4: Meas & eval of
vib of the ship propulsion machinery
(TC108 SC2)

Abbreviations Key:
AC = alternating current
cert = certification
equip = equipment
info = information
mech = mechanical
pres = presentation
req = requirements
tech = technical

ISO 21940-13 (ISO 20806)


Mech vib - Rotor bal - Pt 13: Criteria
& safeguards for the in-situ bal of
medium & large rotors (TC108)

ISO 18431
Mech vib and shock - Signal
processing

Signal Processing Parts


ISO 18431-1 General introduction
ISO 18431-2 Time domain windows
for Fourier Transform analysis
ISO 18431-4 Shock response
spectrum analysis
(TC108)

Isolation

ISO 21940-21 (ISO 2953)


Mech vib - Rotor balancing - Pt 21:
Description & evaluation of
balancing machines (TC108)

ISO 2017-1 Mech vib & shock Resilient mtg sys - Pt 1: Tech info to
be exchanged for the app of isol sys
(TC108)

ISO 21940-23 (ISO 7475)


Mech vib - Rotor bal - Pt 23: Bal m/c
- Enclosures & other prot. meas'rs
for the meas'g st'n (TC108)

ISO 2017-2 Mech vib & shock Resilient mtg sys - Pt 1: Tech info to
be exchanged for the app of vib isol
sys assoc. with railways (TC108)

ISO 21940-32 (ISO 8821)


Mech vib - Rotor balancing - Pt 32:
Shaft & fitment key convention
(TC108)

ISO 18437 Mech vib & shock --

ISO Committee Stage Abbreviations:


PWI = Preliminary Work Item AWI = Approved Work Item
CD = Committee Draft
DIS = Draft Int. Standard

app = application
CM = condition monitoring
eval = evaluation
isol = isolation
mtg = mounting
proc. = processing
recip = reciprocating
trg = training

Mech vib and shock - Mechanical


mounting of accelerometers
(TC108 SC3)

assoc = associated
comm = communications
gen = generating
m/c = machine
perm = permissible
prot = protective
spec = specification
vib = vibration

Characterization of the dynamic


mech properties of visco-elastic
materials - Pts 1 to 5 (TC108)

WD = Working Draft
FDIS = Final Draft Int. Standard

bal = balancing
diag = diagnostics
GT = gas turbine
meas = measurement
pers = personnel
pt = part
sys = systems

Figure 2 Examples of Relevant Vibration International Standards

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

2.3

ISO Balancing Standards

A program of revising and renumbering the balancing standards has been underway since 2010
to bring them under the overall group number of ISO 21940, each as separate parts.
The current status (April 2013) is shown in the table below:
New ISO Number

Title

Status

Will become
ISO 21940-1:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 1: Introduction

Current
ISO 19499:2007

Will become
ISO 21940-2:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 2: Vocabulary

Current
ISO 1925:1990

Will become
ISO 21940-11:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 11: Procedures


and tolerances for rotors with rigid behaviour

Current
ISO 1940-1:2003

Will become
ISO 21940-12:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 12: Procedures


and tolerances for rotors with flexible behaviour

Current
ISO 11342:1998

ISO 21940-13:2012

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 13: Criteria and


safeguards for the in-situ balancing of medium and large rotors

Superseded
ISO 20806:2009

ISO 21940-14:2012

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 14: Procedures


for assessing balance errors

Superseded
ISO 1940-2:1997

ISO 21940-21:2012

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 21: Description


and evaluation of balancing machines

Superseded
ISO 2953:1999

Withdrawn
ISO/DIS 21940-22:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 22: Symbols


for balancing machines and associated instrumentation

Withdrawn
ISO 3719:1994

ISO 21940-23:2012

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 23: Balancing


machines -- Enclosures and other protective measures for the
measuring station

Superseded
ISO 7475:2002

ISO/DIS 21940-31:

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 31:


Susceptibility and sensitivity of machines to unbalance

Superseded
ISO 10814:1996

ISO 21940-32:2012

Mechanical vibration -- Rotor balancing -- Part 32: Shaft and


fitment key convention

Superseded
ISO 8821:1989

Figure 3 Status of Balancing Standards

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

2.4

ISO Condition Monitoring Standards

During the early 1990s development of the technology of Condition Monitoring, and other
techniques such as Vibration Monitoring, Thermal Imaging and Tribology led to the
establishment of a new sub-committee (SC) under TC108.
This became TC108 SC5 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines.
TC108 SC5 has now issued 18 International Standards relating to Condition Monitoring and
Diagnostics since 2000, including the CM overview document, ISO 17359, Condition
monitoring and diagnostics of machines General guidelines(9) which was re-issued as a muchexpanded second edition in 2011.
In 2012, in order to clarify the scope of CM as being wider than just machines, the subcommittee title was changed to:
TC108 SC5 Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machine systems.
An overview of the current ISO CM standards subject areas is shown in Figure 3, with more
detail shown in Figure 4.

Condition Monitoring
Overview Standards

Condition Monitoring
Technique Standards

Application Specific
Standards

Condition Monitoring,
Diagnostics &
Prognostic Standards

Condition Monitoring
Data Management
Standards

Requirements for
CM Certification Bodies

Condition Monitoring
Training Standards

Figure 3 Condition monitoring standards subject area overview


ISO(10) and BSI(11) maintain detailed information of current publication status on their respective
websites.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

A block diagram of the International Standards in condition monitoring currently issued or under
development is shown in Figure 4 below.
Overview
ISO 17359:2011
Condition monitoring & diagnostics
of machines - General guidelines

ISO 13372
Condition monitoring & diagnostics
of machines - Vocabulary

CM & diagnostics
Techniques
ISO 13373-1

ISO 18436-2

ISO 13379-1

CM & diag of m/c - Req for qual &


assessment of personnel
Part 2: Vib CM and diagnostics

CM & diag. of m/c - Data


interpretation and diag. techniques
- Part 1: General guidelines

ISO 13373-2

ISO/CD 13379-2

CM & diag. of m/c - Vib CM Part 2: Processing, analysis and


presentation of vib data (TC108 SC2)

CM & diag. of m/c - Data


interpretation and diag. techniques
- Part 2: Data-driven applications

PWI 14830-1
CM & diag. of m/c - Lubrication &
tribology

PWI 14830-2
CM & diagnostics of machines Lubricant sampling

Requirements for
Certification Bodies
ISO 18436-1
Req. for qual & ass. of personnel Part 1: Requirements for cert.
bodies & the certification process

Diagnostics &
Prognostics

CM & diag. of m/c - Vib CM - Part


1: General procedures
(TC108 SC2)

ISO 2041
Mechanical vibration, shock &
condition monitoring - Vocabulary
(TC108)

CM & diagnostics
Training

ISO 18434-1
CM & diag. of m/c - Thermography
- Part 1: General Procedures

ISO 18436-4
CM & diag. of m/c - Req for qual &
assessment of personnel
Part 4: Field lubricant analysis

ISO 13381-1
CM & diag. of m/c - Prognostics Part 1: General guidelines

ISO 18436-5

ISO/WD 13373-3

CM & diag. of m/c - Req for qual &


ass. of pers. - Part 5: Lubricant
laboratory technician/analyst

CM & diag. of m/c - Vib CM Part 3: Diagnostic techniques


(TC108 SC2 & SC5)

ISO 18436-7
CM & diag. of m/c - Req for qual &
assessment of personnel - Part 7:
Thermography

Data Management

ISO 18436-3

ISO/FDIS 20958-1

ISO 13374-1

Req. for qual. & ass. of personnel


Part 3: Requirements for training
bodies & the training process

CM & diag. of m/c - Electric


signature analysis - Part 1: Threephase induction motors

CM & diag. of m/c - Data proc.


communications & presentation
Part 1: General guidelines

Application Specific

ISO 22096
CM & diagnostics of machines Acoustic emission

ISO 19860

ISO 29821-1

Gas turbine trend monitoring


(TC192)

CM & diag. of m/c - Ultrasound


- Part 1: General guidelines

ISO 18436-6

ISO 13374-2

CM & diag. of m/c - Req for qual. &


assessment of personnel - Part 6:
Acoustic emission

CM & diag. of m/c - Data proc.


communications & presentation
Part 2: Data processing

ISO 18436-8

ISO 13374-3

CM & diag. of m/c - Req for qual &


assessment of personnel - Part 8:
Ultrasound

CM & diag. of m/c - Data proc.


communications & presentation
Part 3: Communication

ISO 16587

NP 13374-4

Mech. vib. & shock - Performance


parameters for CM of structures
(TC108)

CM & diag. of m/c - Data proc.


communications & presentation
Part 4: Data presentation

ISO Document Stage Abbreviations:


WD = Working Draft
Abbreviations Key:
comm = communications
int = international
pres = presentation
req = requirements

PWI = Preliminary Work Item


CD = Committee Draft

AWI = Approved Work Item


DIS = Draft Int. Standard

NP = New Project
FDIS = Final Draft Int. Standard

ass = assessment
diag = diagnostics
meas = measurement
proc. = processing
recip = reciprocating

cert = certification
eval = evaluation
mech = mechanical
pt = part
spec = specification

CM = condition monitoring
m/c = machine
pers = personnel
qual = qualification
vib = vibration

Figure 4 Current status of ISO condition monitoring standards


From the diagram above, the third column (CM & Diagnostics Training) shows that six
standards in the ISO 18436(12) series qualification and assessment standards, corresponding to
various CM techniques, have been issued or are in the course of preparation.
Progress also continues on developing corresponding additional training and qualification
standards in the ISO 18436 series.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

3.
3.1

Qualification and Assessment


BINDT CM Certification

In the UK, BINDT has a well-established third-party certification scheme and runs examinations
for the various categories of CM practitioners. BINDT manages certification in compliance with
the appropriate parts of ISO 18436 for condition monitoring personnel in the following areas:
- Vibration Analysis
- Wear and Debris Analysis
- Infrared Thermography
- Acoustic Emission
- Ultrasonics
- Marine CM (in progress)
BINDT formally accredits Approved Training Organizations (ATO), and approves qualified
trainers. BINDT also manages the complete examination process. BINDT examinations are
formally invigilated sessions using sealed papers. The BINDT scheme also requires successfully
completion of a training examination before sitting a BINDT examination.
BINDT audits and manages Authorised Qualifying Bodies (AQBs) and Approved Examination
Centres (AEC) to conduct PCN examinations anywhere in the world. BINDT carries out audits
of training organisations to ensure that they meet the exacting requirements of the training and
qualification process. This requires compliance with training materials and examination
processes and procedures. BINDT maintain a list of their Approved Training Organisations(13)
(ATOs) on the BINDT website.
BINDT is itself accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS)(14) for
personnel and quality systems certification activities, and is regularly audited by UKAS.
BINDT regularly audits all its ATOs. All such approved training organizations operate to
auditable quality systems such as ISO 9001.
The BINDT accreditation process is also available outside the UK. BINDT has schemes or
reciprocal recognition with several other countries and training organisations. These include
training establishments in other ISO member countries including the US Vibration Institute(15).
The syllabus for vibration practitioner is shown in Tables 2 & 3. An up-to-date copy of BINDT
CM GEN App D is available from the BINDT website(16). A current list of the International
Standards required for the various levels of the vibration certification is shown in Table 4.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

3.2

Compliance with ISO 18436

There are now many organisations worldwide which claim compliance with ISO 18436
qualification and assessment. It should be noted that these are not all third-party schemes and
may be second-party or even first party conformance. Definitions for these terms are included
below:
first-party conformity assessment activity
conformity assessment activity that is performed by the person or organization that provides the
object
second-party conformity assessment activity
conformity assessment activity that is performed by a person or organization that has a user
interest in the object
third-party conformity assessment activity
conformity assessment activity that is performed by a person or body that is independent of the
person or organization that provides the object, and of user interests in that object
certification process
all activities by which a certification body establishes that a person fulfils specified competence
requirements, including application, evaluation, decision on certification, surveillance and
recertification, use of certificates and logos/marks
(Ref: ISO/IEC 17000(17) & ISO/IEC 17024(18))

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

4.

VA Syllabus Reference Materials

BINDT has commissioned a series of Condition Monitoring Handbooks to support the CM


accreditation schemes. The first of which were the Infrared Thermography Handbooks Volume
1(19) & 2(20) approved references in support of the ISO 18436-6 syllabus.
In 2010 BINDT issued the Vibration Monitoring and Analysis Handbook(21), an approved
reference for the ISO 18436-2 syllabus. It supports the VA training & certification available
through BINDT.
Further initiatives to support the Training process for Condition Monitoring include the
publication by ISO in 2010 of a compilation CD collection of over 200 ISO standards on
mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring. (22)
Vibration has 4 categories (Levels) specified and a summary of the ISO 18436-2 syllabus is
shown in Table 2. A more detailed training syllabus has been issued by BINDT in their vibration
analyst training and certification scheme management document CM GEN Appendix D(23). This
expanded annex including details of the knowledge required for each syllabus sub-topic. This is
attached in the Annexes at Table 3.
A list of standards currently required by the Vibration Qualification and Assessment scheme is
also attached in the Annexes at Table 4.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

5. Conclusions
Qualification and assessment in the field of Condition Monitoring (CM) is now well established,
and the demand for third-party independently accredited assessment is increasing.
Progress continues in standardisation of Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Machines and
provides uniformity to processes, techniques and implementation. These International Standards
also ensure uniformity of personnel capabilities and qualification globally.
These qualification and certification initiatives have an international market, and have already
contributed to standardising condition monitoring and diagnostics processes and procedures.
They are having a positive impact throughout the asset management life cycle.
They ensure that certified CM practitioners utilise standard references, techniques and
procedures, whether they are specifying limits at the design stage, carrying out installation and
acceptance testing, or routine monitoring.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

References and Footnotes


(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)

ISO 18436-2:2003, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines Requirements for


training and certification of personnel Part 2: Vibration condition monitoring and
diagnostics
Training and qualification in condition monitoring, S R W Mills, COMADIT 2010
Conference Proceedings
Update on ISO Standards in Condition Monitoring, S R W Mills, COMADIT 2011
Conference Proceedings
Update on ISO Standards in Condition Monitoring and Vibration, S R W Mills,
COMADIT 2012 Conference Proceedings
ISO 2372:1974, Mechanical vibration of machines with operating speeds from 10 to 200
rev/s Basis for specifying evaluation standards, (Withdrawn 1998), http://www.iso.org
ISO 10816-1:1995, Mechanical vibration Evaluation of machine vibration by
measurements on non-rotating parts Part 1: General guidelines, http://www.iso.org
ISO 7919-1:1986 superseded by ISO 7919-1:1996, Mechanical vibration of nonreciprocating machines Measurements on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria Part 1:
General guidelines, http://www.iso.org
ISO Technical Committee 108 Scope,
http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees.htm
ISO 17359:2011, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines General guidelines
http://www.iso.org
ISO International Organization for Standardization, http://www.iso.org
BSI British Standards Institution, http://www.bsigroup.com
ISO 18436 series, Qualification and assessment standards, http://www.iso.org
BINDT Accredited Trainers,
http://www.bindt.org/Education_&_Training/BINDT_Accredited_Trainers
UKAS United Kingdom Accreditation Service, http://www.ukas.com
Vibration Institute, Certified Vibration Analysts, http://www.vibinst.org
British Institute of Non-destructive Testing. http://www.bindt.org
ISO/IEC 17000:2004, Conformity assessment Vocabulary and general principles
ISO/IEC 17024:2003, Conformity assessment General requirements for bodies operating
certification of persons
Infrared Thermography Handbook Volume 1. Principles and Practice, N Walker,
BINDT, ISBN 0 903 132 338
Infrared Thermography Handbook Volume 2. Applications, A Nowicki,
BINDT, ISBN 0 903 132 32X
Vibration Monitoring and Analysis Handbook, Simon R W Mills,
BINDT, ISBN 978 0 903132 39 7
CD collection of ISO standards on mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring,
http://www.iso.org/iso/pressrelease.htm?refid=Ref1322
CM Gen Appendix D Specific requirements for qualification and certification of
condition monitoring and diagnostic personnel for vibration analysis, http://www.bindt.org

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Annex A ISO 18436-2 Syllabus


Annex A.1 Syllabus Topics Overview
Ref: ISO 18436-2(1)

A summary of the topics covered by the VA practitioner syllabus is shown in Table 1 below:
Table 1 Vibration Condition Monitoring Syllabus Overview
Ref

Subject

Category 1
hrs

Category 2
hrs

Category 3
hrs

Category 4
hrs

Principles of vibration

Data acquisition

Signal processing

Condition monitoring

Fault analysis

Corrective action

16

Equipment knowledge

Acceptance testing

Equipment testing and diagnostics

10

Reference standards

11

Reporting and documentation

12

Fault severity determination

13

Rotor/bearing dynamics

14

Total hours for each category

32

38

40

64

Note: Proposals are being considered to modify the total hours in ISO 18436-2 for Cat I to 30
hours, and Cat II, III & IV to 40 hours each.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Annex A.2 ISO 18436-2 Detailed Syllabus


Already included in the BINDT CM Gen App D(23)

Table 2 Training Syllabus Sub-topics by Category


Subject
Ref:

Syllabus topic

Principles of vibration

1.01

Category
I

II

III

Basic motion

1.02

Period, frequency

1.03

Amplitude (peak, peak-topeak, r.m.s.)

1.04

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Recognise vibration,
simple harmonic motion,
spring-mass system

Understand superposition of
sinusoidal vibrations; single
degree of freedom.

Understand damped free


vibration; self-excited, steady
state and transient vibration;
Multiple degrees of freedom

Recognise the following


features of a vibration
signal: time axis, period,
frequency. Use of Hz or
c.p.m.

Understand relationship of
period to frequency, beat
frequency

Understand requirements for


selecting appropriate time
period and frequency. Be
aware of octave band
analysis

Recognise the following


features of a vibration
signal: amplitude, peak,
peak-to-peak, r.m.s

Understand the relationship


between peak, peak-to-peak,
r.m.s

Understand reasons for using


peak, peak-to-peak or r.m.s.

Parameters (displacement,
velocity, acceleration)

Recognise the following


parameters:
Displacement, velocity
and acceleration

Understand the application


displacement, velocity or
acceleration

Understand the factors


behind choosing
displacement, velocity or
acceleration

1.05

Units, unit conversions

Recognise that units


conversion is possible

Understand conversion of
units and integration

Be aware of integration,
differentiation, effect on
frequency distribution

1.06

Time and frequency


domains

Be aware of time and


frequency domain.

Be aware of enveloping,
bandpass filters; Modulation;
crest factor;

Be aware of orbit analysis,


Lissajous figures, windowing

1.07

Vectors, modulation

IV

Understand vector definition,


modulation

Category IV sub-topics

Acquisition for modal


techniques

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject
Ref:

Syllabus topic

1.08

Phase

1.09

Natural frequency,
resonance, critical speeds

1.10

Force, response, damping,


stiffness

1.11

Instabilities, non-linear
systems

Data acquisition

2.01

Instrumentation

2.02

Dynamic range, signal-tonoise ratio

2.03

Transducers

Category
I

II

III

IV

Category I sub-topics

Be aware resonance
exists, and its effect on
vibration, recognise the
terms: frequency,
stiffness, mass

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Units; phase reference


position;

Phase detection methods

Cross-channel; coherence

Fundamental natural mode;


single degree of freedom.
Recognise factors including:
frequency, stiffness, mass,
damping, isolation.

Critical speeds, two degrees


of freedom, dynamic vibration
absorber

Q Factor, multiple degrees of


freedom systems, be aware of
modal techniques and
operational deflection shapes

Mobility, Compliance

Mobility Plot, stiffness,


impedance, accelerance
Non-elastic mounting systems

Recognising single
channel hand-held routebased and on-line
measurement and
monitoring systems

Recognise displacement,
velocity and acceleration
transducers. Be aware of
powered and nonpowered types

Dual channel on and off-line


acquisition, monitoring and
analysis systems

Be familiar with proximity


probes, velocity transducers,
accelerometers, including
those with in-built integration,
Be aware of requirements for
transducer frequency
ranges; runout
compensation, need for
calibration

Multi-channel on and off-line


acquisition, monitoring and
analysis systems including
phase

Multi-channel including modal


analysis and troubleshooting

Be aware of requirements for


dynamic range and signalnoise ratio. Auto-ranging,
Integration and system errors

Techniques for improving


resolution and accuracy.
Noise reduction and postprocessing

Understand transducer
selection requirements,
including machine expected
fault frequency, Understand
typical runout compensation
methods for proximity probes.
Understand and be able to
set calibration requirements

Page 14

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

2.04

Sensor mounting,
mounted natural
frequency

2.05

Fmax, acquisition time

2.06

Proximity sensor
conventions

2.07

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Recognise broad effects


of mounting on the
frequency response E.g.
stud, magnet or probe

Understand accelerometer
mounting methods and
effects on frequency
response; be familiar with a
range of mounting methods.
Be aware of transducer
sensitive axis, tribo-electric
effects

Understand ISO
measurement guidelines;
axial thrust bearing
measurement requirements;
mounting response and
resonance; adhesive curing
times;

Understand Fmax, zoom


function; Simple resolution
calculations; relationship of
Fmax to acquisition time

Understand basic aspects of


FFT processing, samples,
sampling rate, aliasing

Recognise aspects such as:


Gap voltage, orthogonal
radial fitment, runout

Field calibration checks;


proximity probes; axial thrust
bearing measurement, runout
compensation

Triggering

Be aware of use of phase


detection: E.g. eddy-current
probes, photocells, tracking
filters

Understand synchronous
time averaging and triggering.
Be aware of use with
dynamic balancing

2.08

Test planning

Be able to plan and schedule


VM

Managing CM programs

Creating specialised test


procedures

2.09

Test procedures

Be able to set up VM data


collection system, E.g. select
machines and measurement
points, create appropriate
acquisition and alarm
settings, carry out and
supervise measurement and
basic reporting, and carry out
calibration procedures

Manage VM programs, set up


calibration procedures.
Advanced CM reporting.
Troubleshooting

Creating test and calibration


procedures, Standards
development

IV

Follow pre-set data


acquisition procedures for
on-line or route-based
systems. Recognise
measurement points for
common machine types.
Recognise some poor
data and alarm conditions.
Be aware calibration is a
requirement

Category IV sub-topics

Page 15

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Be aware of the common


units and basic range of data
presentation formats e.g.
trending, spectra, waterfall,
time trace, phase

Understand range of data


presentation formats e.g.
trending, spectra, waterfall,
time trace, phase, Bode,
Nyquist, Campbell etc

Mounting error; cable faults,


tribo-electric, bias voltage
and settling time

Processing related errors,


incorrect Fmax, sampling time,
integration etc

Category IV sub-topics

2.10

Data formats

2.11

Computer database
upload/download

2.12

Recognition of poor data

Signal processing

3.01

R.m.s./peak detection

Understand r.m.s and peak


detection features and
benefits

3.02

Analog/digital conversion

Understand requirements of
analog to digital conversion.
Be aware of key stages in
acquisition

3.03

Analog sampling, digital


sampling

3.04

FFT computation

Be aware of basic
functions of host and data
collector

Recognise simple fault


conditions such as: Skiramp, no signal, cable
fault

Be aware of basic function of


analogue to digital
conversion, block diagram

Understand FFT process;


minimum multiples of
frequency interest;
synchronous sampling/key
phasor; sampling rates

Understand requirements of
analog sampling and digital
sampling. Be aware of key
stages in acquisition

Be aware of FFT process


block diagram. E.g.
transducer, signal
conditioning, anti-alias,
analog-digital, windowing

Understand FFT process


block diagram. E.g.
transducer, filtering, signal
conditioning, anti-alias,
analog-digital, windowing,
cepstrum

Page 16

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

3.05

FFT application

3.06

Time windows (uniform,


hanning, flat-top)

3.07

Filters (Low pass, high


pass, band pass, tracking)

3.08

Anti-aliasing

3.09

Bandwidth, resolution

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Be aware of the term FFT


and recognise the
following basic FFT
terminology: E.g. Number
of lines, Fmax and time to
sample

Matching FFT requirements


to range of common fault
profiles. Understand the
requirements for number of
lines (bins), Fmax sampling
time, sampling rate. Basic
understanding of other
factors such as: anti-aliasing,
windowing and averaging

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Be aware of Hanning window


profile and its effect on
sampling E.g. reducing
leakage, effect on amplitude
and frequency

Be aware of other window


functions: uniform, Hamming,
flat-top. and their effect on
sampling E.g. reducing
leakage, effect on amplitude
and frequency

Be aware of basic types of


vibration filters; low pass;
high pass; band pass

Recognise the following filter


types; low pass; high pass;
band pass. Be aware of passband & stop-band and
tracking filters

Be aware of other filter types:


E.g. Bessel, Butterworth,
Chebyshev, Gaussian,
Elliptic. Be aware of basic
filter design parameters E.g.
Filter poles and response

Be aware of requirement for


Anti-aliasing filter

Understand requirements for


aliasing and anti-aliasing
filters and common methods

Be aware of instrumentation
ant-aliasing design
requirements

Bandwidth of bandpass filter;


FFT resolution; signal
duration; lines of resolution;
analyser sample time; FFT
collection time;

Understand frequency
resolution; distortion; average
mobility magnitude;
calculations; frequency
resolution;

noise and random vibration;


response function

Page 17

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject
Ref:

Syllabus topic

3.10

Category
I

II

III

Noise reduction

3.11

Averaging (Linear,
synchronous time,
exponential)

3.12

Dynamic range

3.13

Signal-to-noise ratio

3.14

Spectral maps

Condition monitoring

4.01

Computer data base setup, computer database


maintenance

4.02

Equipment evaluation and


prioritisation

4.03

Monitoring programme
design

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Be aware of basic filtering


and averaging methods used
to reduce noise

Understanding requirements
for noise reduction. Analogue
and digital filtering

Be aware of FFT frequency


averaging

Understand linear frequency


and synchronous time
domain averaging;
Overlapping averaging

Exponential frequency domain


averaging;

Be aware of the term


dynamic range

Understand need for dynamic


range.

Digital dynamic range


calculations
Be aware of methods for
testing and establishing
signal-to-noise ratio

Category IV sub-topics

Waterfall plots, recognising


speed related and resonance
frequencies

Cascade plots, Campbell


diagrams, spectrogram

Procedures for setting


measurement parameters
locations and frequency.
Database maintenance

Be able to review sites and


establish equipment VM
requirements

Be able to set up a VM
program using ISO 17359
and ISO 13373

Be familiar with applicable


CM & VM Standards
including ISO 17359 and ISO
13373, and to be able to
carry out Failure Mode and
Effect Analysis to establish
program requirements.

Be familiar with all applicable


CM & VM Standards, be able
to set up and carry out Failure
Mode and Effect Analysis to
establish program
requirements

Page 18

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

4.04

Alarms set-up
(Narrowband, envelope)

4.05

Baseline assessments,
trending

Measuring baselines E.g. to


ISO 10816, ISO 7919, ISO
14694, ISO 8528-9 or other
requirements

Be able to set baseline


requirements using all
appropriate ISO Standards

4.06

Route planning

Be able to set up VM Routes

Be able to optimising VM and


CM Routes

4.07

Alternative technologies
(E.g. oil analysis, infrared
thermography, motor
current analysis and
acoustic emission)

4.08

Fault condition
recognition

Fault analysis

5.01

Spectrum analysis
harmonics and sidebands

Recognising basic pre-set


fault conditions: E.g.
unbalance, looseness,
misalignment, bearing
noise and damage

Category IV sub-topics

Be able to specify vibration


severity using appropriate
ISO Standards and to set and
apply frequency band and
envelope alarms

Category III sub-topics

Be aware of IRT; AE; UT, LM


(tribology and wear debris
analysis); motor current;

Be aware of performance
monitoring; causes of bearing
wear

Be familiar with FFT


harmonics, sidebands,
modulation and noise, octave
bands

Understand cepstrum
analysis, octave band
analysis

Recognising more advanced


range of fault conditions: E.g.
unbalance, looseness,
misalignment, bearing noise
and damage, gear mesh
faults, rotor bar and stator
faults, drive belt faults,
resonances etc.

Understand FFT harmonics,


sidebands, and noise. Be
aware of enveloping

Page 19

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject
Ref:

Syllabus topic

5.02

Category
I

II

III

IV

Time waveform analysis

5.03

Phase analysis

5.04

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Be aware of requirements for


time waveform sampling
duration for different
applications.

Be aware of requirements for


time waveform sampling
duration for different
applications.

Be able to use phase to


confirm misalignment,
static/couple unbalace, Bode
and Nyquist Plots

Phase analysis of structural


components, modal analysis
and operational deflection
shapes (ODS). System and
structural response

Transient analysis

Coast down and run down


time and phase plots, E.g.
Bode plots

Understand swept frequency


methods, time and phase run
down analysis

5.05

Orbit analysis

Be aware of basic orbit


analysis

Be familiar with orbit analysis,


shaft resonance, Nyquist
plots, oil whirl etc.

5.06

Shaft centre-line analysis

Orbit analysis to establish


run-out

Orbit analysis, shaft


resonance, Nyquist plot, runout and run-out compensation

5.07

Enveloping

De-modulation (enveloping)
process

De-modulation (enveloping)
requirements

5.08

Mass unbalance

Understand static, couple


and dynamic unbalance;
residual unbalance, initial
unbalance

Be aware of sensitivity and


susceptibility to unbalance;
balance errors, sources of
unbalance

5.09

Misalignment

Be aware of alignment
tolerances, recognise
misalignment in FFT and
time trace

Understand sources of
misalignment and methods of
detection using FFT and time
trace. Understanding
requirements and tolerances
for alignment

Page 20

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

5.10

Mechanical looseness

5.11

Rubs, instabilities

5.12

Bearing defects (Rolling


element, journal)

5.13

Electric motor defects

5.14

Flow induced vibration,


aerodynamics and liquids

5.15

Gearbox analysis

5.16

Resonance and critical


speeds

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Recognise looseness in FFT


and time trace

Understanding sources of
misalignment and looseness
and methods of detection
using FFT and time trace

Understanding sources and


effect of rubs and methods of
detection using spectra and
time waveform

Category IV sub-topics

Recognising process
instabilities

Rolling element bearing


defects, noise, impacts,
damage, BPFO, BPFI, BSF,
FTF. Recognise the term: oil
whirl. Recognise patterns of
bearing defects in FFT and
time traces

Journal bearing rub and subsynchronous vibrations.


Understand dynamics of oil
whirl, and methods of
avoiding/reducing effect of oil
whirl.

AC induction motor poles


and line frequency; stator
and rotor bar frequency
analysis

Variable speed drives, pulse


width modulation. AC
induction and synchronous
motor drives

Thermal effects, DC motor


drives

Recognising and
understanding cavitation,
recognise rotating stall

Understanding rotating stall,


pulsation

Recognising gear mesh


frequency and sidebands in
FFT and modulation in time
trace. Application of
demodulation (enveloping)

Time domain averaging;


sidebands and gear mesh
frequency; Understanding
enveloping

Resonance; critical speed in


rigid rotors; single degree of
freedom

Resonance; critical speed in


two plane rotors; two degrees
of freedom

Resonance; critical speed in


flexible rotors; multi degrees
of freedom

Page 21

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

IV

5.17

Turbomachinery

5.18

General fault recognition

Corrective action

6.01

Shaft alignment

6.02

Field balancing

6.03

Replacement of machine
parts

6.04

Flow control

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Understanding oil whirl, rubs,


misalignment, process
influence

Oil whip, hogging, sagging,


intermittent rubs

Recognise fault
frequencies for pre-set
FFT and simple time
waveforms for unbalance,
looseness, misalignment,
bearing noise & damage.
Also recognise the terms:
resonance & phase

Be aware of shaft alignment,


tolerances

Understand shaft alignment


tolerances E.g. Relationship
of turbine rotor speed to
tolerances

Understand single-plane
balancing of rigid rotors with
and without phase. Be able
to use balance quality and
permissible residual
unbalance. Be aware of test
mass estimation.

Understand two-plane
balancing of rigid rotors with
phase. Be aware of static,
couple and dynamic
unbalance. Offset balancing.
Balance errors.

Be aware of requirements for


flexible rotor balancing, phase
and modal techniques. Be
aware of range of ISO
balancing standards.

Be aware of requirements for


replacement parts and factors
such as balance and
alignment tolerances

Understanding relationship of
flow and pressure to avoid
fluid cavitation

Be aware of influence of
pipework or ductwork in fluid
and aerodynamic flow

Page 22

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject
Ref:

Syllabus topic

6.05

Category
I

II

III

IV

Isolation and damping

6.06

Resonance control

6.07

Basic maintenance action

Equipment knowledge

7.01

Electric motors,
generators and drives

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Be aware of requirements for


specifying isolators

Understand requirements and


calculations for specifying
isolators

Be aware of methods of
reducing/eliminating
resonance: E.g. mass
change, stiffness change,
frequency change

Be aware of principles of
dynamic vibration absorbers,
application of damping and
isolation

Be aware of simple
maintenance actions to
rectify/reduce faults E.g.
lubrication, alignment

Be aware of range of
responses to fault conditions.
E.g. Part replacement,
lubrication, single plane
balancing, alignment,
resonance control

Be aware of range of
methods to correct faults E.g.
Replacement of parts,
balancing, alignment,
resonance control. E.g.
recommending structural
modifications etc.

Recognise AC induction
motor, and basic faults,
e.g. bearing noise and
damage, balance,
looseness and
misalignment

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO10816-1
and Part 3 to AC induction
motors and generators. Be
aware of torque pulse,
rotor/stator frequencies,
variable speed drive
harmonics, slip frequency
calculations.

Be familiar with common


types of AC and DC motor
construction; Wind turbine
generator construction and
components. Be familiar with
applicable ISO Standards.

Page 23

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

7.02

Pumps, fans

7.03

Steam turbines, gas


turbines

7.04

Compressors

7.05

Reciprocating machinery

7.06

Rolling mills, paper

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Recognise basic pump


and fan combinations, and
basic faults, e.g. bearing
noise and damage,
balance, looseness and
misalignment

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO 10816-8
for pumps and ISO 14694 for
fans. leaks, cavitation, subsynchronous frequencies;
eccentric impellers; Pump
flow conditions;

Pump seals. Basic fan


construction / installation /
operation; Recognise rotating
stall, Wind turbine rotor
construction and
components. Be familiar with
applicable ISO Standards.
E.g. ISO, VDI and API

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO 10816
and ISO 7919 vibration
standards, basic fault set:
balance, looseness,
misalignment, oil whirl, rubs

Proximity probe set-up &


calibration, Alarm level
triggers (steam/gas turbines),
stiffness and thermal
dissymmetry. Affect of
condenser vacuum, hogging,
sagging, oil whirl, oil whip,
rubs. Be familiar with
applicable Standards. E.g.
ISO and API

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO 10816
and ISO 7919 vibration
standards. Rotating
compressor components,
fault frequencies E.g.
pumping frequency and rotor
harmonics

Rotating and reciprocating


compressor design and fault
frequencies. Influence of
process conditions. Be
familiar with applicable
Standards. E.g. ISO and API

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO 18016-6
and ISO 8528-9 examples

Reciprocating piston motion,


primary and secondary
balancing components. E.g.
ISO and VDI

Be aware of components,
faults, access

Pulp refining machinery


measurements;

Recognise examples of
centrifugal and screw
compressors

Recognise examples of
these machines

Category IV sub-topics

Page 24

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic
machines, other process
equipment

II

III

7.07

Machine tools

7.08

Structures, piping

7.09

Gearboxes

7.10

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Recognise examples of
these machines

Application of key ISO


Standards E.g. ISO 10816-3
vibration standards, use of
velocity & displacement

Acoustic emissions; torque


controlled machining;

Recognise the term:


resonance

Resonances, natural
frequencies

Vibration and fatigue of piping

Recognise basic
examples of simple
gearboxes

Pinion gear mesh and shaft


speed calculations; effect of
gear misalignment and
backlash. Application of
displacement, velocity and
acceleration and enveloping

Complex gearbox
configurations and structures,
planetary gears, multiple
reduction gearboxes. Use of
acceleration time and
frequency and cepstrum and
demodulation (enveloping)

Rolling element bearings

Bearing defect frequencies,


noise and impacts, crest
factor

De-modulation, enveloping,
kurtosis

7.11

Journal bearings

Proximity probe, runout;


Seismic velocity transducer,
accelerometer integration,
velomitor; transducer
frequency ranges;

Be familiar with oil whirl, Oil


whip, effect of lubrication flow
and pressure. Runout
compensation methods

7.12

Gearing

Pinion gear mesh and shaft


speed calculations

Be familiar with a range of


gear profiles and design. E.g.
pinion, helical, double helical,
bevel, epicyclic (planetary),
etc

Category IV sub-topics

Page 25

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

7.13

Couplings, belts

Acceptance testing

8.01

Test procedure

8.02

Specifications and
standards

Be aware of applicable ISO


standards and apply
evaluation zones;

Understand range of required


ISO standards and set and
interpret evaluation zones; Be
able to create test procedures

8.03

Reporting

Prepare acceptance test


reports

Manage acceptance test


procedures.

Equipment testing and


diagnostics

9.01

Impact testing

Be able to carry out impact


(hammer) test without phase

Be able to carry out modal


hammer impact testing with
phase response

Understand with and without


phase impact testing
methods. Be able to establish
modal response

9.02

Forced response testing

Be aware of mobility and


compliance

Excitation (shaker) testing,


establishing mobility,
compliance and accelerance,
establishing transmissibility

Excitation (shaker) testing,


coherence, transmissibility,
transfer functions

9.03

Transient analysis

Be able to carry out coast


down and run down time and
phase plots

Be able to set up and carry


out coast down and run down
time and phase plots

9.04

Transfer functions

II

III

IV

Category I sub-topics

Be able to apply basic preset methods, and be


aware of access and
safety requirements

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Belt rotational frequency


calculations, belt
misalignment

Drive belt resonances, effect


of drive belt tension, toothed
belt

Category IV sub-topics

Apply test procedures

Transfer Function, input


output compressor loop

Page 26

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

9.05

Damping evaluation

Damping evaluation, isolation


response testing

9.06

Cross channel phase,


coherence

Cross channel phase,


coherence

9.07

Operating deflection
shapes

9.08

Modal analysis

Understand range of methods


of modal analysis,
establishing structural
response

9.09

Torsional vibration

Be aware of ISO torsional


vibration standard

10

Reference standards

10.01

ISO

Understand ISO Standards


shown in Annex B Table 2
for Cat 1 and Cat 2

Be aware of ISO Standards


shown in Annex B Table 2 for
Cat 3

Be aware of ISO Standards


shown in Annex B Table 2 for
Cat 4

10.02

IEC

Be aware of IEC Standards


referenced in ISO 17359

Be aware of IEC Standards


referenced in ISO 17359

Be aware of IEC Standards


referenced in ISO 17359

10.03

Relevant national
standards

As required. E.g. API, VDI


etc.

As required. E.g. API, VDI


etc.

As required. E.g. API, VDI etc.

11

Reporting and
documentation

11.01

Condition monitoring
reports

Be able to create vibration


condition monitoring reports.
Feedback to history

Manage and supervise


vibration condition monitoring
reports and requirements

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Be aware of use of operating


deflection shapes (ODS)

Category IV sub-topics

Understand modal analysis,


structural response, operating
deflection shapes (ODS)

Page 27

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

IV

11.02

Vibration diagnostic
reports

12

Fault severity
determination

12.01

Spectrum analysis

12.02

Time waveform analysis,


orbit analysis

12.03

Levels: Overall,
narrowband, component

12.04

Severity charts; graphs,


formulae

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

Review routine VM tours,


rounds or readings, evaluate
trends, spectra, time trace
and produce advisory report.
Feedback actions to history

Manage vibration diagnostic


and prognostic reporting. To
carry out root cause analysis
(RCA) failure investigations
and prepare formal reports.

Be able to carry out advanced


vibration troubleshooting and
prepare formal reports and
formats. To act as expert
witness in all areas of VA

Rotor/stator bar defects;


gear mesh and sideband
frequencies;

Bode plots; rotor/stator bar


defects; gear mesh and
sideband frequencies;

Rotating aerodynamic stall;


sum and difference
frequencies;

Be familiar with time


waveform analysis.
Understand crest factor. Be
able to recognise basic orbit
fault patterns E.g. Unbalance,
looseness, misalignment, oil
whirl and rubs

Understand more advanced


orbit analysis E.g. Unbalance,
looseness, misalignment, oil
whirl and whip, resonance
detection, critical speeds and
phase response, rubs
including Newkirk rub, thermal
effects

Category I sub-topics

Be able to apply overall,


narrowband or component
alert levels

Understand requirements for


overall, narrowband or
component alert levels. Be
able to source, set and apply
alerts, alarms and trips

Apply levels from ISO 10816,


ISO 7919, ISO 8528-9, ISO
14694 etc.

Be familiar with relevant ISO


Standard severity charts. Be
able to carry out simple
statistical review of alarms

Be familiar with all relevant


ISO Standard severity charts
and machine VM standards.
Be able to review system and
alarms, carry out advanced
statistical review methods

Page 28

The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Subject

Category

Ref:

Syllabus topic

II

III

IV

Category I sub-topics

Category II sub-topics

Category III sub-topics

Category IV sub-topics

13

Rotor/bearing
dynamics

13.01

Rotor characteristics

Be familiar with design and


characteristics of steam and
gas turbine rotors. Be aware
of structural response, failure
modes and effects, fault
frequencies, performance,
effect of lubricants etc.

13.02

Bearing characteristics

Be familiar with design and


characteristics of rolling
element bearings, journal
bearings and magnetic
bearing. Be aware of failure
modes and effects, geometry
and fault frequencies,
statistical life, performance,
lubricants etc.

13.03

Rotor balancing

Be aware of methods and


requirements for rigid and
flexible rotor balancing, with
and without phase, modal
techniques. Be familiar with
the range of ISO balancing
standards.

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

Annex A.3 Standards Relevant to Vibration Analyst Accreditation


Ref: ISO 18436-2(1)
Table 3 Standards Relevant to Vibration Analyst Accreditation
ISO Reference

Cat
I

ISO 1925, Mechanical vibration - Balancing - Vocabulary


ISO 1940-1, Mechanical vibration Balance quality requirements for rotors
in a constant (rigid) state Part 1: Specification and verification of balance
tolerances

Cat
II

Cat
III

Cat
IV

ISO 1940-2, Mechanical vibration - Balance quality requirements of rigid


rotors - Part 2: Balance errors

ISO 2017-1, Mechanical vibration and shock - Resilient mounting systems Part 1: Technical information to be exchanged for the application of
isolation systems

ISO 2041:2009, Mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring


Vocabulary

ISO 2954, Mechanical vibration of rotating and reciprocating machines Requirements for instruments for measuring vibration severity
ISO 5348, Mechanical vibration and shock - Mechanical mounting of
accelerometers
ISO 7919-1, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines Measurement on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria - Part 1: General
guidelines
ISO 7919-2, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines Measurement on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria - Part 2: Large landbased steam turbine generator sets
ISO 7919-3, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines Measurement on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria - Part 3: Coupled
industrial machines
ISO 7919-4, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines Measurement on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria - Part 4: Gas turbine
sets
ISO 7919-5, Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines Measurement on rotating shafts and evaluation criteria - Part 5: Machine
sets in hydraulic power generating and pumping plants
ISO 8528-9, Reciprocating internal combustion engine driven alternating
current generating sets - Part 9: Measurement and evaluation of mechanical

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

ISO Reference

Cat
I

Cat
II

Cat
III

Cat
IV

vibrations
ISO 8569, Mechanical vibration and shock - Measurement and evaluation
of shock and vibration effects on sensitive equipment in buildings
ISO 10816-1, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 1: General guidelines

ISO 10816-2, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibration by


measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 2: Large land-based steam
turbine generator sets in excess of 50 MW with normal operating speeds of
1500 r/min, 1800 r/min, 3000 r/min and 3600 r/min
ISO 10816-3, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 3: Industrial machines with
nominal power above 15kW and nominal speeds between 120 r/min and
15000 r/min when measured in situ
ISO 10816-4, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 4: Gas turbine sets excluding
aircraft derivatives
ISO 10816-5, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 5: Machine sets in hydraulic
power generating and pumping plants
ISO 10816-6, Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 6: Reciprocating machines with
power ratings above 100kW
ISO 10816-7, Mechanical vibration Evaluation of machine vibration by
measurements on non-rotating parts - Part 7: Rotodynamic pumps for
industrial applications, including measurements on rotating shafts

ISO 10817-1, Rotating shaft vibration measuring systems - Part 1: Relative


and absolute sensing of radial vibration

ISO 11342, Mechanical vibration - Methods and criteria for the mechanical
balancing of flexible rotors
ISO 13372, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines
Vocabulary
ISO 13373-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Vibration
condition monitoring - Part 1: General procedures

ISO 13373-2, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Vibration


condition monitoring - Part 2: Processing, analysis and presentation of
vibration data
ISO 13379, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Data
interpretation and diagnostic techniques which use information and data

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The Tenth International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies

ISO Reference

Cat
I

Cat
II

Cat
III

Cat
IV

related to the condition of the machine - General guidelines


ISO 14694, Specification for balance quality and vibration levels (Industrial
Fans)
ISO 14695, Method of measurement of fan vibration
ISO 17359, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - General
guidelines

ISO 18436-1, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines Requirements for training and certification of personnel - Part 1:
Requirements for certifying bodies and the certification process
ISO 18436-2, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines
Requirements for training and certification of personnel Part 2: Vibration
condition monitoring and diagnostics

ISO 18436-3, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines


Requirements for qualification and assessment of personnel Part 3:
Requirements for training bodies and the training process

32