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Augustine of Hippo

“Augustine”, “Saint Augustine”, and “Augustinus”
redirect here. For other uses, see Augustine (disambiguation), Saint Augustine (disambiguation), and
Augustinus (disambiguation).

the 20th century in particular come under attack by such
theologians as John Romanides.[13] But other theologians
and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown
significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Georges
Florovsky.[14] The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque,[15] which has been rejected
by the Orthodox Church.[16] Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and
predestination.[15] Nevertheless, though considered to be
mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, and
has even had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers,
most notably Saint Gregory Palamas.[17] In the Orthodox
Church his feast day is celebrated on 28 August,[15][18]
and he carries the title of Blessed.

Augustine of Hippo (/ɔːˈɡʌstɨn/,[1] /əˈɡʌstɨn/,[2] or
/'ɔːɡʌstɨn/;[3] Latin: Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis;[note 1] 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also
known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin,[4] (/ˈɔːstɨn/
or /ˈɑːstɨn/)[5] Blessed Augustine,[6] and the Doctor of
Grace[7] (Latin: Doctor gratiae), was an early Christian
theologian and philosopher[8] whose writings influenced
the development of Western Christianity and Western
philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius (modernday Annaba, Algeria), located in Numidia (Roman
province of Africa). He is viewed as one of the most
important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his
writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important
works are The City of God and Confessions.

1 Life
1.1 Childhood and education

According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine “established anew the ancient Faith.”[note 2] In his early years,
he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward
by the neo-Platonism of Plotinus. After his baptism and
conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed
his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives.[9] Believing
that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and
made seminal contributions to the development of just
war theory.
When the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate,
Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a
spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly
City.[10] His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval
worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered
to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council
of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople[11] closely
identified with Augustine’s City of God.
In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion,
he is a saint, a preeminent Doctor of the Church, and the
patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated
on 28 August, the day of his death. He is the patron
saint of brewers, printers, theologians, the alleviation of
sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.[12] Many
Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one
of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation
due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace.

The Saint Augustine Taken to School by Saint Monica. by
Niccolò di Pietro 1413-15

In the East, some of his teachings are disputed and have in


Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the
municipium of Thagaste (now Souk Ahras, Algeria)
in Roman Africa.[19][20] His mother, Monica or
Monnica,[21] was a devout Christian; his father Patricius
was a Pagan who converted to Christianity on his
deathbed.[22] Scholars generally agree that Augustine
and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous
to North Africa,[23][24][25][26] but that they were heavily
Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of
pride and dignity.[23] In his writings, Augustine leaves
some information as to the consciousness of his African
heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius as “the
most notorious of us Africans,”[27] to Ponticianus as “a
country man of ours, insofar as being African,”[28] and
to Faustus of Mileve as “an African Gentleman.”[29]


a young woman in Carthage. Though his mother wanted
him to marry a person of his class, the woman remained
his lover[40] for over fifteen years[41] and gave birth to his
son Adeodatus,[42] who was viewed as extremely intelligent by his contemporaries. In 385, Augustine ended
his relationship with his lover in order to prepare himself
to marry a ten-year-old heiress. (He had to wait for two
years because the legal age of marriage was twelve. By
the time he was able to marry her, however, he instead
decided to become a celibate priest.)[41][43]
Augustine was from the beginning a brilliant student,
with an eager intellectual curiosity, but he never mastered
Greek[44] —he tells us that his first Greek teacher was a
brutal man who constantly beat his students, and Augustine rebelled and refused to study. By the time he realized that he needed to know Greek, it was too late; and
although he acquired a smattering of the language, he was
never eloquent with it. However, his mastery of Latin was
another matter. He became an expert both in the eloquent
use of the language and in the use of clever arguments to
make his points.

Augustine’s family name, Aurelius, suggests that his father’s ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given
full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212.
Augustine’s family had been Roman, from a legal standpoint, for at least a century when he was born.[30] It is
assumed that his mother, Monica, was of Berber origin,
on the basis of her name,[31][32] but as his family were
honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine’s first language is likely to have been 1.2
At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus (now M'Daourouch), a small Numidian city about 19
miles (31 km) south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan beliefs and
practices.[33] His first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they
did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this
story in his autobiography, The Confessions. He remembers that he did not steal the fruit because he was hungry, but because “it was not permitted.”[34] His very nature, he says, was flawed. 'It was foul, and I loved it. I
loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the
error itself.”[34] From this incident he concluded the human person is naturally inclined to sin, and in need of the
grace of Christ.
At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus,[35] Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric. It was while he was a student in Carthage that he read Cicero's dialogue Hortensius
(now lost), which he described as leaving a lasting impression and sparking his interest in philosophy.[36] Although raised as a Christian, Augustine left the church
to follow the Manichaean religion, much to his mother’s
despair.[37] As a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic
lifestyle for a time, associating with young men who
boasted of their sexual exploits. The need to gain their
acceptance forced inexperienced boys like Augustine to
seek or make up stories about sexual experiences.[38] It
was during this period that he uttered his famous prayer,
“Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet.”[39]


Teaching rhetoric

Augustine taught grammar at Thagaste during 373 and
374. The following year he moved to Carthage to conduct a school of rhetoric and would remain there for
the next nine years.[35] Disturbed by unruly students in
Carthage, he moved to establish a school in Rome, where
he believed the best and brightest rhetoricians practiced,
in 383. However, Augustine was disappointed with the
apathetic reception. It was the custom for students to
pay their fees to the professor on the last day of the
term, and many students attended faithfully all term, and
then did not pay. Manichaean friends introduced him to
the prefect of the City of Rome, Symmachus, who had
been asked by the imperial court at Milan[45] to provide
a rhetoric professor.
Augustine won the job and headed north to take his position in late 384. Thirty years old, he had won the most visible academic position in the Latin world at a time when
such posts gave ready access to political careers. Although Augustine showed some fervour for Manichaeism,
he was never an initiate or “elect”, but an “auditor”, the
lowest level in the sect’s hierarchy.[45]

While still at Carthage a disappointing meeting with the
Manichaean Bishop, Faustus of Mileve, a key exponent of
Manichaean theology, started Augustine’s scepticism of
Manichaeanism.[45] In Rome, he reportedly turned away
from Manichaeanism, embracing the scepticism of the
New Academy movement. Because of his education, Augustine had great rhetorical prowess and was very knowledgeable of the philosophies behind many faiths.[46] At
Milan, his mother’s religiosity, Augustine’s own studies
At about the age of 19, Augustine began an affair with in Neoplatonism, and his friend Simplicianus all urged
him towards Christianity.[35] Initially Augustine was not

so he procured another concubine since he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age. he was led into the faith of Christianity.3 Christian conversion and priesthood 3 my marriage. In the summer of 386. Augustine was deeply hurt by the loss of his lover.[49] There is evidence that Augustine may have considered this former relationship to be equivalent to marriage. but older and more experienced.[48] Augustine’s mother had followed him to Milan and arranged a marriage for which he abandoned his concubine. his conversion was prompted by a childlike voice he heard telling him to “take up and read” (Latin: tolle. not in chambering and wantonness. He said. and make no provision for the flesh to fulfill the lusts thereof. consisting of chapters 12 through 15 – wherein Paul outlines how the Gospel transforms believers. Augustine arrived in Milan and was immediately taken under the wing by Ambrose. and wounded.[52] .[47] Augustine was very much influenced by Ambrose. The specific part to which Augustine opened his Bible was Romans chapter 13. and bleeding. but after coming in contact with Ambrose of Milan. at the age of 31.[50] In his Confessions. Augustine reevaluated himself and was forever changed. which he took as a divine command to open the Bible and read the first thing he saw. Augustine quickly discovered that Ambrose was a spectacular orator.”[48] Augustine visited Ambrose in order to see if Ambrose was one of the greatest speakers and rhetoricians in the world. not at the first as a teacher of the truth. Ambrose was a master of rhetoric. Fra. and welcomed my coming as a good bishop should. verses 13 and 14. Augustine” (painting). their relationship grew.” Augustine confessed that he was not a lover of wedlock so much as a slave of lust. saying that they could not live a life together in the love of wisdom if he married. lege). Lateran. his wound was not healed. but never renewed his relationship with either of his concubines. Augustine converted to Christianity.1. and described it as Christianae vitae otium – the Christian life of leisure. Augustine looked back years later on the life at Cassiciacum. Augustine says that through the unconscious. of course. Alypius of Thagaste steered Augustine away from marriage. even more than by his own mother and others he admired. he admitted that the experience eventually produced a decreased sensitivity to pain.3 Christian conversion and priesthood The earliest known portrait of Saint Augustine in a 6th-century fresco. even began to fester. which clave to her. a villa outside of Milan where he gathered with his followers. “That man of God received me as a father would. “And I began to love him. and the believers’ resulting behaviour. Rome strongly influenced by Christianity and its ideologies. “My mistress being torn from my side as an impediment to Angelico. “The Conversion of St. Augustine eventually broke off his engagement to his eleven-yearold fiancée. However. for I had entirely despaired of finding that in thy Church—but as a friendly man. my heart. As Augustine later told it. as Augustine wrote. Augustine read from Paul’s Epistle to the Romans – the "Transformation of Believers" section. not in strife and envying.”[48] Soon. More interested in his speaking skills than the topic of speech. was racked. but put on the Lord Jesus Christ.[51] 1. Within his Confessions. Like Augustine. Although Augustine accepted this marriage. Augustine states. Eventually. after having heard and been inspired and moved by the story of Ponticianus’s and his friends’ first reading of the life of Saint Anthony of the Desert. to wit: Not in rioting and drunkenness.

but they returned not long thereafter and burned the city.[54] Upon their arrival. which has since become a classic of Christian theology and a key text in the history of autobiography.[61] 1. causality. along with his son Adeodatus.[53] The following is taken from that work: Late have I loved Thee. LIFE left his monastery. Thou wast within and I without. For Thyself Thou hast made us. which was remade in 1362 and elaborately carved with bas-reliefs of scenes from Augustine’s life. Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo to convert to Christianity. and exercised prudence in the financial stewardship of his see. in order to save them from frequent coastal raids by Muslims. Augustine’s body was later translated or moved to Cagliari.[35] Augustine’s mother Monica died at Ostia. and burst my deafness. his remains were transported again by Peter. Sardinia. free will. and there I sought Thee. He wrote his autobiographical Confessions in 397-398.[45] That year. Adeodatus and Augustine returned home to Africa. and cry. Algeria). and a number of cities and dioceses. a Germanic tribe that had converted to Arianism. in his Sancti Augustini Vita. they began a life of aristocratic leisure at Augustine’s family’s property.[63] His feast day is 28 August. despised gossip. And restless our hearts until in Thee they find their ease. requesting that the penitential Psalms of David be hung on his walls so that he could read them. They destroyed all of it but Augustine’s cathedral and library. Thou Beauty ever old and ever new. and other important philosophical topics. Thou didst touch me. and became full Bishop shortly thereafter. His work The City of God was written to console his fellow Christians shortly after the Visigoths had sacked Rome in 410.[55][56] Soon after. took place during the siege. In January 1327. Pope John XXII issued the papal bull Veneranda Santorum Patrum. and glow.[35] In 391 Augustine was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius (now Annaba). printers. Thou didst gleam. which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends.[58] hence the name “Augustine of Hippo". The Vandals besieged Hippo in the spring of 430. Possidius admired Augustine as a man of powerful intellect and a stirring orator who took every opportunity to defend Christianity against its detractors. He left a regula for his monastery that led to his designation as the "patron saint of regular clergy. drawing a portrait of a man who ate sparingly. to the church of San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia. and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion.[45] In 395 he was made coadjutor Bishop of Hippo. the Confessions also talks about the nature of was invoked but never defined (see the help page). Though he had In October 1695. when Augustine entered his final illness. Thou didst call. the healing of an ill man.4. which they left untouched. also. He is considered the patron saint of brewers. by the Catholic bishops expelled from North Africa by Huneric. on Easter Vigil in 387 in Milan.”[60] Much of Augustine’s later life was recorded by his friend Possidius. in Algeria. too. This work is an outpouring of thanksgiving and penitence. The only thing he kept was the family house. and behold. He directed that the library of the church in Hippo and all the books therein should be carefully preserved.[62] Augustine was canonized by popular acclaim. Although it is written as an account of his life. in which he appointed the Augustinians guardians of the tomb of Augustine (called Arca).1 Relics According to Bede's True Martyrology. and I burned for Thy peace. A year later. Thou was with me when I was not with Thee.4 Death and veneration Shortly before Augustine’s death the Vandals. ^ Cite error: The named reference justus. the day on which he died.4 1 He later wrote an account of his conversion – his very transformation. Late have I loved Thee. Adeodatus. died. he continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. in 388. He died on 28 August 430. one of the few miracles attributed to Augustine. Augustine spent his final days in prayer and repentance. invaded Roman Africa. to which he had formerly adhered.[1] 1.[61]:43 According to Possidius. He became a famous preacher (more than 350 preserved sermons are believed to be authentic). shunned the temptations of the flesh. Around 720.[61]:57 Shortly after his death.[12] 1. worked tirelessly. Augustine completed his apology On the Holiness of the Catholic Church.[59] He remained in that position until his death in 430.[57] Augustine then sold his patrimony and gave the money to the poor. According to Possidius. bishop of Pavia and uncle of the Lombard king Liutprand. and dispell my blindness. as they prepared to embark for Africa. Ambrose baptized Augustine. O Lord. Italy. some workmen in the Church of San . as Paul described – in his Confessions (Latin: Confessiones). sore eyes. and he gave his property to the church of Thagaste. Possidius also described Augustine’s personal traits in detail. bishop of Calama (present-day Guelma. theologians. the Vandals lifted the siege of Hippo.anglican. and later recognized as a Doctor of the Church in 1298 by Pope Boniface VIII.

Eventually Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) directed the Bishop of Pavia. San Pietro fell into disrepair. meaning “astrologers”. in his opinion. Augustine noted that the tenant farmers in particular were driven to hire out or to sell their children as a means of survival. and contemporary ideas of ages (such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians) that differed from the Church’s sacred writings.[67] He saw the human being as a perfect unity of two substances: soul and body. live. Monsignor Pertusati.” 2. The hermits did not believe so. did not clas- 5 sify as murder the abortion of an “unformed” fetus. as a bishop. “The condition of slavery is the result of sin.2 Slavery Pietro in Ciel d'Oro in Pavia discovered a marble box containing some human bones (including part of a skull). He wrote that God “did not intend that this rational creature. The body is a three-dimensional object composed of the four elements. Its practitioners were regarded as true men of learning and called mathemathici. the canons affirmed that they were. and reconsecrated in 1896 when the relics of Augustine and the shrine were once again reinstalled. The City of God.[64] The Augustinians were expelled from Pavia in 1700.[69][70][71] Initially. whereas the soul has no spatial dimensions. Christian emperors of his time for 25 years had permitted sale of children. In his late treatise On Care to Be Had for the Dead.[78] 2.[74][75] Like other Church Fathers such as Athenagoras. the bones were those of Saint Augustine.2 Slavery Augustine led many clergy under his authority at Hippo to free their slaves “as an act of piety. Astrology played a prominent part in Manichaean doctrine. he used to warn that one should avoid astrologers who combine science and horoscopes. fit for ruling the body.4). but as a way of preventing infanticide when parents were unable to care for a child. he accepted the distinction between “formed” and “unformed” fetuses mentioned in the Septuagint translation of Exodus 21:22-23.” he declared. the two elements were in perfect harmony. Later. a text that. and the disassembled Arca. those that exist and live. he presents the development of slavery as a product of sin and as contrary to God’s divine plan.[86] . It sufficed for him to admit that they are metaphysically distinct: to be a human is to be a composite of soul and body. taking refuge in Milan with the relics of Augustine.1 Views and thought Christian anthropology Augustine was one of the first Christian ancient Latin authors with a very clear vision of theological anthropology. He wrote: “Slavery is not penal in character and planned by that law which commands the preservation of the natural order and forbids disturbance.g.[76] Augustine “vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion".[68] Augustine’s favourite figure to describe body-soul unity is marriage: caro tua. should have dominion over anything but the irrational creation – not man over man.. section 5 (420 AD) he exhorted to respect the body on the grounds that it belonged to the very nature of the human person. they were not genuine students of Hipparchus or Eratosthenes but “common swindlers”. as Plato and Descartes were. he did on at least one occasion support slavery. but was finally rebuilt in the 1870s.”[79] He boldly wrote a letter urging the emperor to set up a new law against slave traders and was very much concerned about the sale of children.[73] Augustine was not preoccupied. which were removed to the cathedral there.[72] Soul is a kind of substance.2.[82][83]:63[84][85] 2. and those that exist.) According to Augustine.[65][66] 2 2. De Origine Animae 4. coniunx tua — your body is your wife. A dispute arose between the Augustinian hermits (Order of Saint Augustine) and the regular canons (Canons Regular of Saint Augustine) as to whether these were the bones of Augustine.[80] In his famous book. with going too much into details in efforts to explain the metaphysics of the soul-body union. e. participating in reason.[77] Nevertheless. but man over the beasts. The latter statement is grounded in his hierarchical classification of things into those that merely exist. not kings over men. not because they approved of the practice. is sometimes mistranslated as “mathematicians”. After the fall of humanity they are now experiencing dramatic combat between one another. In The City of God. They are two categorically different things.3 Astrology Augustine’s contemporaries often believed astrology to be an exact and genuine science. since it could not be said with certainty that it had already received a soul (see. The bishop declared that. under the urging of Agostino Gaetano Riboldi. (Augustine’s term “mathematici”. being particularly fascinated by those who claimed to foretell the future.[81] However. to make a determination. and Augustine himself was attracted by their books in his youth. Augustine wrote he felt slavery was not a punishment. he observed.” Thus he wrote that righteous men in primitive times were made shepherds of cattle. who was made in his image. and have intelligence or reason. and the soul is superior to the body.4 Creation See also: Allegorical interpretations of Genesis In City of God. Augustine rejected both the immortality of the human race proposed by pagans. and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy. he made a distinction between early abortions and later ones.

while the latter is the invisible body of the elect.[92] 2. and remarks that we should be willing to change our mind about it as new information comes up. made up of genuine believers from all ages. personal. meaning. It is meant to be an explanation of the conditions required for the mind to have a connection with intelligible entities. and developed what has come to be a standard solution: the argument from analogy to other minds. who are either dead. until the end of time. but that within this Church there are two realities. will be made up of “wheat” and “tares”. rather than physical. creavit omnia simul (“He created all things at once”).9). His early dialogues [Contra academicos (386) and De Magistro (389)]. which is no less literal. most famously perhaps in On the Trinity (VIII. Augustine recognizes that the interpretation of the creation story is difficult.[89] 2.6 Eschatology ers could be a necessity. the visible aspect (the institutional hierarchy. viewing it as carnal. especially when authorized by a Augustine originally believed in premillennialism. reflect his engagement with sceptical arguments and show the development of his doctrine of inner illumination.8 Just war all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride. While not breaking down the connamely that Christ would establish a literal 1. as in. and who are known only to God. The mediaeval Catholic church built its system of eschatology on Augustinian amillennialism. the Catholic sacraments. that is. both written shortly after his conversion to Christianity.[95] See also: Ecclesiology Augustine developed his doctrine of the Church principally in reaction to the Donatist sect. legitimate authority. Augustine recognized the centrality of testimony to human knowledge and argued that what others tell us can provide knowledge even if we don't have independent reasons to believe their testimonial reports. Descartes’ idea of clear and distinct perceptions) and understanding by illuminating the mind so that human beings can recognize intelligible realities that God presents. He was the pursuit of peace must include the option of fighting for .5 Ecclesiology VIEWS AND THOUGHT first theologian to expound a systematic doctrine of amillennialism. The former is the institutional body established by Christ on earth which proclaims salvation and administers the sacraments. Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God. ruled by love.[90]:28 Augustine’s ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. which Augustine took as proof that the days of Genesis 1 had to be taken non-literally. Augustine taught that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death. One reason for this interpretation is the passage in Sirach 18:1.[8] Augustine also posed the problem of other minds throughout different works.[94] In contrast to Plato and other earlier philosophers. but later phrase in his work The City of God.[90] and that their authority in the Church is Augustine asserted that Christians should be pacifists as a God-given. and is different from other forms of sense perception.[91] At the Reformation. theologians such as John Calvin accepted amillennialism. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom. His teaching provided fuel for later theology. and that priests and bishops who were not in a state of grace had no authority or ability to confect the sacraments.[88] Apart from his specific views. rather than the passage of time in a physical way – it would bear a spiritual. He taught that there is one Church. sinful members or elect predestined for Heaven).6. and even suggests that the bodies of Adam and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall. good and wicked people (as per Mat.[96] However. the rejected the belief. Augustine followed Cyprian in teaching that the See also: Just War bishops and priests of the Church are the successors of the Apostles. Defence of one’s self or oth2. and not in seven calendar days like a literal interpretation of Genesis would require. which is visible and societal.7 Epistemology Epistemological concerns shaped Augustine’s intellectual development. philosophical stance. Augustine coined the kingdom prior to the general resurrection. which will ultimately triumph over 2. 13:30).6 2 In The Literal Interpretation of Genesis. where Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church. illumination is obtainable to all rational minds. for example. This concept countered the Donatist claim that only those in a state of grace were the “true” or “pure” church on earth.[87] Augustine also does not envision original sin as causing structural changes in the universe. peacefulness in the face of a grave wrong that could only be stopped by violence would be a sin. and the laity) and the invisible (the souls of those in the Church. although some theologians and Christian historians believe his position was closer to that of modern postmillennialists. The doctrine of illumination claims that God plays an active and regular part in human perception (as opposed to God designing the human mind to be reliable consistently. According to Augustine. He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the Book of Genesis represents a logical framework. The Church.[92][93] and that purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those that died in communion with the Church. namely.000-year ditions necessary for war to be just.[97] In essence.

and explained it as one of depth those of other early writers.[120] Some authors perceive Augustine’s doctrine as directed against human sexuality and attribute his insistence on continence and devotion to God as coming from Augustine’s need to reject his own highly sensual nature as described in the Confessions. Brachtenpassage of Scripture has a literal sense.[112] as the Mother of God. this “literal sense” dorf showed.[109] The view that not only human soul but also senses were influenced by the fall of Adam and Eve was prevalent in Augustine’s time among the Fathers of the Church. centuries later. Augustine used Ciceronian Stoic concept of does not always mean that the Scriptures are mere history. gave birth as virgin and stayed was carnal knowledge. transformation and purification. His marriage experience.[115] By malum (evil) he understood most of all concupiscence. Immorality. with its hierarchy of beings and values. a neo-Platonist[note 6] who taught that only through disdain for fleshly desire could one reach the ultimate state of mankind. though Christian marcontradicts science and our God-given reason. to interpret Paul’s doctrine of universal sin and at times they are rather an extended metaphor. Pelagius gave an example of eyes: they have capacity for seeing. at the age of nineteen. While each mal and by no means specifically sad.[note 3] The first couple disobeyed God.[108] Their nature was wounded by concupiscence or libido. including sexual desire.g. i. a person does not use natural desires in a proper way.11 Original sin See also: Original sin Augustine taught that Original sin of Adam and Eve was either an act of foolishness (insipientia) followed by pride and disobedience to God or that pride came first. thus failing to acknowledge and respect the world as it was created by God. 2. Pelagian disciples. In opposiAlthough Augustine did not develop an independent tion to that. to speak. is exclusively a matter of will. But in view of his writings it is apparently a misunderstanding. Augustine taught libido wounded human will and mind.riage celebration was missing.[99] Thomas Aquinas.10 Natural knowledge and biblical inter. e. who had told them not to eat of the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen 2:17).[83]:312[note 7] Augustine taught that human sexuality has been wounded. and requires redemption of Christ.[98] Such a war could not be pre-emptive.[114] But his struggle to understand virgin forever.2. Theodore of Mopsuestia.[107] Self-centeredness made Adam and Eve eat of it. the Bibli. but a person can make either good or bad use of it. however. he defended the ever Virgin Mary disobedience to God.[103] Likewise.[note 5] In terms of metaphysics. fully accomplished only in the reswas developed in the struggle against Pelagius and his [123] [90] urrection of the body.e.[83]:355–356[111] Like Jovinian. who had been inspired by Rufinus of Syria. of the body in the resurrection. That healing is a process realized in conjugal acts. was exemplary. The virtue of continence is achieved thanks to the grace of the sacrament of Christian marriage. Human nature cannot lose its moral capacity for doing good. a disciple of The sin of Adam is inherited by all human beings. the privation of good or a wound. Augustine pointed out the apparent disobeMariology.[116] As J. is Augustine had served as a “Hearer” for the Manichaeans full of grace.[106] The tree was a symbol of the order of creation. Pelagians insisted that human affections and desires were not touched by the fall either. but defensive. which he interpreted as a vice dom2.[113] who taught that the original sin Mary “conceived as virgin. Trapè insists that Augustine’s personal experience cannot be credited for his doctrine about concupisAugustine took the view that. which affected human intelligence and will. because of her virginity. who. to restore peace. i. insisting that the that Original Sin is transmitted to his descendants by human nature was given the power to act. as well as affections and desires.[118] It is clear that the reason for Augustine’s distancing from the affairs of the flesh was different from that of Plotinus. used the authority of Augustine’s arguments in an attempt to define the conditions under which a war could be just.[110] They refused to agree that Already in his pre-Pelagian writings.11 Original sin 7 its long-term preservation. punishment of Adam and Eve’s Council of Ephesus.[102] Even before the the results of original sin.inating person and causing in men and women moral dispretation order. very norcal text should be interpreted metaphorically. together with the whole of human nature.e. but a person is free to act or not to act in a righteous way.[100][101] to think when God created it. passions.9 Mariology fornication. The redemption of human sexuoriginal sin and of necessity of the redeeming grace ality will be. and . A.”[104] the cause of evil in the world started before that. if a literal interpretation cence. he affirmed that the Virgin for about nine years.[105] redemption. which bea remedium concupiscentiae – remedy of Augustine’s understanding of the consequences of the comes therefore[121][122] concupiscence. concupiscence is not a being but bad quality. if Satan hadn't sown into their senses “the root of evil” (radix Mali). Caelestius and Julian of Eclanum. his statements on Mary surpass in number and dience of the flesh to the spirit.[119] Augustine taught the redemption.[note 4] They would not have fallen into pride and lack of wisdom.[117] 2.

12 Free will 2.[92]:1200–1204 Augustine’s formulation of the doctrine of original sin was confirmed at numerous councils.[90]:44[126] 2 VIEWS AND THOUGHT 2. lest they should at last forget Thy law” (Psalm 59:11). Orange (529). Carthage (418). with no possibility for the latter to be saved in their lives. who taught that converts from schismatic movements must be re-baptised. avail nothing. is so said that all the prelifetime. soul and body.[130][131] and that Christians must have faith that the bread and wine are in fact the body and blood of Christ. while it does not confer any grace when done outside the Church. Only a will that was once free can be subjected to sin’s corruption. Augustine strongly stressed the imto be saved. some of which I have mentioned baptism is an absolute necessity for salvation.[92]:1200–1204 Augustine taught that some people are predestined by God to salvation by an eternal. but here I will say one thing: Augustine appears to have refined his beliefs during his He wills all men to be saved. however. namely that Original Sin is the “privation of the righteousness which every man ought to possess”. i. therefore.[90] Augustine taught that sacraments administered outside the Catholic Church. in other writings of mine. sovereign decree which is not based on man’s merit or will. a passage from his City of God.” argued that God had allowed them to survive their dispersion as a warning to Christians. for example)[138][139] is apocryphal . Anselm of Canterbury established in his Cur Deus Homo the definition that was followed by the great 13th century Schoolmen.eyes.[129] He often said that anyone can be saved if they wish. About the question whether derstood in many ways. Augustine developed a distinction between the “regularity” and “validity” of the sacraments. God also grants those whom he saves with the gift of perseverance so that none of those whom God has chosen may conceivably fall away. Pope Pius V condemned the identification of Original Sin with concupiscence. some of which rejected the use of Hebrew Scripture.[129] Against certain Christian movements.[136] He rejected homicidal attitudes. while yet all men are not saved. who believed Jewish people would be converted to Christianity at “the end of time.[124] which he regarded as the passion of both. i. Augustine upheld the early Christian understanding of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. A will defiled by sin is not considered as “free” as it once was because it is bound by material things.[134] 2. The saving grace which God bestows is irresistible and unfailingly results in conversion. “This is my body” referred to the bread he carried in his hands. namely “Slay them not. he also stated that baptism. Au. He said in one of his sermons that [127] of men is among them.8 concupiscence.[92]:1200–1204 In 1567. as such. saying that Christ’s statement.[129] While God knows who will and won't be saved. may be unportance of infant baptism. Free will was not intended for sin. the validity of the sacraments do not depend upon the holiness of the priests who perform them (ex opere operato). Pope Innocent I (401–417) and Pope Zosimus (417– 418).e. Augustine.13 Sacramental theology Also in reaction against the Donatists.[133] This belief was shared by many early Christians. may indicate that Augustine did believe in an exception for children born to Christian parents. they should be permitted to dwell in Christian lands.[132] gustine wrote: “And what is written. with which some of Augustine’s disciples had defined it[83]:371[125] as later did Luther and Calvin. Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people. he argued. condemned crowd) and much enfeebling. because every kind about his position. resulting in unhappiness. On this point Augustine departs from the earlier teaching of Cyprian. despite what they see with their In On Rebuke and Grace (De correptione et gratia). However.” only the baptized are saved. quoting part of the same prophecy.[128] The Catholic Church considers Augustine’s teaching to be consistent with free will. Regular sacraments are performed by clergy of the Catholic Church.[note 8] making humanity a massa damnata (mass of perdition. However. which could be lost or be difficult to part with. though not destroying. causing some confusion among later theologians destinated may be understood by it.[135] and he considered the scattering of Jewish people by the Roman Empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy. irregular sacraments are still accepted as valid provided they are done in the name of Christ and in the manner prescribed by the Church. Sin impairs free will. meaning it is not equally predisposed to both good and evil.14 Jews Included in Augustine’s theodicy is the claim that God created humans and angels as rational beings possessing free will. while sacraments performed by schismatics are considered irregular. concerning the Apocalypse. Ephesus (431). Nevertheless. Trent (1546) and by popes.[137] The sentiment sometimes attributed to Augustine that Christians should let the Jews “survive but not thrive” (it is repeated by author James Carroll in his book Constantine’s Sword. does confer grace as soon as one is received into the Catholic Church. that He wills all men Against the Pelagians. the freedom of the will. thus separating it from concupiscence. while grace restores it.e. this knowledge represents God’s perfect knowledge of how humans will freely choose their destinies. though true sacraments.

[147] Augustine does.[149] 2. For Augustine.. In his Tractates on the Gospel of John. but it does not follow through what it has begun and arouse the body also” (City of God 14. sexual passion has become necessary for copulation (as required to stimulate male erection). sometimes.36) contributed to his development of the doctrine of Original Sin: “Augustine’s uncontrollable penis. evil must inevitably accompany sexual intercourse (On marriage and concupiscence 1. teaching. According to Raming. which he presents as the major bodily evidence for the Fall. After the Fall. while Adam’s choice to eat was viewed as an act of kindness so that Eve would not be left alone. Based on the same logic. the penis cannot be controlled by mere will. His emphasis on the importance of community as a means of learning distinguishes his pedagogy from some others. uses the woman as a figure of the church. the authority of the Decretum Gratiani. proper love exercises a denial of selfish pleasure and the subjugation of corporeal desire to God. following the Fall. Augustine.”[145] Augustine believed that the serpent approached Eve because she was less rational and lacked self-control.16).[141] Augustine claims that. a collection of Roman Catholic canon law which prohibits women from leading. sexual passion is an evil result of the Fall. however.23). the Bishop of Hippo. and on the Baptism of Infants 2. and therefore.[150] He recommended adapting educational practices to fit the students’ educational backgrounds: • the student who has been well-educated by knowledgeable teachers. his ideas changed as he found better directions or better ways of expressing his ideas. Henry Chadwick believes an accurate translation of “retractationes” may be “reconsiderations”. by contrast. the penis would have been engorged for sexual intercourse “simply by the direction of the will. even marital sex carried out merely to procreate the species inevitably perpetuates evil (On marriage and concupiscence 1. A work early in Augustine’s writings is De Magistro (On the Teacher).[148] The laws and traditions founded upon Augustine’s views of sexuality and women continue to exercise considerable influence over church doctrinal positions regarding the role of women in the church. which is enjoyment on account of God. “just like many a laborious work accomplished by the compliant operation of our other limbs. Reconsiderations can be seen as an overarching theme of the way Saint Augustine learned. although necessarily producing the evil of sexual passion. commenting on the Samaritan woman from John 4:1–42. City of God 14. rests largely on the views of the early church fathers—one of the most influential being Augustine.[150] Augustine was a strong advocate of critical thinking skills. reviewing his writings and improving specific texts.16 Pedagogy and is not found in any of his writings. Therefore.19). which is not on account of God.15 Sexuality For Augustine. Saint Augustine’s dialogue writings model the need for lively interactive dialogue among learners. because it enacts within man his original disobedience to the command of God” at the time of the Fall (The Literal Meaning of Genesis 9. Sex within marriage is not however for Augustine a sin.. Deane Galbraith explains that “Augustine regards the 'disobedience' of the penis to the command of a man’s mind as a just and deserved punishment. and this method should serve as a model for learning encounters between teachers and students.. without any lascivious heat". is . spoken communication of knowledge was very important. or being a witness.[144] Galbraith argues that Augustine’s description of his penis as having “a mind of its own” (Treatise on the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins.19).27..29. on the other hand.[140] 2. but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. which contains insights about education. and . In the last years of his life Saint Augustine wrote his Retractationes. it forsakes the eager lover. and desire grows cold in the body while burning in the mind. The only way to avoid evil caused by sexual intercourse is to take the “better” way (Confessions 8.31). the evil of sexual immorality was not in the sexual act itself.2. • the student who has had no education. Because written works were still rather limited during this time. Augustine believed that sex was a passionless affair. However. Augustine’s great contribution to Christian theology is. cf.16 Pedagogy Augustine is considered an influential figure in the history of education. praise women and their role in society and in the Church. It arouses the mind. subject instead to both unwanted impotence and involuntary erections: “Sometimes the urge arises unwanted. Augustine also declared the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome to be innocent because they did not intend to sin nor enjoy the act. to a significant extent. Augustine believed that dialogue/dialectic/discussion is the best means for learning.[146] Augustine believed sin entered the world because man (the spirit) did not exercise control over woman (the flesh).27). following the Fall.2) and abstain from marriage (On marriage and concupiscence 1. In On Christian Doctrine Augustine contrasts love. a major bodily stimulus of his interpretation of Paul and his formulation of original sin.[142][143] Before the Fall. development and change. and lust. Augustine’s understanding of the search for understanding/meaning/truth as a restless journey leaves room for doubt. informed by his 9 experience of being unable to control his erections. not excited by the ardour of concupiscence” (On marriage and concupiscence 2. A Treatise against Two Letters of the Pelagians 2.

Alcuin and Rabanus Mau. many sermons and letters.1 In philosophy to education is his study on the styles of teaching. willing to repeat things until the student understands.amounts of information. and Cicero (known for his teachschools. the Psalms and Paul’s Letter to the Romans. is the one with an inferior education who believes he understands something when he does not. Donatists. especially from the eighth century onwards.8. His descriptive approach to intentionality. which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians. but believes himself to be well-educated.[156] Edmund Husserl writes: “The analysis of time-consciousness is an age-old crux of descriptive psychology and theory of knowledge. Apart from those. 4 INFLUENCE est theological works of all time.[154] Catholic theologians generally subgrand style is not quite as elegant as the mixed style. Frances Yates in her 1966 study The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions.[153] His early and influential writing on the human will. is also among his masterpieces. plex and sometimes showy language to help students see comparing it favourably to Kant's version of the view that the beautiful artistry of the subject they are studying.[151] ing on argument). De catechizandis rudibus came to exercise an im. especially demonstrated in his Confessions. and the Retractationes. and the list of his works consists metaphors as a mnemonic technique for organizing large of more than one hundred separate titles.” and of helping the student to remain humble with his acquisition of knowledge. and arguably one of the great- Augustine’s philosophical method. The time is subjective. and Nietzsche. texts on Christian doctrine. that time only exists within same passion in the students’ hearts. and language as these phenomena are experienced within consciousness and time anticipated and inspired the insights of modern phenomenology and hermeneutics. which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410. and sympathetic. a review of his earlier works which he wrote near the end of his life. Augustine balanced the created universe because only in space is time dishis teaching philosophy with the traditional Bible-based cernible through motion and change. a central topic in ethics. The mixed style includes com. author of the Enneads. the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory. which is a personal account of his earlier life. would become a focus for later philosophers such Under the influence of Bede. had continuing influence on Continental philosophy throughout the 20th century. who laboured almost to despair over this problem. exegetical works such as commentaries on Genesis. His On the Trinity. Although he later abandoned Neoplatonism. He also wrote On Free Choice of the Will (De libero arbitrio). in which Augustine writes of 3 Works walking up a flight of stairs and entering the vast fields of memory[155] clearly indicates that the ancient Romans Main article: Augustine of Hippo bibliography Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors in were aware of how to use explicit spatial and architectural terms of surviving works. in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity.”[157] Martin Heidegger refers to Augustine’s descriptive philosophy at several junctures in his influential work Being and Time. Augustine is probably best known for his Confessions. some ideas are still visible in his early writings. notably De Doctrina Christiana (On Christian Doctrine). Manichaeans and Pelagians. Perhaps the most difficult student. He was rus. Kierkegaard.tine’s meditation on the nature of time in the Confessions. addressing why God gives humans free will that can be used for evil. with the purpose of igniting the time in the “eternal present". and for De civitate Dei (The City of God. particularly by the work of Plotinus. Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism. He claimed there are two basic styles a teacher uses when Philosopher Bertrand Russell was impressed by Augusspeaking to the students. however. The first thinker to be deeply sensitive to the immense difficulties to be found here was Augustine. Platonism and Neoplatonism. but to challenge the student with material which they do not yet know thoroughly. clude apologetic works against the heresies of the Arians. With the student who has had no education.also influenced by the works of Virgil (known for his portant role in the education of clergy at the monastic teaching on language).10 • the student who has had a poor education. Yet another of Augustine’s major contributions 4. 10. Augustine stressed the importance of showing this type of student the difference between “having words and having understanding. probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus (as Pierre Hadot has argued). the teacher must be careful not to repeat what they have already learned. His meditations on practice of strict discipline. memory.[note 9] Hannah Arendt began her philosophical writing with a dissertation on . If a student has been well educated in a wide variety of Schopenhauer. but scribe to Augustine’s belief that God exists outside of is exciting and heartfelt. consisting of 22 books).12.[152] They in. 4 Influence In both his philosophical and theological reasoning. the teacher must be patient.[8] Augustine believed that students should be given an opportunity to apply learned theories to practical experience.

Seen from a historical perspective. Augustinian political theology. an influential 20th-century political theorist. Augustine also appears in the novel The Dalkey Archive by Flann O'Brien (the pen name of Irish author Brian O'Nolan). but rather built upon Aristotelian and Neoplatonist knowledge from the Middle Ages..2 In theology Thomas Aquinas was influenced heavily by Augustine. He is summoned to an underwater cavern by an absurd scientist called De Selby. Ludwig Wittgenstein extensively quotes Augustine in Philosophical Investigations for his approach to language. Jr. Monica. Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason. differentiating it from miracle. The Duchess took a five-part drama by Franciscus Neumayr and condensed it for the purposes of the oratorio. Saussure did not do anything but reform an ancient theory in Europe. Augustine’s mother Monica is presented as a prominent character that is worried that Augustine might not convert to Christianity.”[159] Augustine’s philosophical legacy continues to influence contemporary critical theory through the contributions and inheritors of these 20th-century figures. there are three main perspectives on the political thought of Augustine: first.4. envisioned even the extreme evil which produced the Holocaust as merely banal [in Eichmann in Jerusalem]. including an extensive opening passage from the Confessions. so as to let the transformation appear by experience rather than the dramatic artifice of deus ex machina. though does not destroy. second. Throughout the oratorio Augustine shows his willingness to turn to God. Walter M. Augustinian political theory. This is displayed by Hasse through extended recitative passages.3 In popular culture Much of Augustine’s conversion is dramatized in Johann Adolph Hasse's oratorio La conversione di Sant' Agostino. and as a sparring partner to develop his 11 own ideas. but the burden of the act of conversion weighs heavily on him. together they discuss life in Heaven and the characters of other saints. in their book of political philosophy Empire. Protestant reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin affirmed that Original Sin completely destroyed liberty (see total depravity).[164] The modern-day name links to the Agostinelli family. Marxism. Andrea Palent[163] says: Maria Antonia Walpurgis revised the fivepart Jesuit drama into a two-part oratorio liberty in which she limits the subject to the conversion of Augustine and his submission to the will of God.[92]:1200–1204 According to Leo Ruickbie. also Reformation theologians such as Martin Luther and John Calvin would look back to him as their inspiration. and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall.”[162] In his autobiographical book Milestones. Augustine’s vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment. were crucial in the early Church’s fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft. via an Augustinian connection: “as for the constitution of Saussurian semiotic theory.[92]:1200–1204 Augustine’s doctrine of efficacious grace found eloquent expression in the works of Bernard of Clairvaux. will. He was played by Franco Nero in the 2010 mini-series Augustine: The Decline of the Roman Empire and the 2012 feature film Restless Heart: The Confessions of Saint Augustine. On the topic of original sin. grounded in his understanding of the common origin of humanity. and third. Augustine has influenced many modern-day theologians and authors such as John Piper. 4.3 In popular culture Augustine’s concept of love. the freedom of their will.'s novel A Canticle for Leibowitz cites Augustine as possibly positing the first version of .”[158] Jean Bethke Elshtain in Augustine and the Limits of Politics finds similarity between Augustine and Arendt in their concepts of evil: “Augustine did not see evil as glamorously demonic but rather as absence of good. Arendt . While in his pre-Pelagian writings Augustine taught that Adam’s guilt as transmitted to his descendants much enfeebles. something which paradoxically is really nothing. according to the modern conceptual exigencies. Contemporary linguists have argued that Augustine has significantly influenced the thought of Ferdinand de Saussure. As Dr. wrote her doctoral dissertation in philosophy on Augustine. Hannah Arendt. the importance of the Augustinian thought contribution (correlated to the Stoic one) has also been recognized. who did not 'invent' the modern discipline of semiotics..[160] 4.[165] Jostein Gaarder's philosophical novel Vita Brevis is presented as a translation of a manuscript written by Augustine’s concubine after he became the Bishop of Hippo. both admiringly. Augustine was played by Dary Berkani in the 1972 television movie Augustine of Hippo. Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin (1929): “The young Arendt attempted to show that the philosophical basis for vita socialis in Augustine can be understood as residing in neighbourly love. In the libretto for the oratorio by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria. political Augustinianism. and continued to rely on his thought throughout her career. Augustine’s arguments against magic. Miller. According to Professor Deepak Lal. Freudianism and ecofundamentalism. particularly The City of God. Pope Benedict XVI claims Augustine as one of the deepest influences in his thought. To this was added the figure of the mother.[161] Post-Marxist philosophers Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt rely heavily on Augustine’s thought.

written by Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria.C.[168] • Otium REFERENCES • Cornelius Jansen • Just war theory • Johannes Klenkok • Abraham Kuijper • John Gresham Machen • Order of Saint Augustine • Original sin • Neo-Calvinism • Blaise Pascal • Francis Landey Patton • Pelagianism • Philosophy of history 5 See also • Philosophy of religion • Alexander of San Elpidio • Predestination • Mar Ammo • Johann Pupper • Augustinian hypothesis • Problem of evil • Augustinian Institute • Reformed • Augustinian Studies • Scholasticism • Augustinian theodicy • Semipelagianism • Augustinians • Theology of John Calvin • Domingo Bañez • Truth • Thomas Bradwardine • Confessions (Augustine) • Bennet Tyler • B. B. Pop artist Sting pays an homage of sorts to Augustine’s struggles with lust with the song “Saint Augustine in Hell” which appears on the singer’s 1993 album Ten Summoner’s Tales.12 6 a theory of evolution.). signifying little more than Roman citizenship (see: Salway. Augustine”.1 Notes [1] The nomen Aurelius is virtually meaningless. to A. . The Journal of Roman Studies.D.2307/300873. Augustine”. draws upon the influence of Metastasio (the finished libretto having been edited by him) and is based off an earlier five-act play Idea perfectae conversionis dive Augustinus written by the Jesuit priest Franz Neumayr. 700 B. doi:10. Supernova. Warfield • Constantinian shift • Council of Orange (529) 6 References • Ecclesiology • Jonathan Edwards • Filioque • Free will • Gregory of Rimini • Michael Horton 6. JSTOR 300873.[167] • Incurvatus in se Bob Dylan recorded a song entitled "I Dreamed I Saw St. My Brothers. Christian rock band Disciple named their fourth track on their 2010 release Horseshoes and Handgrenades after Augustine. The song “St. called “The Ballad of St.[166] He appears prominently in Patricia McGerr's novel. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. “What’s in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. • Jansenism The conversion of Saint Augustine is dramatized in the oratorio La conversione di Sant'Agostino (1750) composed by Johann Adolph Hasse. ISSN 0075-4358. The libretto for this oratorio. 700”. Remember Monica: A Novel of the Mother of Augustine. American rock band Moe named and referenced Augustine of Hippo in their song entitled “St. Benet (1994). Augustine” appears on Girlyman's album. 84: 124–45. Augustine" on his album John Wesley Harding.

Who. Cf. in Idem (1994). and idolatry unbelief. it is turned away from Him. Cf. that is. 16. seek to be regulated according to its own nature. De qua re alias. London. Thomas Aq. But we even use this word 'seeing' for the other senses when we devote them to cognizing. Paris: Études Augustiniennes. and it begins to move and slip gradually down into less and less. V. it is not to be doubted that covetousness also is fornication. 817. an insipientes superbia fecerit. ISBN 0-223-97728-4. Quod ideo dictum est. (Contra Julianum. See the whole passage: Dixi etiam quodam loco: «Quod enim est cibus ad salutem hominis. ISBN 0-582-36467-1. 795) [4] Augustine explained it in this way: “Why therefore is it enjoined upon mind. that it should know itself? I suppose. we are compelled to understand as being general and universal. 171. PL 44. as we have said. PL 44. Augustine and Cosmic Redemption”.. 4. De nuptiis et concupiscentia. under Him by whom it ought to be ruled. Contra Iulianum. T. viz. SJ. . 6. É. Catholics honour and esteem you as the one who has established anew the ancient Faith” (conditor antiquae rursum fidei). Springfield. above those things which it ought to rule.6. New York: Longman. Le “platonisme” des Pères.). MA: Merriam-Webster. Clarke. ("On the Sermon on the Mount". Une théologie baptismale de la vie conjugale. which it thinks to be more and more.. [7] Gerald Bonner’s comment explains a little bit why there are so many authors who write false things about Augustine’s views: “It is. Clarke SJ writes: Towards Neoplatonism there was throughout his life a decidedly ambivalent attitude. Oxford University Press. in that more excellent nature which is God: and whereas it ought to remain steadfast that it may enjoy them. 108–123. 'See how that sounds’". hoc est concubitus ad salutem generis. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2 ed.2 Sources [2] Jerome wrote to Augustine in 418: “You are known throughout the world. New York: Harpers. the agreement with Neoplatonism (and with the Platonic tradition in general) centers on two related notions: immutability as primary characteristic of divinity. libido esse non potest». which cause the soul making a bad use of the body to wander from the law of God. J. V. quae tamen modificata et temperantia refrenante in usum naturalem redacta. and likeness to divinity as the primary vocation of the soul.” ("On the Trinity" (De Trinitate). p. 21. in order that. maxime contra novos haereticos Pelagianos. by wishing to appropriate those things to itself. 52) [9] For example. as though in forgetfulness of itself.. always easier to oppose and denounce than to understand. “St. ISBN 087779-543-6 . E. March 2011. because the Lord makes the cause of fornication an exception. Paris: Collection d'Études Augustiniennes. one must expect both agreement and sharp dissent.J. Schmitt’s chapter 2: L'idéologie hellénique et la conception augustinienne de réalités charnelles in: Idem (1983). 19 (1958): 151. We not only say.. CCL 50. March 2002 edition: ISBN 1-57910-918-7. he made a significant remark indicating the way he understood difference between spiritual. two related and central Christian dogmas: the Incarnation of the Son of God and the resurrection of the flesh.” Heidegger then quotes theConfessions: “Seeing belongs properly to the eyes. in Webster’s New Biographical Dictionary (1988). but any unlawful lusts whatever. Eugene (1970). Le mariage chrétien dans l'oeuvre de Saint Augustin.E. O'Meara. ita bonum bene uti malis. a man may. derivation but also repudiation.. pp. in accordance with the above considerations. p. Retractationes. Cf. Madec. of course. that because of unlawful lusts. 5. Heidegger’s articulations of how “Beingin-the-world” is described through thinking about seeing: “The remarkable priority of 'seeing' was noticed particularly by Augustine. CCL 35. 710. 27–50. Petites Études Augustiniennes. De sermone Domini in monte.2. 8.2 Sources [1] Wells. London. In the matter which concerns us here. as T. if unbelief is fornication. in that case can rightly separate any unlawful lust whatever from the category of fornication.)". Macquarrie & Robinson. 5:7. n. For it sees some things intrinsically excellent. 7. moral libido and the sexual desire: “Libido is not good and righteous use of the libido” (“libido non est bonus et rectus usus libidinis”). Une théologie baptismale de la vie conjugale. and above those things to which it is to be preferred. quoniam “libido non est bonus et rectus usus libidinis”. Epistola 195. PL 40. PL 44. Sicut enim malum est male uti bonis. 1964. 42. TeSelle. p. (1954). 143–151 and 195f. 343. J.. [2] “Augustine”. Paris: Études Augustiniennes. The 13 disagreement chiefly concerned. II. 443. and live according to its own nature. p. 221 [3–4].18. [6] Although Augustine praises him in the Confessions. which fornication. 320 [1–12]) [5] In one of Augustine’s late works. Augustine’s Mind up to His Conversion. VIII. but to be what He is by its own. et utrumque non est sine delectatione carnali. pp. then. III. Being and Time. 97. Oxford English Dictionary. and covetousness idolatry. (2000). CCL 47. not only those of which one is guilty in acts of uncleanness with another’s husband or wife. 385. without crime. and to be ruinously and basely corrupted. City of God (De Civitate Dei). The Young Augustine: The Growth of St. For it does many things through vicious desire. if covetousness is fornication? And from this we perceive.” [8] In 393 or 394 he commented: Moreover. (and adj. under Him to whom it ought to be subject. Retrieved 25 May 2011. STh I q84 a5.36. 1:16:46. PL 44.18. [3] “Augustin(e. [3] He explained to Julian of Eclanum that it was a most subtle job to discern what came first: Sed si disputatione subtilissima et elimatissima opus est. diligentius disputavi. and a wife her husband. De bono coniugali. in connection with his Interpretation of concupiscentia. Trs. put away his wife.60. ut sciamus utrum primos homines insipientia superbos. it is widely acknowledged that Augustine’s attitude towards that pagan philosophy was very much of a Christian apostle.16. Augustine the Theologian. 'but we even say.. it may consider itself. pp. 'See how that shines’. «Antiquité» 142. G. . ibid. Le mariage chrétien dans l'oeuvre de Saint Augustin. 16. Augustine of Hippo. Theological Studies. and not to be like to Him by His gift. See also Idem (1983).

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Augustinus-Lexikon. James (2005). Augustine and Politics as Longing in the World. eds. 1662). Rockford. Karla (2007). 37). IL: Tan Books & Publishers.A. S. New York: Fordham University Press.. Augustine’s Commentary on Galatians. Augustine of Hippo and His Monastic Rule. Bradley G. Collana di Studi Agostiniani 4. Augustine: A New Biography. “Lacking Love or Conveying Love? The Fundamental Roots of the Donatists and Augustine’s Nuanced Treatment of Them”. • Zumkeller O. Louis (2011).6. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. • Woo. Villanova: Augustinian Press. In Wiener. René (2006). Journal of Christian Philosophy. ISBN 0-941491-064. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.. 72 (2): 103–21.) • O'Daly. ISBN 0-89555-659-6. The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. B. • Pottier. 17: 97–117. • LeMoine. Faith Order Understanding: Natural Theology in the Augustinian Tradition. et Constitutions de la Congrégation des Religieuses du Verbe-Incarné et du Saint-Sacrament (Lyon: Chez Pierre Guillimin. Oxford University Press. p. Paris. (1994). • O'Donnell. later edition published at Lyon (Chez Briday. George P. and Fauss. Ronald H (1969). 9. Augustine’s Rule.. “Pilgrim’s Progress in Society—Augustine’s Political Thought in The City of God". “Augustine’s Hermeneutics and Homiletics in De doctrina christiana". Waterloo. Augustine’s Ideal of the Religious Life. IN: University of Notre Dame Press. pp. Saint Augustin le Berbère (in French). Adolphe (2001). • Nash. Augustino (1659). English edition. (2005). • Pagels. Fernand Lanore. A.5: 421–441. ISBN 3-89744-2094. 3. • Plumer. ISBN 0-679-72232-7. Cf. New York: Garland.S. Augustine and the Fundamentalist’s Daughter. Augustine: A Collection of Critical Essays. NY: Anchor. Anthony Edward (2010). • Pollman. ISBN 0-06-053537-7. Rome: Città Nuova. Augustine and the Cure of Souls: Revising a Classical Ideal. pp. Basel: Schwabe AG. Paul R. “Platonism in the Renaissance”. • Lubin. ISBN 9780718892623. ISBN 978-0-88844-421-9.). Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Margaret R. 33– 35. Vintage Books. Philip.) Saint Augustine asserted that Neo-Platonism possessed all spiritual truths except that of the Incarnation. • Woo. R. ISBN 0-631-23348-2. 28–29. Jae-Eun (2013). Agostino: Introduzione alla Dottrina della Grazia. . Lutterworth Press. Cornelius P. Garland Medieval Casebooks. ISBN 0-8232-1105-3. New York: ECCO. Adolar (1986). Colin Gunton and the Failure of Augustine: The Theology of Colin Gunton in the Light of Augustine. Colin (1990).. Garden City. pp. New York: Scribner. pp. Adolar (1987).S. • Markus. Gareth B. (. The Spiritual Life: A Treatise on Ascetical and Mystical Theology. (2012). (1972). Blackwell. Totonto: PIMS. 510–15 (vol. Berkeley: University of California Press. Elaine (1989). 16. Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum ordinis eremitarum Sancti Augustini – chorographica et topographica descriptio. Adam. ISBN 88-311-3402-7. (New York: Schwartz. Kirwin. 1893). Christopher. Libraire. 22–24. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. • Règle de St. Saint Augustine the Algerian. (2010). • Tanquerey. Gerard (1987). Eve. ed.3 Further reading 19 • Green. John Charles (1973). • Zumkeller O. James Clarke and Co. Fannie. ISBN 0-684-13293-1. Saint Augustine the Bishop: A Book of Essays. • Matthews. Augustine’s Philosophy of the Mind. Notre Dame. • Starnes. The Reformed Theological Review. • Park. • Trapè. • Siecienski.. ISBN 0-19-924439-1. (. 3). Göttingen: Edition Ruprecht. pp. 422. Political Theology. (2012).. and the Serpent: Sex and Politics in Early Christianity. Hoon (2013). Augustine’s Conversion: A Guide to the Arguments of Confessions I-IX. Eric Antone (2003). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Kleinhenz. • von Heyking. (ed. • Miles. A. • Mayer.1962). • Nelson. (1990).. Oxford University Press. • Lawless. ISBN 9780227680056 • Kolbet. ISBN 9780268033217. • Mackey. I – Natura e Grazia. B. The Light of the Mind: St Augustine’s Theory of Knowledge. John (2001). Augustine. (1987). Augustin pour les religieuses de son ordre.A. ISBN 0-8262-1349-9. Hoon (2015). ISBN 2-85157-282-2.

at Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 7. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Augustine Timeline . Augustine . • Augustine’s Theory of Knowledge • “Saint Augustine of Hippo” at the Christian Iconography website • “The Life of St. • St. Belgium • Sanctus Augustinus at Documenta Catholica Omnia – Latin • City of – extensive bibliography and on-line articles • Bibliography on St. Augustine. • Digitized manuscript created in France between 1275 and 1325 with extract of Augustine of Hippo works at SOMNI • Expositio Psalmorum beati Augustini – digitized codex created between 1150–1175. Austin. translations. or Augustine. Talk given to the Robert Hugh Benson Graduate Society at Fisher House. OSA. at SOMNI • Aurelii Agustini Hipponae episcopi super loannem librum – digitized codex created in 1481. ISBN 978-0-81321551-8. Cambridge. Butler’s Lives of the Saints • Augustine of Hippo edited by James J. • Mendelson. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Answer to • Augustine against Secundinus in English. Edmund Hill. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. also known as “Enarrationes in Psalmos. Enchiridion.3 Works by Augustine • Works by Aurelius Augustine at Project Gutenberg • Works by Saint Augustine at Project Gutenberg • Works by or about Saint Augustine at Internet Archive • “Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in French)" from Abbey Saint Benoît de Port-Valais • Works by Augustine of Hippo at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) • “Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in Spanish)" from Mercaba. digitized manuscript of 1464 at SOMNI . with concordance and frequency list • “Augustine”.it – Latin. 1-83”. Villanova University • Tabula in librum Sancti Augustini De civitate Dei by Robert Kilwardby. “Saint Augustine”.J. etc. Catholic leaders’ website • St. member of the Augustinian Order. • “St.Church History Timelines • Giovanni Domenico Giulio: Nachtgedanken des heiligen Augustinus. introductions. The Happy Life.2 Bibliography • Augustine of Hippo at EarlyChurch. Trier 1843 Digitized 7. commentaries. Augustine Started by T. continued at the Augustinian historical Institute in Louvain. van Bavel O.4 Biography and criticism • Order of St Augustine • Blessed Augustine of Hippo: His Place in the Orthodox Church • Augustine’s World: An Introduction to His Speculative Philosophy by Donald EXTERNAL LINKS 7. on 22 November 1994..S. • Augustinus.1 General • “Complete Works of Saint Augustine (in English)" from Augustinus. Bishop and Confessor. OP.A. Divine Providence and the Problem of Evil. Confessions. Doctor of the Church”. Doctrine audio books • Saint Augustine (2008). Fr. Soliloquies. • Aurelius Augustinus at “IntraText Digital Library” – texts in several languages. US: CUA Press. his sermons about John’s Gospel at SOMNI • Sententiae ex omnibus operibus Divi Augustini decerptae – digitized codex created in 1539. Augustine at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library • “Works by Saint Augustine” from CCEL. Doctor” from the Caxton translation of the Golden Legend • David Lindsay: Saint Augustine – Doctor Gratiae • St.20 7 7 External links 7. Spanish and Italian texts • “Augustine’s Political and Social Philosophy”.A Male Chauvinist? . O'Donnell – texts.

4 Biography and criticism 21 Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne. 17th century St. Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens .7.

Augustine in His Study by Vittore Carpaccio. Uffizi Gallery Saint Augustine Disputing with the Heretics painting by Vergós Group . 1494. 1502 Saint Augustine painting by Antonio Rodríguez Saint Augustine in His Study by Sandro Botticelli.22 7 EXTERNAL LINKS St.

7.4 Biography and criticism Saint Augustine Meditates on the Trinity when the Child Jesus Appears before him by Vergós Group The Consecration of Saint Augustine by Jaume Huguet 23 .

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