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- Digital Logic Handbook 1967
- BASIC ELECTRONICS
- IGCSE O Level Computer P1 Workbook by Inqilab Patel
- Cobol FAQs
- Number Systems
- EDI Handout
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- List of Expts Mp&Mc Lab
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You are on page 1of 176

Operations of the Computer

End Show

Unit 2 Data Representation and Internal

Operations of the Computer

2.2 Data Representation

2.3 Logic Gates and Circuits

2.4 Boolean Algebra

End Show

End Show

End Show

Egyptian

3rd Century BC

End Show

End Show

Cretan

1200-1700BC

End Show

End Show

End Show

System

Indo-Arabic

Indo-Arabic

End Show

Roman Numerals

1 I

2 II

3 III

4 IV

5 V

6 VI

10X

11XI

16XVI

20 XX

25 XXV

29 XIX

50 L

75 LXXV

100 C

500 D

1000M

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

XXXVI

XL

XVII

DCCLVI

MCMLXIX

End Show

What is this ?

This is also a symbol

To represent quantity

Five (5)

End Show

Symbols to represent certain quantities

0

1

10

End Show

How do you represent this quantity on a spike abacus?

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

102

101

100

End Show

End Show

Abacus

table. The word `calculus originally meant pebble in Latin,

used on the counting board.

Roman

Abacus

Chinese

Abacus

Japanese

Soroban

(Abacus)

End Show

A number system defines a set of symbols used to

represent quantity.

Quantifying values and items in relation to each

other is helpful us to make sense of our environment .

The study of number system is not just limited to

computers. We use numbers every day. A computer

manipulates and stores numbers inside the computer

system.

End Show

These

symbols

are

processed

internally by components that can

maintain a limited number of discrete

states.

To

use number systems.

Ex: The decimal digits 0,1,2, ..,9 provide

10 discrete symbols (10 digits)

End Show

Decimal Number system Place Values

We normally use the decimal number system to

represent quantities and perform calculations.

342

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

2x1

End Show

343

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

3x1

End Show

344

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

4x1

End Show

345

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

5x1

End Show

346

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

6x1

End Show

347

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

7x1

End Show

348

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

8x1

End Show

349

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

4 x 10

Ones

9x1

End Show

350

Hundreds

3 x 100

Tens

5 x 10

Ones

0x1

End Show

The Base of the Decimal number here is 10

Normally we dont write base numbers in

decimal form

We can use digits 0 - 9

End Show

value applied to each column position of the number.

For instance, a decimal has a weighing factor of TEN,

in that each column on the immediate left indicates

an increase in value by a multiple of 10.

multiple of 10.

312 = 300 + 10 + 2

= 3 * 100 + 1 * 10 + 2 * 1

100

= 3 * 102 + 1 * 101 + 2 *

Weighing factors

End Show

The decimal Number System:

uses base 10

104

103

10000 1000

102

101

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

100

10

.1

.01

.001

End Show

represent values. The set values used in decimal are

0123456789

Lowest value

Highest value

carry over transferred to the next column (to the left) occurs.

Lets

17+4

17

18

+1

19

+2

20

+3

21

+4

When 9 is exceeded, we reset (0), and carry a value of 1 to

the next column on the left

End Show

numerals in the binary number system.

These have the values of,

0

1

0 represents low value, and 1 represents

high value.

Position

..

Binary Value

24

23

22

21

20

Decimal

Value

x-1

End Show

More illustration..

The binary number system is also known as

the base 2 number system.

The values of the positions are calculated by

raising 2 to some power.

Why is 2 the base in binary numbers?

Because we use 2 digits, the digits 0 and 1.

End Show

Instead of using ten digits, 0 - 9, the binary

system uses only two digits, 0 and 1.

Example of a binary number and the position values :

1 0 0 1 1 0 1

2 6 25 2 4 2 3 22 2 1 20

End Show

4

0 x 23

1 x 22

0101

1

0 x 21

1 x 20

Position

Binary Value

23

22

21

20

Decimal

Value

x-1

End Show

uses base 2

includes only the digits 0 and 1

follows:

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

128 64

32

16

End Show

represent numbers. The 8 distinct symbols are,

01234567

highest value

decimal system in that, the left most column is

used to represent the greatest value

End Show

64

64

64

0 x 83

3 x 82

1 x 81

1

1

1

1

4 x 80

End Show

boundary. The Octal Number System:

uses base 8

includes only the symbols 0 through 7

The weighted values for each position is as follows:

85

84

32768 4096

83

512

82

64

81

8

80

1

End Show

symbols to represent Numbers. The 16 distinct

symbols are, 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F,

where A = 10, B = 11, .., F = 15

With 0 having the lowest value and F having

the highest value.

Hexadecimal numbers are represented with the

base 16.

End Show

16

0 x 163

256

16

256

16

256

16

1 x 162

4 x 161

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

F(15) x 160

End Show

uses base 16

includes only the symbols 0 through 9 and

the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F to represent

10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 respectively.

The weighted values for each position is as follows:

163

4096

162

256

161

16

160

1

2.1.2

End Show

Binary to Decimal

Multiply each digit by its weighted position, and add

each of the weighted values.

Example

The binary value 1011 represents:

1x23 + 0x22 + 1x21 + 1x20

=1x8 + 0x4 + 1x2 + 1x1

=8 + 0 + 2 + 1

=11 (base 10)

Decimal

1 0 0 1 1 0 1

2 6 2 5 24 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0

20 = 1

21 = 2

22 = 4

23 = 8

24 = 16

25 = 32

26 = 64

End Show

X 20 = 1

0 X 2 1 = 0

1 X 2 2 = 4

1 X 2 3 = 8

0 X 2 4 = 0

0 X 2 5 = 0

1 X 26 = 64

7710

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

47 / 2

23

Binary Number

1

47

23 --1

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

Binary Number

47 / 2

23

23 / 2

11

11

47

23 --1

11 --1

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

47 / 2

23

23 / 2

11

11 / 2

Binary Number

1

47

11 2 23 --1

111 2 11 --1

5

--1

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

Binary Number

47 / 2

23

23 / 2

11

11

11 / 2

111

5/2

1111

47

2 23 --1

2

11 --1

--1

--1

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

Binary Number

47 / 2

23

23 / 2

11

11

11 / 2

111

5/2

1111

2/2

01111

47

2 23 --1

2

11 --1

--1

--1

--0

End Show

Decimal to Binary (Repeated Division By 2)

Division

Quotient

Remainder

47 / 2

23

23 / 2

11

11

11 / 2

111

5/2

1111

2/2

01111

1/2

101111

4710 = 1011112

Binary Number

2

47

2 23 --1

2

11 --1

--1

--1

--0

--1

End Show

decimal number 254

254 / 2

End Show

Lets find the binary equivalent of the decimal

number 254

254 / 2

127 / 2

End Show

number 254

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

End Show

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

End Show

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

15 / 2

gives

7 with remainder 1

End Show

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

15 / 2

gives

7 with remainder 1

7/2

gives

3 with remainder 1

End Show

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

15 / 2

gives

7 with remainder 1

7/2

gives

3 with remainder 1

3/2

gives

1 with remainder 1

End Show

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

15 / 2

gives

7 with remainder 1

7/2

gives

3 with remainder 1

3/2

gives

1 with remainder 1

1/2

gives

0 with remainder 1

111111102

254 / 2

127 / 2

63 / 2

31 / 2

15 / 2

gives

7 with remainder 1

7/2

gives

3 with remainder 1

3/2

gives

1 with remainder 1

1/2

gives

0 with remainder 1

LSB

MSB

111111102

End Show

End Show

It is easy to convert a binary number to an octal.

This is accomplished by:

1010111012

Most Significant Bit

(MSB)

(LSB)

1. Break the binary number into 3-bit sections from the LSB to the MSB.

2. Convert the 3-bit binary number to its octal equivalent.

will be written:

001

010

111

110

110

010

End Show

Conversion from Binary to Octal

Convert 10110111 to octal.

Each octal digit is represented by 3 binary bits.

Split the binary number into groups of 3 bits,

starting from the right.

10 110 111

=2 =6 =7

= 2678

End Show

Octal Binary (in 3

bits)

0

000

1

001

2

010

3

011

4

100

5

101

6

110

7

111

End Show

position by its Octal weight and add each value.

Example, convert this octal 342 to decimal,

we can obtain the decimal value as follows:

3x82

4x81

2x80

3x64

4x8

2x1

192

32

8

64

64

64

8

8

8

3 x 82

4 x 81

2 x 80

192 + 32 + 2 = 226

End Show

Conversion from Octal to Decimal

Convert 1768 to decimal.

Each column represents a power of 8,

176 = 1 * 82 + 7 * 81 + 6 * 80

= (1 * 64) + (7 * 8) + (6 * 1)

= 64 + 56 + 6

= 126

To convert decimal to octal is slightly more difficult. The typical

method to convert from decimal to octal is repeated division by 8.

Repeated Division By 8

For this method, divide the decimal number by 8, and write the

remainder on the side as the least significant digit.

This process is continued by dividing the quotient by 8 and

writing the remainder until the quotient is 0.

To convert decimal to octal is slightly more difficult. The typical

method to convert from decimal to octal is repeated division by 8.

Repeated Division By 8

For this method, divide the decimal number by 8, and write the

remainder on the side as the least significant digit.

This process is continued by dividing the quotient by 8 and

writing the remainder until the quotient is 0.

Division

87 / 8

Quotient Remainder

10

To convert decimal to octal is slightly more difficult. The typical

method to convert from decimal to octal is repeated division by 8.

Repeated Division By 8

For this method, divide the decimal number by 8, and write the

remainder on the side as the least significant digit.

This process is continued by dividing the quotient by 8 and

writing the remainder until the quotient is 0.

Division

Quotient Remainder

87 / 8

10

10 / 8

To convert decimal to octal is slightly more difficult. The typical

method to convert from decimal to octal is repeated division by 8.

Repeated Division By 8

For this method, divide the decimal number by 8, and write the

remainder on the side as the least significant digit.

This process is continued by dividing the quotient by 8 and

writing the remainder until the quotient is 0.

Division

Quotient Remainder

87 / 8

10

10 / 8

1 / 8

8710 = 1278

End Show

It is easy to convert a binary number to hexa.

This is accomplished by:

1.Break the binary number into 4-bit sections from the LSB to the

MSB.

2.Convert the 4-bit binary number to its Hexa equivalent.

For example, the binary value 1010111110110010 is

written:

1010

A

1111

F

1011

B

0010

2

End Show

Conversion from binary to hexadecimal

Convert 10110 to hexadecimal.

Each hexadecimal digit represents 4 binary

bits. Split the binary number into groups of 4

bits, starting from the right.

1

0110

1

6

=16 in hexadecimal

End Show

Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal Binary Hexadecimal Binar

(in 4 bits)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

(in 4

bits)

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

1110

1111

It is also easy to convert from an integer hexa number to binary.

This is accomplished by:

Convert the Hexa number to its 4-bit binary equivalent.

Combine the 4-bit sections by removing the spaces.

For example the hexa value B2 is written in binary:

B

1011

2

0010

our more readable format.

End Show

position by its hexa weight and add each value.

Using the value from the previous example, B216, we can obtain

the decimal value as follows:

B x 161

2 x 160

11 x 16

2 x 1

176

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

176 + 2 = 178

0 x 163

0 x 162

11 x 161

1

1

2 x 160

End Show

Conversion from hexadecimal to decimal

Convert hexadecimal 17616 to decimal.

Each column represents a power of 16,

17616= (1 * 162) + (7 * 161) + (6 * 160)

= (1 * 256) + (7 * 16 )+ (6 * 1)

= 256 + 112 + 6

= 374

End Show

Decimal to Hexa Decimal Conversion

To convert decimal to hexa is slightly more difficult. The typical

method to convert from decimal to hexa is repeated division by

16.

Repeated Division By 16

For this method, divide the decimal number by 16, and write the

remainder on the right hand side as the least significant digit.

This process is continued by dividing the quotient by 16 and writing

the remainder until the quotient is 0.

End Show

Ex: Convert decimal 2811 to hexa as follows:

Division

2811 / 16

Quotient Remainder

175

11 = B

End Show

Ex: Convert decimal 2811 to hexa as follows:

Division

Quotient Remainder

2811 / 16

175

11 = B

175 / 16

10

15 = F

End Show

Ex: Convert decimal 2811 to hexa as follows:

Division

Quotient Remainder

2811 / 16

175

11 = B

175 / 16

10

15 = F

10 / 16

10 = A

End Show

Ex: Convert decimal 2811 to hexa as follows:

Division

Quotient Remainder

2811 / 16

175

11 = B

175 / 16

10

15 = F

10 / 16

10 = A

281110 = AFB16

End Show

used in a computer

A bit holds ONE of TWO possible values,

A bit which is OFF is also considered to be FALSE or

NOT SET; a bit which is ON is also considered to be

TRUE or SET

Only one of two values(0 or 1) can be stored in a single

bit.

End Show

With a single bit, you can represent any two distinct

items.

Examples

one

or

zero

true or

false

on

off

or

male

or

right or

wrong

female

End Show

Data Representation

H

ASCII CODE IS 72

01001000

What is Byte ?

End Show

A byte is the smallest addressable datum (data item) in

the memory by the microprocessor.

End Show

The bits in a byte are filled from LSB (b0) to MSB (b7)

respectively as follows:

b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0

Most Significant Bit (MSB)

follows and the Most Significant Bit(MSB) and the Least

Significant Bit (LSB)can be defined as below :

1

MSB

1

LSB

End Show

different values. Generally, we use a byte to represent:

character codes

different values.

Many data types have fewer than 256 items so eight bits is

usually adequate.

8 bits = 1Byte

(2 10) 1024 Byte = 1 KB (kilobyte)

(210) 1024 KB = 1 MB (Megabyte)

(210) 1024 MB = 1 GB (Gigabyte)

(210 ) 1024 GB = 1 TB (Terabyte)

Unit conversion

1kiloByte = 210 bytes

1MegaByte= 220 bytes

1GigaByte = 230 bytes

1TeraByte = 240 bytes

End Show

End Show

1. BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

2. ASCII

(American Standard Code for

Information Interchange)

End Show

@ In this code structure, each of the decimal digits

(0-9) is represented by a four-bit binary code

(eg: 3 is represented by 0011)

@ Each digit is then represented by it's binary

equivalent.

@ 16 unique(different) numbers can be stored in the

4 bit binary code.

@ Thus there are 6 invalid four-bit combinations in

the BCD code.

End Show

The number 59 is coded in BCD as follows

5

0101

1001

3

0011

1000

0110

terms of storage space, nor is it as efficiently processed in

hardware.

End Show

Cont BCD

Valid Combinations

Decimal

BCD

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

Invalid Combinations

Decimal

BCD

10

1010

11

1011

12

1100

13

1101

14

1110

15

1111

End Show

Cont .BCD

Converting the Decimal value 546 to BCD

5 = 0101

4 = 0100

6 = 0110

Thus 54610 = 0101010001102

decimal is

0111 = 7

0001 = 1

0101 = 5

Thus 0111000101012 = 71510

End Show

ASCII - The American Standard Code for

Information Interchange

The American National Standards Institute has

published an American Standards Code for

Information Interchange(ASCII)

This code is now most widely used by major

manufactures. so that their equipment will be

compatible with those of other manufactures.

End Show

ASCII is a computer code which uses 128

different coding combinations of a group of seven

bits (27= 128) to represent

Characters A to Z, both upper and lower

case

Special characters, < , ., ?, : ,etc.,

Numbers 0 to 9

Special control codes used in device control

DEC

CHAR

HEX

DEC

CHAR

41

65

61

97

42

66

62

98

43

67

63

99

44

68

64

100

58

End Show

HEX

DEC

CHAR

30

48

31

49

32

50

33

51

34

52

35

53

36

54

88

78

120

37

55

59

89

79

121

38

56

5A

90

7A

122

39

57

End Show

ASCII (Cont)

ASCII using hexadecimal digits.

H = 48

e = 65

l = 6C

l = 6C

o = 6F

. = 2E

Thus the string is represented by the byte sequence

48 65 6C 6C 6F 2E

2.3

End Show

End Show

A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit.

Most logic gates have two inputs and one output.

At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two

binary conditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different

voltage levels.

In most logic gates, the low state is approximately zero volts

(0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive

(+5 V).

There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT,

NAND, NOR, and XNOR.

End Show

Logic gates are small (several micron)

structures which take one or more bits

as input, and produce another bit as

output

techniques to calculate their output

the following logic functions:

AND : Output is True(1) if all inputs are True (1)

OR

i.e., If input is true (1) the output is false (0)

If input is false (0) the output is true (1)

End Show

End Show

AND - Gate

The AND gate has two or more inputs.

The output from the AND gate is 1 if and only if all of the

inputs are 1, otherwise the output from the gate is 0.

The AND gate is drawn as follows

A.B

A

B

F=A.B

End Show

0

0

End Show

0

0

End Show

0

0

End Show

1

0

End Show

1

0

End Show

0

0

End Show

0

1

End Show

0

1

End Show

0

0

End Show

1

1

End Show

1

1

End Show

0

0

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

A.B

0

0

0

1

End Show

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

The truth table for a two-input AND gate looks like

F=0

F=0

F=0

F=1

OR-Gate

End Show

The output from the OR gate is 1 if any of the inputs is 1.

The gate output is 0 if and only if all inputs are 0.

The OR gate is drawn as follows

A

A+B

A

B

F=A+B

End Show

0

0

End Show

0

0

End Show

End Show

End Show

1

0

End Show

1

0

End Show

End Show

End Show

0

1

End Show

0

1

End Show

End Show

End Show

1

1

End Show

1

1

End Show

End Show

F=0

0

0

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

A+B

0

1

1

1

F=1

1

1

F=1

0

1

F=1

The truth table for a two-input OR gate looks like

End Show

NOT-Gate

End Show

input. It looks like

A

0

1

1

0

i.e. The binary input state of 0 gives an output of 1 and the

binary input state of 1 gives an output of 0.

of A.

End Show

For example, we will build a NOT gate from a

transistor.

extra

power

source

Input to

NOT gate.

Transistor

Output from

NOT gate.

End Show

For example, we will build a NOT gate from a

transistor.

extra

power

source

Input to

NOT gate

is ON.

Output from

NOT gate

is OFF.

Transistor

OFF

NOT 1 0

End Show

For example, we will build a NOT gate from a

transistor.

extra

power

source

Input to

NOT gate

is OFF.

Output from

NOT gate

is ON.

Transistor

ON

NOT 0 1

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

End Show

NAND-Gate

A

End Show

P A.B

NAND gate looks like

P A.B

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

End Show

NOR-Gate

A

B

P A B

The truth table for a twoinput NOR gate looks like

A

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

End Show

XOR-Gate

A

P A B

P A B

A

0

0

1

1

B

0

1

0

1

P

0

1

1

0

George Boole

mathematician George Boole describe certain

propositions whose outcome would be either true

or false. With regard to digital logic, these rules

are used to describe circuits whose state can be

either, 1 (true) or 0 (false).

In order to fully understand this, the

relation between the AND gate, OR gate and NOT

gate operations should be appreciated.

End Show

End Show

Algebra:

If a logic statement is false, it has value 0

If a logic statement is true, it has value 1

Operations: AND, OR, NOT.

End Show

T1 : Commutative Law

(a) A + B = B + A

A+

B

B+

A

A+

B

B+

A

T2 : Associate Law

End Show

(a) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)

A

(A+B

)

(A+B)

+C

(B+C

)

A+

(B+C)

End Show

A

(A.B)

(A.B).C

(B.C)

A.(B.C)

T3 : Distributive Law

End Show

A

(B+C

)

A.(B+C)

AB

AC

AB+AC

End Show

(b) A + (B.C) = (A + B) (A + C)

A

BC

A+(BC)

(A+B

)

(A+C)

(A+B).

(A+C)

T4 : Identity Law

(a) A + A = A

End Show

A

P=A+A

P=A.A

(b) A.A = A

T5 :(a)

End Show

AB A B A

AB A B

AB

B AB

1

0

End Show

(b) A B . A B A

A B

( A B ).( A B )

0

1

B A+B

T6 : Redundance Law

End Show

(a) A + A.B = A

A

A.B

A+A.B

0

0

1

1

(b) A.(A + B) = A

A

A+

B

A.(A+B)

0

0

1

1

T7 :

End Show

(a) 0 + A = A

0

0+

A

0

1

(b) 0 . A = 0

0

0.A

T8 :

End Show

(a) 1 + A = 1

1

1+

A

1.A

(b) 1 . A = A

T9 : (a)

(b)

A A 1

End Show

A A

A. A 0

A

A. A

T10 :A AB A B

End Show

AB

A AB

A+

B

A.B

A( A B ) AB

A

A B

A( A B )

(a)

End Show

A B A.B

A

A+B

A B

A.B

A.B A B

(b)

A B

A.B

1

A.B

End Show

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